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ing of the extant works of that father so great an affection that he converted is undoubtedly the discourse and pane- them to Christianity and kept them gyric which he pronounced upon his by him there and at Alexandria for master, on the occasion of bidding fare five years. The “Oratio Panegyrica? well to his school. Gregory, or, as he was delivered at Cæsarea, and after was then called, Theodore, and his the date of Origen's twenty years 3 brother Athenodorus, were of a noble catechist at Alexandria ; but it will be and wealthy family of Cappadocia: readily understood that the whole spirit that is to say, probably, descendants and, indeed, the whole details, of the of Greek colonists of the times of the composition are as applicable to AlexAlexandrian conquests, though, no andria as to Cæsarea ; for his teaching doubt, with much Syrian blood in work was precisely of the same natura their veins. When Gregory was four at the latter city as at the former, with teen they lost their father, and the a trifling difference in his position. two wealthy young orphans were left The oration of St. Gregory is a formal to the care of their mother. Under and solemn effort of rhetoric, spoken her guidance they were educated ac- at some public meeting, perhaps in cording to their birth and position, the school, in the presence of learned and in a few years began to study for men and of fellow-students, and of the the profession of public speakers. As master himself. It is written very they would have plenty of money, it elegantly and eloquently, but it is in mattered little what they took to; but style that we should call young, did the profession of an orator was some we not know that to make paraded thing like what the bar is now, and apophthegms and weighty sayings, to · gave a man ay education that would moralize rather too much, to pursue be useful if he required it, and orna- metaphors unnecessarily, and to beat mental whether he required it or not. about a thing with words so as to do The best judges pronounced that the everything but say it, was the characu! young men would soon be finished teristic of most orators, old and young! rhetores ; St. Gregory tells us so, but from the days of Ptolemy Philadelphia will not say whether he thinks their till the days when oratory, as a profese opinion right, and before proof could sion, expired before anarchy and the be made the two youths had been per- barbarians. But its literary merils suaded by a master they were very though great, are the least of its recor fond of to take up the study of Roman mendations. Its value as a theologi jurisprudence. Berytus, a city of cal monument is shown by the appeal Phænicia, better known to the modern made to it in the controversy against world as Beyrout, had just then at. Arius; and in more recent times Bishop tained that great eminence as a school Bull, for instance, has made great use for Roman law which it preserved for of it in his “Defensio Fidei Nicæne. nigh three centuries. Thither the To us, at present, its most important young Cappadocians were to go. Their service is the light it sheds upon the master had taught them what he could, teaching of Origen. We need make and wished either to accompany them no apology for making St. Gregory to the law university or to send them the type of the Alexandrian or Cæsa thither to be finished and perfected. rean scholar; they may not have been It does not appear, however, that they all like him, but one real living speci ever really got there. Most biogra- men will tell us more than much ab phies of St. Gregory say that they stract description. studied there ; . wliat St. Gregory him First of all, then, the scholar was

self says is, that they were on their not of an emphatically philosophie sway thither, but that, having to pass cast of mind. The Greek philoso

through Cæsarea (of Palestine), they phers were absolutely unknown to met with Origen, to whom they took him. He was a rich and clever young


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man, bade fair to be a good speaker, “You are a fine and clever young studied the law not because he liked man,” he seemed to say;“but to what it, but because his friends and his purpose are your accomplishments and master wished it; thought the Latin your journeys hither and thither? you language very imperial, but very diffi- cannot answer me the simple question, cult; and had a habit of taking up Who are you? You are going to what opinions he did adopt more after study the laws of Rome, but should the manner of clothes that he could you not first hare some definite notion change as he pleased than as immuta- as to your last end, as to what is real ble truths. He was of a warm and evil and what is real good? You are affectionate disposition, and had a keen looking forward to enjoyment from appreciation of physical and moral your wealth and honor from your beauty. He was not without leanings talents; why, so does every poor, sorto Christianity, but he leaned to it in did, creeping mortal on the earth; so an easy, off-hand sort of way, as he even do the brute beasts. Surely the might have leaned to a new school in divine gift of reason was given you to poetry or a new style of dress. He help you to live to some higher end had no idea that there is such a thing than this.” The scholar hesitated, the as the absolutely right and the abso- master insisted. The view was striklutely wrong in ethics any more than ing in itself, but the teacher's personal in taste. He was confirmed in this gifts made it strike far more effectualstate of mind by the philosophic ly. “He was a mixture,” says the schools of the day, among whom it scholar, “of geniality, persuasiveness, was considered disreputable to change and compulsion. I wanted to go away, one's opinions, however good the rea- but could not; his words held me like sons for a change might be; which a cord.” The young man; 'unsettled was to degrade philosophy from truth as his mind had been, yet had always to the mere spirit of party, and to make at heart believed in some sort of Dia philosopher not a lover of wisdom vine Being. Origen completed the but a volunteer of opinion. So pre- conquest of his intellect by showing pared and constituted, the scholar, on him that without philosophy, that is, bis way to Berytus, fell in with Ori- without correct views on morality, the gen, not so much by accident as by worship of God, or piety, as it used the disposition of Providence and the to be called, is impossible. And yet guidance of his angel guardian; so at wisdom and eloquence might have least he thought himself. The first been thrown away here as in so many process which he went through at the other cases had not another influence, bands of the master is compared by imperious and all-powerful, been all the scholar to the catching of a beast, this time rising up in his heart. The or a bird, or a fish, in a net. Philoso- scholar began to love the master. It phizing bad small charms for the ac- was not an ordinary love, the love complished young man; to philoso- with which Origen inspired his phize was precisely what the master hearers. It was an intense, almost a had determined he should do. We fierce, love (we are almost translating must remember the meaning of the the words of the original), a fitting word ollogoceiv; it meant to think, response to the genuineness and act, and live as a man who seeks true kindly spirit of one who seemed to wisdom. All the sects acknowledge think no pains or kindness too great this theoretically; what Clement and to win the young heart to true moraliOrigen wanted to show, among other ty, and thereby to the worship of the things, was that only a Christian was only God to that saring word," a true philosopher in practice. Hence says St. Gregory, in his lofty style, the net he spread for Theodore, a net“ which alone can teach God-service, of words, strong and not to be broken. which to whomsoever it comes home it makes a conquest of them; and this ing the ideas of the mind about it gift God seems to have given to him, self, and about those things most intibeyond all men now in the world." mately connected with it. A modern To that sacred and lovely word, student takes up his manual of logic, therefore, and to the man who was its or sits down in his class-room with interpreter and its friend, sprang up his most important ideas, either corin the heart of the scholar a deep, in- rect and settled, or else incorrect, beextinguishable love. For that the yond the cure of logic. At Alexanabandoned pursuits and studies which dria manuals were scarce, and the he had hitherto considered indispen- ideas of the converts from heathensable; for that he left the “grand” ism were so utterly and fundamentallaws of Rome, and forsook the friends ly confused, that the first lessons of he had left at home, and the friends the Christian teacher to an educated that were then at his side. “ And Greek or Syrian necessarily took the the soul of Jonathan was knit to the shape of a Socratic discussion, or soul of David," quotes the scholar, a disquisition on principles. And noting that the text speaks emphati- so the scholar, not without much cally of the union of the soul, which amazement and rufiling of the feelno earthly accidents can affect, and ings, found the field of his mind unfinding a parallel to himself in Jona- ceremoniously cleared out, broken up, than, to his master in David, the wise, and freshly planted. But, the prothe holy, and the strong. And cess once complete, the result was though the hour for parting had worth the inconvenience come, the moment when these bonds It was about this stage, also, that of the soul should be severed would the master insisted on a special trainnever come!

ing in natural history and mathematThe scholar was now completely in ics. In his youth Origen had been the hands of his teacher as a land," educated, as we have seen, by his he says, “ empty, unproductive, and father in the whole circle of the the reverse of fertile, saline" (like the sciences of the day. Such an educawaste lands near the Nile), “burnt tion was possible then, though imposup, stony, drifted with sand; yet not sible now, and the spirit of Alexanabsolutely barren; nay, with qualities drian teaching was especially atwhich might be worth cultivating, tached to the sciences that regarded but which had hitherto been left withi- numbers, the figure of the earth, and out tillage or care, to be overgrown nature. The schools of the Greek with thorn and thicket.” He can philosophers had always tolerated hardly make enough of this metaphor these sciences in their own precincts; of land and cultivation to show the nay, most of the schools themselves nature of the work that the teacher had arisen from attempts made in the had with his mind. We have to read direction of those very sciences, and few on for some time before we find out of them had attempted to distinguish that all this vigorous grubbing, accurately between physics and metaploughing, harrowing, and sowing physics. Moreover, geography, 18. i represents the dialectical training tronomy, and geometry, were the pewhich Origen gave his pupils, such culiar property of the Museum, for pupils, at least, as those of whom Eratosthenes, Euclid, Hipparchus, Gregory Thaumaturgus was the type. and Ptolemy himself, had observed In fact, the dialectics of the Plato. and taught within its walls. Ozigen, nists and their off-shoots is very inad- therefore, would not be likely to unequately represented by the modern dervalue those interesting scieaces use of the word logic. It seems to wbich he had studied with his father, have signified, as nearly as a short and which nine out of ten of his edudefinition can express it, the rectify- cated catechumens were more or less

acquainted, and puzzled, or delighted, the heavens. The third is physiwith. Happy days when mathemat- ology, which is the science of nature, ics was little and chemistry in its in- or of all that comes between heaven fancy, when astronomy lived shut up and earth. So that Origen's scientific in a tower, clad in mystic vesture, teaching was truly encyclopædic. and when geology was yet in the He was, moreover, an experimental womb of its mother earth! Enviable philosopher, and did not merely retimes, when they all'(such at least as tail the theories of others. He anawere born) could be sufficiently at- lyzed things and resolved them into tended to and provided for in a casual their elements (their “ very first” eleparagraph of a theological instruc- ments, says the scholar) ; he descanttion, or brought into a philosophical ed on the multiform changes and discussion to be admired and dis- conversions of things, partly from missed! Origen, however, had, as his own discoveries, and gave his usual, a deeper motive for bringing hearers a rational admiration for the physics and mathematics into his sacredness and perfection of nature, system. We need not remind the instead of a blind and stupid bewilreader that, if Plato can be consid- derment; he “ carved on their minds ered to have a weak part, that part is geometry the unquestionable, so dear where he goes into Pythagorean spec- to all, and astronomy that searches ulations about bodies, numbers, and the upper air.” What were the preregular solids. His revivers, about cise details of his teachings on these the time we are speaking of, had subjects it would be unfair to ask, with the usual instinct of revivers even if it were possible to answer. found out bis weak part, and made We know that he thought diamonds the most of it, as if it had been the and precious stones were formed from sublimest evolution of his genius. dew, but this is no proof he was beWe may guess what was taking place hind his age ; and his acquaintance from what afterward did take place, with the literature of the subject when even Porphyry fluctuated all proves he was, if anything, before it. his life between pretensions to philos With regard to naphtha, the magnet, ophy and what Saint Augustine and the looking-glass, it will be pleascalls “sacrilegious curiosity," and ing to know he was substantially when the whimsical triads of poor old right. He was, perhaps, the first to Proclus were powerless to stop the make a spiritual use of the accepted deluge of theurgy, incantations, and notion that the serpent was powerless all superstitions that finally swamped against the stag; the reason is, he Neo-Platonism for ever. With this says, that the stag is the type of view present to our minds the words Christ warring against Anti-Christ. of the scholar in this place are very Tbat he believed in griffins is unfortusignificant. “By these two studies, nate, but natural in an Alexandrian, geometry and astronomy, he made us who had lived in an atmosphere of a path toward heaven." The three stories brought down from the upper words that Saint Gregory uses in the Nile by the ingenious sailors. As to description of this part of the master's bis “ denying the existence of the teaching are worth noticing. The Tragelaphus," we must remain ignofirst is Geometry, which is taken to rant whether it redounds to his credit mean everything that relates to the or otherwise, until modern researches earth's surface. The second is have exhausted the African contiastronomy, which treats of the face of nent.


Translated from the Revue Contemporaine.



I HATE those pretentious and high- fabulous legend, some marvellous sounding Christian names which cer- chronicle, the grand adventures of a tain upstarts inflict as a label of ridi. Tancred or a Bohemond, the exploits cule on their children; but, though I of a Tannegry, finally, the great allishould be accused of having two ances, explain and justify in certain weights and two measures, I should families the privileged use of first be pleased to see perpetuated in the de- names too rare, or too commonplace, scendants of a noble race the most fantastic, romantic, strange, or old, to fantastic of those chosen by their an- be suitable except for them. cestors. My antipathy gives way be Now, it was thus that, in virtue of fore the religion of remembrance, be- an old custom, the grand-daughter fore heroic or knightly traditions. I of the Marquis de La Tour-d'Adam love then even their oddity. I can had received that of Eve at the bappardon even their triviality. I per- tismal fonts of St. Sulpice. ceive only the old glory, the reflection In passing the Gorge d'Enfer, not of which is preserved by these conse- far from the famous valley of Roncecrated names.

vaux, you have perhaps remarked Among the Roqueforts, who claim to the ruins, still majestic, of a tower have sprung from the Merovingians, which leans above a frightful precithey have, even to our days, the names pice. The shepherds of the country of Clodimir, Chilpérie, or Bathilde. maintain that it was built by the faSince the time of the Crusades, the thers of the human race; were I the youngest son of the Du Maistres is al- most profound of archæologists I ways an Amaury. The Canluries of should be very careful not to contra Gonneville owe their names of Arosca dict them. Who can prove that the and Essomerie to the discoveries of Pyrenees did not rise on the limits of the celebrated navigator, their ances- Eden? In the fourteenth century tor, who brought from southern lands, was not all Europe convinced that the in 1503, the Prince Essomerie, terrestial paradise, engulfed in the son of the King Arosca, whom he Atlantic, rises partly above the water adopted and married later, in Nor- in the form of Saint Brandan's Isle, mandy, to one of his relations. There the promised land of the saints, is a family in Brittany who never part where Enoch and Elias await the last with the names of Audren, Salomon, day? Grallow, or Conau. The Corréas, In the same manner that the erudite originally from Portugal, pride them- La Tour d'Auvergne, as simple as selves on seeing on their genealogical he was brave, has demonstrated in his tree those of Caramuru and of Para- “Origines Gauloises” that Adam and guassus, which signify the Man of Eve spoke Bas-Breton, in the same Fire and Great River.

manner the Basque tongue furnishes Chivalry, the Crusades, some semi- unexceptionable proofs of the antiquity

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