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warmly his quarrel against Rome. state of the case, as regards Oriental Nis figure is the foremost one in the Christendom, that it may be seen how dispute, and there is every disposition little support Anglicanism or any to take advantage as far as possible kind of Protestantism can draw from of the rank which the Sce of Constan- that quarter; and how strongly the tinople has held since the fifth centu- entire system of Catholic dogma is ry, first by usurpation and afterward sustained by the history and traditions by the concession of Rome, as second of the Eastern Church. to the Apostolic See of St. Peter. We may possibly hereafter discuss We do not accuse all those who are more at large some of these important concerned in the union movement of subjects relating to the Eastern being animated by a spirit of enmity Church and the schism which has deso. against Rome. Some of them, we be- lated its fairest portions for so many lieve, are seeking for the healing of centuries. On this occasion we inthe schisms of Christendom in a truly tend merely to throw a little light on Catholic spirit, although not fully en- the present actual condition of the lightened concerning the necessary patriarchate of Constantinople, in ormeans for doing so. We may cher der to dissipate any illusion that may ish the same hope concerning some of have been created by high-sounding the Oriental prelates and clergy also, words, and to show how little reason especially those who have manifested there is to “turn with hope to the a determination not to compromise a spiritual head of the Oriental Church” single point of Catholic dogma for the for any enlightening or sanctifying insake of union with Protestants. We fluences upon the souls which are are quite sure, however, that the loud- astray from the fold of St. Peter. est advocates of union in the Prot. We waive, for the time, all consideraestant ranks, and their most earnest tion of past events, anterior to the peand hearty sympathizers in the East, riod of Turkish domination, and all are thoroughly heretical and schis discussion of the remote circumstances matical in their spirit and intentions, which have brought the See of Conand are aiming at the overthrow of stantinople into its present state of the Roman Church, and a revolution degradation, and of obstinate sccesin the orthodox Eastern communion, sion from the unity of the Church. as their dearest object. While, there. We take it as we find it, under the fore, we disclaim any hostile attitude Mohammedan dominion, and will entoward men like Dr. Pusey and other deavor to show how it stands in relaunionists of his spirit, and would nev- tion to other churches of the East, er use any language toward them and what are its claims on the respect which is not kind and respectful, we and honor of Western Christians. are compelled to brand the use which The Patriarch of Constantinople is other ecclesiastics in high position not the Patriarch of the “ Greek have sought to make of this Greek Church.” There is no designation of question as entirely unprincipled. this kind known in the East. The Their cringing and bowing before the style there used is, the “ IIoly Eastern miserable, esiete form of Christianity at Church.” The Greek rite, or form of Constantinople, dictated as it is chiefly celebrating mass and administering by hatred against Rome, is something the sacraments in the Greek lanunworthy of honest Christians and in- guage, is only one of the rires sanctiontelligent Englishmen and Americans. ed by the Catholic Church which are Many very sincere and well-disposed in use among those Christians who are persons are no doubt misled by their not under the Latin rite. What is artful misrepresentations. On that usually called in the West the Greek account it is very necessary to bring Church has several independent orout as clearly as possible the true ganizations. The Patriarch of Con
stantinople, who very early subju- Derendah, Heraclèa, Cyzicus, Nicomated the patriarchs of Alexandria, media, Cæsarea, and Adrianople, Antiochi, and Jerusalem to his domin- form the supreme council of the patriioa, now rules over the same patri- archate, and, with the patriarch, adarchates, which have dwindled to very minister the ecclesiastical and civil insignificant dimensions, and over all government of the Christians of their the separated orthodox Christians of communion throughout the Ottoman the Turkish empire. The Russian empire. They have the control of Church, which was erected into a dis- the common chest or treasury of the tinct patriarchate by Ivan III., is un- Oriental rite in Turkey, and of that of der the supreme jurisdiction of the the provinces ; two great funds esimperial governing synol. The Pa- tablished originally for helping poor triarch of Constantinople is treated Christians to pay the exactions leviedon with respect and honor, and referred them by the Mussulmans, but at presto for advice and counsel, by the Rus- ent diverted to quite other uses by sian authorities; but he has no more their faithless and rapacious guarjurisdiction in Russia than the Arch- dians. They are also exclusively bishop of Baltimore has in the prov- privileged to act as ephori or financial ince of New York. The Church of agents and bankers for the other one Greece not only threw off all depend- hundred and thirty-four bishops of the ence on the Sec of Constantinople Turkish provinces, each one of them after the revolution, but renounced having as many of these episcopal cliall communication with it, for reasons ents as he can get. to be mentioned hereafter. The sepa- Possessed of such an amount of rated Greek Christians of the Austrian ecclesiastical and civil power as the enpire are governed by the Patriarch patriarchate of Constantinople has been of Carlovitz, and there is at least one within the Ottoman empire for several other separate jurisdiction in the centuries, it is plain that it might Montenegrine provinces. The Patri- have become the centre of an incalcuarch of Constantinople possesses, there- lable influence for the spiritual, moral, fore, an actual jurisdiction over a and social good of its subjects. Everyfraction only of the Eastern Church. thing would seem to have combined Within the proper limits of his own pa- to throw into the hands of the patritriarchate this jurisdiction is absolute, arch and his subordinate bishops the both in ecclesiastical and civil matters, power of being truly the protectors subject only to the supreme authority and fathers of their people, and to of the sultan. Immediately after the furnish them with the most powerful capture of Constantinople by the motives for being faithful to their Turks, the Sultan Mahomet II. con- trust. The oppressed, despised, and ferred upon the Patriarch Gennadius impoverished condition of their poor, the character of Milet-bachi, or chief miserable people, slaves of a fanatical, of a nationality, giving him investi- barbarous, anti-Christian despotism, ture by the pastoral staff and mantle was enough to have awakened every with his own hands. The reason of noble and disinterested emotion in his doing so was, that the Mohamme- their bosoms, had they been men ; dan law recognizes only Mohamme- and to have aroused the most devotdans as members of a Mohammedan ed, self-sacrificing charity and zeal in nationality. In more recent times, their hearts, had they been Christians the sultans, disgusted by the venal worthy of the name or true Chrisand tyrannical conduct of the patriarchs, tian pastors. Moreover, if they had lave refused to confer this investiture been true patriots, and really devoted in person, and it is now done by the to the interests of Christianity and the grand vizier. Eight metropolitans, church, there was erery inducement namely, those of Chalcedon, Ephesus, to avail themselves of their position
and to watch the opportunity of culti- ny, and to merit for themselves the rating unity and harmony with the character of apostates from ChristianiCatholic Church and the powerful ty--seducers, corruptors, oppressors, Christian nations of the West, in order and robbers of their own people. to secure their eventual deliverance We will first give a sketch of the from the detestable Moslem usurpa- line of conduct they have pursued in tion, ard the restoration of religion relation to ccclesiastical matters, and among them to its ancient glory. All afterward of their administration of causes of misunderstanding and dis- their civil authority. sension had been done away at the It is notorious that the schismatical Council of Florence. The perfect bishops and clergy of Turkey neglect dogmatic agreement between the East almost entirely the duty of preaching and the West had been fully estab- the word of God and giving good lished. The Greek and other Orien- Christian instruction to their people. tal rites, and the local laws and cus- The sacraments are administered in toms, had been sanctioned. The the most careless and perfunctory patriarcbs and hierarchy had been manner, and rcal practical Christian confirmed in their privileges. The piety and morality are in a very low Patriarch of Constantinople was even state both among clergy and laity. tacitly permitted to retain his high. The clergy themselves are grossly igsounding but unmeaning title of ecu- norant and unfit for the exercise of menical patriarch without rebuke, and their office, taken from the lowest allowed to exercise all the jurisdic- class of the people, without instruction tion which other patriarchs or metro- or preparation for orders, and treated politans were willing to concede to by their superiors as menial servants. him, subject to the universal suprem- The bishops and higher clergy do not acy of Rome. The remembrance trouble themselves to remedy this of the gallant warfare of the Latin gross incapacity of their inferiors, or Christians against their common Mos- to supply it by their own efforts. lem enemy, and especially of the he- Consequently, the common Christian roic devotion of the cardinal legate people of their charge have fallen and his three hundred followers, who into a state of moral degradation behad buried themselves under the walls low that of the Turks themselves, by of Constantinople at its capture, ought whom they are despised as the outto have effaced the inemory of former casts of society. The striking conwrongs* and subdued the stupid, fanat- trast between the schismatical clergy, ical, unchristian sentiment of nation- monasteries, and people, and the Cathoal antipathy against Christians of an- lic, is proverbial among the Turks, other race. Everything concurred to and an object of remark even by Protinvite them to play a noble and glori- estant travellers. It is probable that ous part toward their own Christian there have been many exceptions to countrymen and toward Christendom the general rule of incompetence and in general. We are compelled, how- supine neglect; but, viewing the case ever, to say, with shame and pain, that as a whole, it must be said that the they have prored so recreant to every patriarchs of Constantinople and their one of these trusts and opportunities, subordinate prelates have completely their career has been one of such un- failed to do their duty as pastors of paralleled infamy and perfidy, as to their people and their instructora cover the Christian name with ignomic and guides in religion and virtue.
Their unfortunate position furnishes * The Crusaders undoubtedly committed some no adequate excuse, as will be seen great ontrages, in revenge for the treachery of the Byzantines, and some Latin missionaries imprudently attacked the Oriental rites and customs, but these acts were always disap- 1 proved and condemned by the Popes.
been engaged in, and see how well
they have succeeded in accomplishing public and official teaching of the what they have really desirel and un- Eastera Church is orthodox, and theredertake), which is nothing else than fore no one is adjudged to be a heretheir own selfish aggrandizement. tic simply because he adheres to that Look at ite contrast between their communion. One who intelligently conduct and that of the Catholic hier- and obstinately adheres to a schism as archics of Russia, Poland, and Ire- a state of permanent separation from land under similar circumstances of the See of St. Peter, is, however, oppression, and every shadow of ex- at least a constructive heretic, and is cuse will vanish. No doubt there very likely to be a formal heretic, on were many causes making it difficult several doctrines which have been to clerate the character of the ordina- defined by the Catholic Church. The ry clergy and the people, and tending nature of the opposition of the clergy to keep them down to a low level of of Constantinople to the Roman intelligence and knowledge. This Church, the grounds on which they would furnish an excuse for a great defend their contumacious rebellion, deal, if there had been an evident and the dogmatic arguments which struggle of the hierarchy to do their they employ in the controversy, are best in remedying the evil. Instead such as to place them in the position of doing this, they are the principal of the most unreasonable and contucauses of the perpetuation and aggra- macious schismatics, and as it appears vation of this degraded state. Since to our judgment, in submission to that the decay of the Ottoman power com- of more learned theologians, of here. menced, the clergy hare had it in tics also. So far as their influence their power to bid defiance in great extends, and it is very great, they are measure to the Turkish government. chiefly accountable for the isolated They have been able to control im- condition of the entire non-united mense sums of money and to wield a Eastern Church. As the ambition great commercial and financial influ- of the Patriarch of Constantinople ence. They might have employed was the original cause of the schism, the intervention of Christian powers, so now the ignorant and violent and especially of Russia, if they had obstinacy of the clergy of the patribeen governed by enlightened and archate, and their supreme devotion Christian motives, in order to gain to their own selfish and narrow perjust rights and the means of improve- sonal and party interests, is, in conment for their people. The Oitoman nection with a similar though less government, itself, has come to a odious spirit in the chief Muscovite more just and liberal policy, in which clergy, and the worldly policy of the it would have welcomed the aid of the Russian czar, the chief cause of its Christian hierarchy, had there been perpetuation. coe worthy of the name. Their com- The clergy of Constantinople have plete apathy at all times to every not hesitated to resort to forgery in thing which concerns the spiritual and order to do away with the legal and Iboral welfare of their subjects will binding force of the act of their own warrant no other conclusion than predecessors in subscribing and prothat they have practically apostatized mulgating throughout their entire from the faith and church of Christ, jurisdiction the act of union establishand are mere intruders into the fold ed at the Council of Florence. Genwhich they lay waste and ravage. nadius, the first patriarch elected
In their attitude toward the Catho- after the Turkish conquest, was one of lic Church and the Holy See, the the prelates who signed the decree hierarchy of the patriarchate are ig- of the Council of Florence, a learned norantly, violently, and obstinately and virtuous man, and is believed to schismatical, and even heretical. The have lived and died in the commun
ion of the Holy See. Actual commu- They are said to have been moved nication between Constantinople and to this by the indignation of their Rome was, however, rendered abso. people and a sedition in Constantinolutely impossible by the deadly hos- ple in which the rejection of the act tility of the conquerors to their prin- of union was demanded. The forcipal and most dangerous fo. The gery is too transparent to be worthy slightest attempt at any intercourse of refutation, and could never have with the Latin Christians would have been executed and palmed off as gencaused the extermination of all the uine in any other place than in ConChristian subjects of the Ottoman stantinople. They have also put empire. It is difficult to discover, out a book called the " Pedalium, in therefore, when and how it was that which they revive all the frivolous the supremacy of the Roman Church, pretexts on account of which the whose actual exercise was thus at first infamous Michael Cerularius and his impeded by the necessity of the ignorant ecclesiastical cligue of the case, was again formally repudiated Bas Empire pretended to prove the by the patriarchs. There is a letter apostacy of the Bishop of Rome and extant, written in the year 158 1 by all Western Christendom from the the Patriarch Jeremiah to Pope faith and communion of the Catholic Gregory XIII., in which he says Church, and the consequent succesthat " it belonged to him, as the head sion of the Bishop of Constantinople of the Catholic Church, to indicate the to the universal primacy. The clergy measures to be employed against the of the patriarchate have taken the Protestants," and requests him in vir- position that the Catholic Church at tue of this office to point out what meas- present is confined to the limits of ures can be taken to arrest the ad. what we call the Greek Church. They vance of Protestantism. This is the claim for themselves, therefore, that last official act of the kind of which place which they acknowledge forthere is any record. The patriarchs merly belonged to the See of Rome, and their associates have relapsed and thus seek to justify and carry out into an attitude toward the Holy See the usurpation of supreme and uniwhich is equally schismatical and versal authority indicated by the arrogant, though through their de- title of ecumenical patriarch. The graded condition far more ridiculous absurdity of this is evident, from the than that which was assumed by very grounds on which the title was their predecessors before the Council originally assumed, and the traditional of Florence. In order to nullify, as maxims which directed the policy of far as possible, the legal force of the the ambitious Byzantine prelates act of union promulgated by that coun- throughout the entire period of the cil, they have resorted to a forgery, and Greek empire. The original and only have published the acts of a pretend claim of the bishops of Constantinoed council under a patriarch who ple, who were merely suffragans of never existed and whom they call the Metropolitan of Heraclea before Athanasius. There is no precise their city was made the capital of the date attached to these forged acts, but empire, to the patriarchal dignity, they are so arranged as to appear to was the political importance of the have been promulgated soon after the city. Because Constantinople was return of the emperor and prelates new Rome, therefore the Bishop of from Italy, and before the Turkish Constantinople ought to be second to conquest; and in them, some of the the Bishop of ancient Rome; and not principal prelates who signed the only this, but he ought to rule over decrees of the Council of Florence are the whole East with a supremacy represented as abjuring and begging like that which the Bishop of Rome pardon for what they had done. had always exercised over the whole