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GRAMMAR SCHOOL, founded by Henry VIII. for the edu. cation of twenty boys, called King's Scholars. It is endowed with four exbibitions, to be paid by the church to four scholars; two to be of Oxford, and two of Cambridge, which exhibitions of 5l. per year each, they enjoy till they have taken the degrees of A.M. if they continue members of the universities, and have no fellowship. An upper and under master are appointed for the instruction of youth in this school. Six houses in the row opposite are inhabited by the minor canons of the cathedral; the seventh at the east end belongs to the organist. At a small distance to the left is the site of the antient palace belonging to the bishop. Bishop Fisher appears to be the last who resided here. The present buildings were erected about the middle of the eighteenth century, and are leased out by the bishop to tenants, as is his house in St. Margaret's. In the west quarter of the palace precincts were the bishop's court, for the trial of civil causes, and a prison. No debtors have been confined in it for years, the practice of the court not being sufficient to defray the expences of supporting the jurisdiction. In what used to be the gaoler's garden, the late bishop Pearce, in the year 1760, erected a register's office. Not many yards from Minorcanon Row, on the right, is a small embattled tower, through which was the entrance into the cloister of the priory. The arch of the gateway is visible, but, the ground being much raised, it is not easy to fix its height. Contiguous to the cloister were the dormitory and refectory, but they were taken down soon after the dissolution of this religious house. A part of the east wall of the cloister is standing; there are in it round pilasters and arches, some of which are intersected. There are also doorways with semicircular arches that have been neatly carved; this was called the dormitory cloister. Ernulph, bishop of Rochester from 1115 to 1124, built this dormitory, and probably this cloister. It is certain that he erected the chapter-house, which is at the north end of the cloister; of the front of the chapter house there are con Vol. V. No. 110.
siderable remains, particularly three windows, and three arches under them. These arches were embellished in a very elegant stile of sculpture, but the greatest profusion of ornaments appears to have been on the compartments which formed the fascia of the centre arch, or doorway. The almonry of the convent was at the south-west extre. mity of the church. It is now the house of the fifth prebendary, and this stall is annexed, by act of parliament, to the provostship of Oriel College in Oxford. There was within memory a gate adjoining to the gable end of this house, which inclosed this part of the precinct, now called College Green.
THE CATHERDAL. Augustine, archbishop of Canterbury, established an episcopal see at Rochester about the year 604, and king Ethelbert built a church for Justus, the first bishop. An entirely new fabric was erected by Gundulphus, who was promoted to this diocese in 1077, and continued in it till his death, which happened in Mareh 1107. He is said to have finished his plan before his decease, and several parts of the present fabric were doubtless of his construction; the beautiful west door has been attributed to him, and the stile of its sculpture shews it could not be the work of a much later period. It has a semicircular arch, agreeably to the early Norman architecture, with several members unfortunately mutilated, containing a great variety of ornaments. Beneath the crown is the figure of Our Saviour sitting on a throne, with a book open in his left hand resting upon his knee, the right hand being raised in the attitude of blessing; but the hand is broken off, as is likewise the head, though the nimbus or glory is discernible. The throne is supported on the right by St. Mark, and on the left by St. John the Evangelist; they have their usual symbols, the lion and the eagle; and above their heads are doves. On the north side of the door is the statue of king Henry I. and on the south that of Matilda his queen. Henry was present at a dedication of this cathedral by archbishop Corboyl, on May 11, 1130, and was after.
wards a benefactor to the neighbouring priory; bishop Gundulph had been confessor to the queen. In a niche of the west front of the north-west tower of the nave, is a very antient episcopal figure standing upon a shrine, designed, as it is thought, for Gundulph. The old tower was taken down in 1763; the statue was an ornament of that tower, but placed in the north side of it, facing the gate of entrance, from the city into the precincts. The ground at the west end is so much raised, that there is a descent by several steps into the body of the cathedral, which consists of a wave and two side aisles. The dimensions of this church are: from the west door to the steps leading up to the choir one hundred and fifty feet; from thence to the east' wall of the chancel one hundred and fifty-six feet; total three hundred and six feet. The transept between the nave and the choir is in length, from north to south, one hundred and twenty-two feet. The east transept is in length, from north to south, ninety feet.
In the original plan of Gundulph's church, it is not unlikely there might be a tower over the steps leading up to the choir. When the alteration was made in the columns and arches at the east end of the nave, and the cross aisles were erected, this tower must have been rebuilt; but bishop Haymo de Hethe, in 1343, raised the tower higher with stones and timber, which he covered with lead, and placed in it four bells, named Dunstan, Paulinus, Ithamar, and Lanfranc. In 1749 Mr. Sloane, an architect of Gravesend, built the present steeple. There are in the tower six bells, and the height of it is one hundred and thirty-six feet.
The choir was made with the offerings at the tomb of William, a charitable Scotch baker, who was by the device of some crafty monk converted into a martyr and a saint; because, whilst travelling towards the Holy Land, he was unfortunately murdered and robbed near Rochester by kis servant: but the work was manifestly completed upon an economical plan, the architect having been very sparing in his ornaments. Very considerable alterations and im. provements were made in the choir in the years 1742 and Cc 2
1743, under the direction of Mr. Sloane; new stalls and pews were erected, the partition walls wainscotted, and the pavement laid with Bremen and Portland stone beautifully disposed. The choir was also new furnished, and the episcopal throne erected at the expence of Dr. Joseph Wil. cocks, bishop of the diocese. The pillars, which are of Petworth marble, were then injudiciously white-washed, but they have been since polished and restored to their original beauty; the altar-piece, which is made of Norway oak, is plain and neat. Dr. Herring, archbishop of Canterbury, who was many years dean of the cathedral, gare fifty pounds towards ornamenting this part of the church. There was then only a pannel of wainscot in the middle, in the place of which was fixed a large piece of rich velvet in a frame elegantly carved and gilt. This was removed a few years ago, and it is now decorated with a picture of The Angels appearing to the Shepherds, by West. Ad. joining to the south wall of the chancel there are three elegant stone seats. In the front of these seats are three shields, bearing the arms of the see of Rochester; the centre bears the arms of the priory of Christchurch, Canterbury; and the third emblazoned with the arms of the prior and couvent of St. Andrew, the tutelar saint of this cathedral. Formerly there were episcopal portraits in each of the niches; one of them was a picture of bishop John de Shepey, who died in 1360. He was buried at the foot of these stalls, and his remains were covered with a flat stone, removed when the choir was new paved. Perhaps these stalls may have answered the purpose of a cenotaph for this bishop. From the stile of their architecture they do not seem to have been of an earlier period.
Within the communion rails are four tombs: the uppermost against the north wall has been assigned to bishop Lawrence de St. Martin, who died June 3, 1274; the lower to bishop Gilbert de Glanville, who died June 24, 1214. The tomb nearest the stalls is appropriated to bishop Thomas de Inglethorp, who died May 12, 1291; though it is a matter of doubt whether he might not be deposited in
the more eastern tomb. This chest has indeed been shewn for the receptacle of Gundulph's remains, but without any authority. It is certain that he was not buried near the high altar, but near the altar of the crucifix, which was placed in the centre between the two eastern pillars of the nave; and no translation of his body is upon record. At the foot of the steps of ascent to the communion table, and not far from the steps leading up to the rails, there are large brass. less slabs, each of which had the figure of a bishop under a rich canopy; there is a similar grave-stone vear the great west door, and two more in the south transept of the pave; but tradition has not perpetuated the names of any of the prelates whose remains they cover. Behind the south wall of the choir, there is a chapel called after St. Edmund, though the altar erected in honour of him was fixed in the undercroft. The builder of this chapel, and the time of its construction, are unknown. Through it was the com. mon passage for the monks from the north cloister into the church, and the arch of the door of communication is still discervible, both in the chapel and in the garden of the fourth prebend. The moulding of a pointed arch in the west wall shews there was formerly another door into this. chapel. In the partition wall of the choir there is a stone chest, which has upon it a figure, of Purbeck marble, poptifically habited, lying under a canopy, about thirteen feet high, curiously ornamented, and terminating in a pyramid. The head is entirely gone; in its place a fat stone. A part of a crosier is in the left hand, only the fore-finger of the right is remaining, which is extended to the left, and what it holds has the appearance of a book. The inscrip. scription is so much defaced, that it is not possible to trace to whose memory this monument was erected: but there is sufficient ground for concluding it to be the toinb of bishop Bradley, who died April 23, 1283.
The antient organ having been a very indifferent instrument erected in 1668; in place of which a very fine toned organ, by GREEN, was put up in 1791. It is supposed that originally there was a south aisle of the same width with that on the north side