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world. This falsc and schismatical and the sanction of the Roman principle is contrary to the fundamen- Church. The instinct of self-presertal principle of Catholic church vation ought to compel its rulers to organization, viz., that the subordi- fall back on Catholic principles, and mation of episcopal secs springs from submit themselves to the legitimate the divine institution of the primacy authority of the Roman Pontiff as the in the Sec of St. Peter, and is regu- head of the Catholic Church throughlated by ecclesiastical canons on spiritu- out the world. They are following, al grounds, which are superior to all however, the contrary impulse of selfconsiderations of a temporal nature. destruction, to which they are abanTae Patriarch of Constantinople has doned by a just God as a punishment long ago lost all claim to precedence for their treason to Jesus Christ and or authority based on the civil dignity his Vicar, and in every way seeking of the city as the seat of an empire. to strengthen and extend the barrier According to the principles of his which separates them from the Roman predecessors, the primacy ought to Church. have been transferred to the Patri. This policy has led them to do all arch of Moscow, when the Russian in their power to establish a dogmatic patriarchate was established by difference between the Oriental Church Iran III. Nevertheless, he still con- and the Church of Rome. Not only tinues to style himself ecumenical do they represent the difference in repatriarch, and the eight metropolitans gard to the procession of the Holy who form his permanent synod con- Spirit from the Son, as expressed by time to keep the precedence over all the “ Filioque” of the Creed, which cher bishops of the patriarchate, was fully proved at the Council of although their sees have dwindled in- Florence to be a mere verbal differo insignificance, and other episcopal ence, as a difference in regard to an towns far exceed them in civil import- essential dogma, but they have brought ace. In point of fact, the baseless- in others to swell their list of Latin hernesi of his claim to universal juris- esies. The principal dogmatic differdiction has been recognized by the ences on which they insist are three : Eastern Church. His real authority the doctrine of purgatory, the quality is confined to the Turkish empire, of the bread used in the holy eucharist, where it is sustained by the civil pow. and the mode of administering bapT. Russia has long been indepen- tism. Only the most deplorable ignodent of him. The Church of Greece rance and factiousness could base a has completely severed her connection pretence of dogmatic difference on such with him. The schismatical Greeks a foundation. In regard to purgatory, of the Austrian empire, and those of the Roman Church has defined or rethe neighboring provinces, are several- quired nothing beyond that which is ls independent. The false principle taught by the doctrinal standards of that produced the Eastern schism in the Eastern Church. The difference in the first place thus continues to work regard to the use of leavened or unout its legitimate effect of disintegra- leavened bread, and the mode of baption in the Eastern communion itself, tism, is a mere difference of rite. In by separating the national churches regard to the last-mentioned rite, lowfrom the principal church of Constan- ever, the clergy of Constantinople have tinople, which would itself crumble to even surpassed their usual amount of pieces if the support of the Ottoman ignorance and effrontery. They prepower were removed. The privileges tend that no baptismexcept that by trine of the Sec of Constantinople have immersion is valid, and consequently now no valid claim to respect, except that the vast majority of Western that derived from ecclesiastical can- Christians are unbaptized. This posions ratified by time, general consent, tion of theirs, which will no doubt be
very satisfactory to our Baptist breth- At the time of the Greek revolution, ren, makes sweeping work, not only the patriarch and principal clergy of with the Latin Church, but with Prot- Constantinople received orders from estant Christendom. Where there is no the sultan to use their power in supbaptism, there is no ordination, no sac- pressing all co-operation on the part rament whatever, no church. What will of the Christians in Turkey with their our Anglican friends say to this? The bre:hren in Greece, and to denounce to clergy of Constantinople rebaptize un- the Ottoman government all who were conditionally every one who applies suspected of conniving at the insurrec
to be received into their communion, tion. Their political position no doubt • whether he be Catholic or Protestant, required of them to remain passive in
clergyman or layman. It would be the matter, to refrain from positively folly to argue against this sacrilegious aiding the revolutionists, and also to absurdity on Catholic grounds. It is suppress all overt acts of the Christians enough to show their inconsistency under their jurisdiction against the with themselves, by mentioning the goverument. Nevertheless, as a peofact that the Russian Church allows ple unjustly enslaved by a barbarous, the validity of baptism by aspersion, anti-Christian despotism, they owed and that even their own book of can- nothing more to their masters than ons permits it in case of necessity. this exterior obedience to the letter of But why look for any manifestation of the law. They could not be expected the learning, wisdom, or Christian to enter with a hearty and zealous principle which ought to characterize sympathy into the measures of the prelates from men who have bought government for suppressing the revtheir places for gold, and who sell every olution ; and, indeed, every genuine episcopal see to the highest bidder? and noble sentiment of Christianity The simony and bribery which have and patriotism forbade their doing so, been openly and unblushingly prac- and exacted of them a deep, interior tised by the ruling clerical faction of sympathy with their cruelly oppressed the Turkish empire since the time brethren who were so nobly struggling when the monk Simeon bought the to free their country from the hated patriarchal dignity from the sultan, yoke of the Moslem conqueror. The make this page of ecclesiastical history really high-minded Greeks of the emone of the blackest and most infamous pire did thus sympathize with their in character. As we might expect brethren. The ruling clergy, howunder such a system, virtuous and ever, manifested a zeal for the interworthy men are put aside, and the epis- ests of the Ottoman court so outré copate and priesthood filled up from the and so scandalous that it not only creatures and servile followers of the outraged the feelings of their own subruling clique. Such 'men naturally jects, but, as we shall sce, aroused the disgrace their holy character by their suspicions of the tyrants before whom immoral lives, and bring opprobrium they so basely cringed, and brought on the Christian name. The history destruction on their own heads. They of the patriarchate of Constantinople, accused a great number of Christians therefore, since the period of Genna- of complicity in the insurrection, seizdius and the first few successors who ing the opportunity of denouncing followed his worthy example, has been cvery one who had incurred their hastained with blood and crime, and tred for any reason whatever, so that darkened by scenes of tragic infamy the prisons were soon crowded with and horror. We will relate one of their unfortunate victims, all of whom the most recent of these, as a sufficient suffered the penalty of death. The proof and illustration of the heavy in patriarch pronounced a sentence of dictment we have made against the major excommunication against Prince patriarchal clergy.
Ypsilanti, and all the Greeks who
took part in the revolt. A few days orthodox Church of Greece, acknowlafterward, on the first Sunday of Lent, edging our Lord Jesus Christ as its during the solemnities of the pontifical head, is perpetually united in dogma mass, the patriarch, his eight chief with the great Church of Constantinometropolitans, and fifteen other bish- ple and every other church holding the ops, pronounced the sare sentence of same dogmas, preserving, as they do, excommunication, together with the immutably the holy canons of the sentence of deposition and degradation, apostles and councils, and the sacred against seven bishops of Greece, parti- traditions. Nevertheless, it is autosaps of Prince Ypsilanti, and all their cephalous, exercising independently of adherents, signing the decree on the every other church its rights of jurisaltar of the cathedral church. Such diction, and is administered by a sacred a storm of indignation was raised by college of bishops.” This article was this nefarious act, that the prelates established in 1844. In 1850, the clerwere obliged to pacify their people by gy obtained from the government the pretending that they had acted under appointment of a commission, composthe compulsion of the government. A ed of one clergyman, the archimandrite few days after, the patriarch and the Michael Apostolides, professor of majority of the bishops who had signed theology in the University of Athens, the decree were condemned to death and one layman, Peter Deligianni, and executed, on the charge of partici- chargé d'affaires at Constantinople, pating in the revolution. Even after to establish concordats with the patrithe great powers of Europe had ac- archate and the governing synod of knowledged the independence of Russia, on the basis of the above cited Greece, the raling ciergy of Constan- article of the Greek constitution. In tinople endeavored to curry favor at lieu of this proposed concordat, the court by sending a commission, under Greek commissioners were duped by the presidency of the metropolitan of the patriarchal synod into signing Clualcédon, to recommend to the Greeks a synodal act, in which the Patriarch a return to the Turkish dominion! of Constantinople, qualifying his see It is needless to say that this invita- as the vine of which other churches tion was declined, although we cannot are the branches, and styling himself bat admire the self-control of the Greek and his associates “ Aypavdou IIoLvéves princes and prelates when we are told Ka úkpl;3£is púakes TWV kavovov Tis 'EKthat it was declined, and the ambassa- kanoiac''-“ Watchful shepherds and dors dismissed, in the most politc man- scrupulous guardians of the canons of RET.
the church”—pretends by his own One more intrigue, the last one authority to grant independent juristhey have been left the opportunity of diction to the Church of Greece as a trying, closes the history of their re- privilege. At the same time he design lations with the Church of Greece, nates the Archbishop of Athens as The clergy and people of the new the perpetual president of the synod, kingdom were equally determined to ordains that the holy chrism shall throw off completely and for ever the always be brought from Constantinople, ecclesiastical tyranny of Constantino- and imposes other obligations intended ple. At the same time they were dis- to serve as signs of dependence on posed to act with diplomatic formality the Patriarchal Church. The Greek and ecclesiastical courtesy, as well as parliament, however, annulled this in conformity with the laws and prin- concordat, and the synod of Greek ciples of the orthodox church of the bishops at Athens determined that Erst. The second article of the consti- henceforth there should be no relation tutional chart of the kingdom defines between the Church of Greece and in a precise and dignified manner the that of Constantinople, subsequently position of the national church. “ The even forbidding priests ordained out of the king lom to officiate in the priests of the Holy Father to return to the hood. Although the Greek clergy had unity of the Catholic Church, makes shown themselves so forbearing and the following astounding statement: patient, it seems that the arrogance and “The three other patriarch3, in perfidy of the clergy of Constantinople difficult questions, demand the fraterhad at last roused their just indigna- nal counsels of the one of Constantinotion. The learned archimandrite Phar- ple, b'cause that city is the imperial macides published a book against the residence, and this patriarch has the synodal act and the policy of the Con- synoʻlal primary. If the question can stantinopolitan clergy, entitled "Antito- be settled by his fraternal co-operation, moz; or, Concerning the Truth," in very well. But if not, the matter is which he ridicules the pompous preten- referred to the government(i.c.,Ottoman), sions which they make to pastoral vig. according to the established laws." ilance and fidelity in these words: We think that the reason of the
“Since you obtained the sacerdotal grave change of schism, heresy, and dignity by purchase, if you had really apostacy from the fundamental, conthe intention in becoming bishops to stitutivo principles of the Catholic watch and to fatigue yourselves by Church, which we have made against guarding the Church, no one of you the higher clergy of Constantinople, would be a bishop; for you would not will now be apparent to every candid have spent your money in buying vigils reader. The history of their action in and labors.”
relation to the Church of Greece proves Such being the nature of the solici- that their principles and policy tend to tude of these watchful pastors and disintegrate within itself still more that scrupulous guardians of the canons for portion of Christendom which they have the welfare of those over whom they alienated from the communion of Rome claim a patriarchal authority, we need and the West, and thus to increase the not be surprised at any amount of force of the movement of decentralizareckless contempt which they may tion, and to augment the number of sepshow for the general interests of Chris- arate, local, mutually independent, and tendom, and the admonitions they hostile communions. That the natural from time to time receive from the tendency of this principle is to produce veritable pastor of the flock of Christ. dogmatic dissensions, and to efface the Nevertheless, we cannot but wonder idea of Catholic unity, is too evident that the respectable portion of the from past history to need proof. It is Oriental episcopate should permit only neutralized in the East by the themselves to be compromised by an stagnation of thought, and the conseact wbich seems to cap the climax of quent immobility of the Oriental even Byzanting stupidity and effroatmind from its old, long established ery. We refer to the reply to the traditions. The essentially schismatnoble and paternal encyclical of Pius ical virus of the principle is in the IX. to the Oriental bishops, put forth subordination of organic, hierarchical by Anthimus, the late patriarch. An- unity to the temporal powerand the civil thimus himself was notorious through- constitution of states, or the church-andout the city for his habits of drunken- state principle in its most odious form, ness, which were so gross as to inca- which was never more grossly expacitate him from all business and ex- pressed than in the letter above cited of pose him to the most ignominious in- Anthimus. This principle not only tends sults even from his own subordinates. to increase disintegration in the church, The letter which he and several of his but to bar the way to a reintegration bishops subscribed and sent to the ia unity, and to destroy all desire of a Holy Father was written by the monk return to unity, as is also amply proved Constantine Economus, and, in answer by the acts of the clergy of Constantito the earnest and affectionate appeals nople. A schismatical principle held
and acted on in such a way as to make further, by showing what has been schism a perpetual condition, and thus their conduct in the exercise of thieir not merely to interrupt communion for temporal powerover their fellow-Chrisa time but to destroy the idea of Cath- tians in Turkey. olie unity, becomes heretical. More. The reasons and extent of the civil over, when doctrinal forms of express- authority conferred upon the Patriarch ing dogmas of faith, or particular forms Gennadius by Mahomet II. havc alof administering the rites of religion, ready been exposed. It is obvious that are without authority set forth as es, although this authority would have ensential conditions of crthodoxy, and abled the governing clergy to succor made the basis of a judgment of heresy and console their unhappy people in against other churches, those who their condition of miserable slavery, if make this false dogmatic standard are they had been possessed of truly aposguilty of heresy. This is the case tolic virtue, it opened the way to the with the clergy of Constantinople, who most frightful tyranny and oppression, make the difference respecting the use by presenting to the worst and most of - Filioque” in the Cree: the pre- ambitious men a strong motive to astext for accusing the Latin Church of pire to the highest offices in the church. beresy, and who deal similarly with No form of government can be worse the doctrine of purgatory, and the ques. than that of privileged slaves of a destions respecting unleavened bread in the pot over their fellow-slaves. Accordeucharist and immersion in baptism. ingly, but a short time elapsed before They liave constantly persisted in their the unhappy Christians of Turkey beeffort to establish an essential dog. gan to suffer from the effects of this matic difference between the Latin terrible system. Simoniacal bishops and Greek Churches and to make the who bought their own dignity by bribpeculiarities of the Greek rite essen- ing the sultans and their favorites, and tial terms of Catholic communion, in sold all the inferior offices in their gift order to widen and perpetuate the to the highest bidder; who were carebreach between the East and West, and less and faithless in the discharge of to maintain their own usurped princi- their spiritual duties; and who had pality. They have been the authors apostatized from the communion of of the schism, its obstinate promoters, the Catholic Church, would, of course, the principal cause of thrusting it upon exercise their civil functions in the the other parts of the Eastern Church, same spirit and according to the same and the chief instrument of thwarting policy. They associated themselves inthe charitable efforts of the Holy See timately with the Janissaries, on whom for the spiritual good of the Oriental they relied for the maintenance of their Christians. They have done it in spite power; gave their system of policy the of the best and most ample opportuni- name of the System of Cara-Casan,” ties of knowing the utter falsehood that is, " Ecclesiastical Janissary Sysof ail the grounds on which their schism tem ;" enrolled themselves as members is based, in the face of the example of the Ortas or Janissary companies, and the writings of the best and most and bore their distinguishing marks learned of their own predecessors, and tattooed on their arms. This redoubtwith a recklessness of consequences, able body found its most powerful ally and a disregard of the interests of their in the clergy up to the time of its deown people and of religion itself, which struction by Mahmoud II. The aumerits for tiem the name not only of thor of the work whose title is placed heretics, but of apostates from all but at the head of this article, James G. the pame and outward profession of Pitzipios, is a native Christian subChristianity.
ject of the Sultan of Turkey, and was This last portion of the case against the secretary of an imperial commisthem we must now prosecute a little sion appointed to examine into the