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liever in the Christian doctrine. Now second term. God does not affirm to by what process does he attain a ra- his reason by the creative act the intional certitude of the truth of the rev- ternal relations of Father and Son, elation made by the lips of Christ? completed by the third, or Holy Spir
In the first place, the human wisdom it, and therefore, although it is a nccand virtue of our Lord are intelligible essary truth, and in itself intelligible to himn by the human nature common as such, it is not intelligible as a necesto both, and in proportion to his own sary truth to his intellect. The incarpersonal wisdom and goodness. Hav- nation, redemption, and other mystering in himself, by virtue of his human ies affirmed to him by Christ, are not nature, the essential type of human in themselves necessary truths, but goodness, he is able to recognize the only necessary on the supposition that excellence of one in whom it is carried they have been decreed by God. The to its highest possible perfection. The certitude of belief in all this second human perfection visible in Jesus order of truths rests, therefore, enChrist predisposes him to believe his tirely on the veracity of God, authentestimony. The testimony that Jesus ticating the affirmation of his own diChrist bears of himself is that he is vine mission made by Jesus Christ. the Son of God. This declaration We must, therefore, suppose that this includes two propositions. The chief affirmation is made to the mind of the term of the first proposition is “ God." pagan with such clear and unmistakaThe chief term of the second proposi- ble evidence of the fact that the veraction is “ Jesus Christ.” The first ity of God is pledged to its truth, that term includes all that can be un- it would be irrational to doubt it. derstood by the light of reason con- Catholic doctrine also requires us to cerning the Creator and his creative suppose that Christ imparts to him a act. The second term includes all supernatural grace, as the principle of that can be apprehended by the light a divine faith and a divinc life based of faith concerning the interior rela- upon it. The nature and effect of this tions of God, the incarnation of the grace must be left for future considerSon, or Word, the entire supernatural ation. order included in it, and the entire These truths received on the faith doctrine revealed by Christ. The idea of the testimony of the Son of God by expressed by the first term is already the pagan are not, however, entirely in the mind of the pagan, as the first unintelligible to his natural reason. and constitutive principle of his rea- We can suppose our Lord removing son. His reflective consciousness of his difficulties and misapprehensions, this idea and his ability to make a showing him that these truths do not correct and complete explication of its contradict reason, but harmonize with contents are very imperfect. But it as far as it goes, and pointing out when the distinct affirmation and ex- to him certain analogies in the natural plication of the idea of God are made order which render them partially to him by one who possesses a perfect apprehensible by his intellect. Thus, knowledge of God, he has an immedi- while his mind cannot penetrate into ate and certain perception of the truth the substance of these mysteries, or of the conception thus acquired by his grasp the intrinsic reason of them afintelligence. God has already af- ter the mode of natural knowledge, it firmed himself 'to his reason, and can nevertheless see them indirectly, Christ, in affirming God to his intellect, as reflected in the natural order, and has only repeated and manifested by by resemblance, and rests its undoubtsensible inages, and in distinct, unerring ing belief of them on the revelation language, this original affirmation. made by Jesus Christ, attested by the
It is otherwise with the affirmation veracity of God. which Christ makes respecting the In this supposed case, the pagan
has the Son of God actually before struction given him, he is able to his eyes, and with his own ears can discover the strong probability of its hear his words. This is the credible truth. He sees this dimly at first, but object. He is made inwardly certain more and more clearly as his mind that he is the Son of God by convinc- unfolds, and the conception of the ing evidence and the illustration of Catholic Church comes before it more divine grace. This is the creditive distinctly. Some will admit that even subject, in contact with the credible a probability furnishes a sufficient moobject. It exemplifies the process by tive for eliciting an act of perfect which God has instructed the human faith. This is the doctrine of Cardirace from the beginning, a process nal de Lugo, and it has been more recarried on in the most perfect and cently propounded by that extremely successful manner in the instance we acute and brilliant writer, Dr. John are about to examine of a child brought Henry Newman.* According to their up in the Catholic Church.
theory, the undoubting firmness of the The mind of the child has no pre- act ot' faith is caused by an imperate judices and no imperfect conceptions act of the will determining the intelderived from a perverted and defect- lect to adhere firmly to the doctrine ive instruction to be rectified. Its proposed, as revealed by God. There soul is in the normal and natural con- are many, however, who will not be dition. The grace of faith is imparted satisfied with this, and we acknowto it in baptism, so that the rational ledge that we are of the number. It faculties unfold under its elevating appears to us that the mind must and strengthening influence with a have indubitable certitude that God full capacity to elicit the creditive has revealed the truth in order to a act as soon as they are brought in perfect act of faith. Therefore we contact with the credible object. believe that the mind of the child proThis credible object, in the case of the ceeds from the first apprehension of child, as in that of the pagan, is the probability that God has revealed Christ revealing himself and the the doctrines of faith to a certitude of Father. He reveals himself, how- the fact, and that, until it reaches that ever, not by his visible form to the point, its faith is a human faith, or an eye, or his audible word to the ear, inchoate faith, merely. The ground but by his mystical body the church, and nature of that certitude will be which is a continuation and amplifica- discussed hereafter. In the meantion of his incarnation. The church time, it is sufficient to remark that the is visible and audible to the child as child or other ignorant person appresoon as his faculties begin to open. hends the very same ground of certiAt first this is only in an imperfect tude in faith with the mature and cdway, as Jesus Christ was at first only ucated adult, only more implicitly and known in an imperfect way to the obscurely, and with less power to repagan above described. As he merely flect on his own acts. Just as the knew Christ at first as a man, and in a child has the same certainty of facts purely human way, so the child re in the natural order with an adult, so ceives the instruction of his parents, it has the same certainty of facts in teachers, and pastors, in whom the the supernatural order. When we have church is represented, in regard to once established the proper ground of the truths of faith, just as he does in human faith in testimony in general, regard to common matters. He bes and of the certitude of our rational gins with a human faith, founded in judgments, we hare no need of a parthe trusting instincts of nature, which ticular application to the case of
* Since the above was written the anthor has seen reason to suspect that he misunderstood Dr. Newman. The point will be more fully dis.
son is capable of understanding the in- cussed hereafter.
children. It is plain enough that, so positive instruction in any order that soon as their rational powers are suffi- is convenient. When they are arciently developed, they must act ac ranged in their proper logical relation, cording to this universal law. So in the first in order is Deus creat munregard to faith. When we have ez. dum, including all our rational tablished in general its constitutive knowledge concerning God. The principles, it is plain that the mind of second is Christus est Filius Dei, the child, just as soon as it is capable which discloses God in a relation of eliciting an act of faith, must do it above our natural cognition, revealing according to these principles.
himself in his Son, as the supernatuThe length of time, and the num- ral author and the term of final beatber of preparatory acts requisite, be- itude. Lastly comes Christus creat fore the mind of a child is fully capa- ecclesiam, in which the church, at ble of eliciting a perfect act of faith, first simply a medium for communicannot be accurately determined, and cating the conceptions of God and may vary indefinitely. It may re- Christ, is reflexively considered and quire years, months, or only a few explained, embracing all the means weeks, days, or hours. Whenever and institutions ordained by Christ it does elicit this perfect act, the intel- for the instruction and sanctification ligible basis of the creditive act may of the human race, in order to the atbe expressed by the formula, Christus tainment of its final end. In the creat ecclesiam.* In the church, conception of God the Creator, we which is the work of Christ and his have the natural or intelligible order medium or instrument for manifest- and the rational basis of revelation. ing himself, the person and the doc. In the conception of the Son, or trine of Christ are disclosed. In the Word, we have the super-intelligible first term of the formula, Christus, is order in its connection with the intelincluded another proposition, viz., ligible, in which alone we can appreChristus est Filius Deif Finally, in hend it. God reveals himself and his the last term of the second proposi- purposes by his Word, and we betion is included a third, Deus est lieve on the sole ground of his vecreator mundi. The whole may be racity. The remaining conceptions combined into one formula, which are bat the complement of the secis only the first one explicated, Chris- ond. tus, Filius Dei, qui est creator mundi, All this is expressed in the Aposcreat ecclesiam. $ In this formula we tles' Creed. In the first place, by its have the synthesis of reason and faith, very nature, it is a symbol of instrucof philosophy and theology, of nature tion, presupposing a teacher. The and grace. It is the formula of the same is expressed in the first word, natural and supernatural worlds, or “ Credo," explicitly declaring the rather of the natural universe, elevated credence given to a message sent from into a supernatural order and directed God. The first article is a confession to a supernatural end. In the order of God the Father, followed by the of instruction, Ecclesia comes first, confession of the Son and the Holy as the medium of teaching correct Ghost. After this comes “Sanctam conceptions concerning God. Christ, Ecclesiam Catholicam," with the other and the relations in which they stand articles depending on it, and lastly toward the human race. These con- the ultimate term of all the relations ceptions may be communicated in of God to man, expressed in the
words " Vitam æternam."
Having described the actual atti* Christ is the Son of God.
tude of the mind toward the Creed at God is the creator of the world.
the time when its reasoning faculty is the world, creates the Church.
developed, and the method by which in
Christ creates the Church.
Cariet, the Son of God, who is the creator of
struction in religious doctrines is com- a whole. The doctrine first in order municated to it, we will go over is that which relates to God, and this these doctrines in detail, in order to will accordingly be first treated of, in explain and verify them singly and as the ensuing number.
From The Dablin University Magazine
GLASTONBURY ABBEY, PAST AND PRESENT.
THE RISE OF THE BENEDICTINES.*
As Glastonbury Abbey was one Far away in olden times, at the of the chief ornaments of the Bene- close of the fifth century, when the dictine Order; as that order was one gorgeous splendor of the Roman of the greatest influences, next to day was waning and the shades of Christianity itself, ever brought to that long, dark night of the middle bear upon humanity; as the founder ages were closing in upon the earth; of that order and sole compiler of the just at that period when, as if impelrule upon which it was based must led by some instinct or led by some have been a legislator, a leader, a mysterious hand, there came pouring great, wise, and good man, such as the down from the wilds of Scandinavia world seldom sees, one who, unaided, hordes of ferocious barbarians who without example or precedent, com- threatened, as they rolled on like a piled a code which has ruled millions dark flood, to obliterate all traces of of beings and made them a motive- civilization in Europe-when the power in the history of humanity; martial spirit of the Roman was as the work done by that order has rapidly degenerating into the venal left traces in every country in Europe valor of the mercenary-when the
-lives and acts now in the litera- western empire had fallen, after ture, arts, sciences, and social life of being the tragic theatre of scenes to nearly every civilized community-it which there is no parallel in the hisbecomes imperatively necessary that tory of mankind—when men, aghast we should at this point investigate at human crime and writhing under these three matters—the man, the the persecutions of those whom hisrule, and the work :the man, St. tory has branded as the “Scourge of Benedict, from whose brain issued God," sought in vain for some shelter the idea of monastic organization; against their kind—when human the rule by which it was worked, nature, after that struggle between which contains a system of legislation refined corruption and barbarian ruthas comprehensive as the gradually lessness, lay awaiting the night of compiled laws of centuries of growth; troubles which was to fall upon it as and the work done by those who were a long penance for human crimesubject to its power, followed out just at this critical period in the its spirit, lived under its influence, world's history appeared the man who and carried it into every coun- was destined to rescue from the try where the gospel was preached. general destruction of Roman life the
elements of a future civilization ; to Authorities. - Acta Sanctornm ! Butler's
provide an asylum to which art might Lives of the Saints; Gregory's Dialogues:
science might labor in safety, where learning might perpetuate and multi- world in abject slavery at his feet. ply its stores, where the oracles of Into this society came the youthful religion might rest secure, and where Benedict, with all the fresh innocence man might retire from the woe of rustic purity, and a soul already and wickedness of a world given up yearning after the great mysteries of to destruction, live out his life in religion ; admitted into the wild quiet, and make his peace with his revelry of student life, that prototype God.
of modern Bohemianism, he was at That man was St. Benedict, who once disgusted with the general profwas born of noble parents about the ligacy around him. The instincts of year 480, at Norcia, a town in the his youthful purity sickened at the Duchy of Spoleto; his father's name fetid life of Rome, but in his case was Eutropius, his grandfather's Jus- time, instead of reconciling him to tinian. Although the glory of Rome the ways of his fellows, and transwas on the decline, her schools were forming, as it so often does, the still crowded with young disciples of trembling horror of natural innocence all nations, and to Rome the future into the wild intrepidity of reckless saint was sent to study literature and license, only strengthened his disgust science. The poets of this declining for what he saw, and the timid, age have left behind them a graphic thoughtful, pensive student shrank picture of the profligacy and dissipa- from the noisy revelry, and sought tion of Roman life-the nobles had shelter among his books. given themselves up to voluptuous About this time, too, the idea of and enervating pleasures, the martial penitential seclusion was prevalent spirit which had once found vent in in the West, stimulated by the writdeeds with whose fame the world has ings and opinions of St. Augustine cver since rung, had degenerated and St. Jerome. It has been suggested into the softer bravery which dares that the doctrine of asceticism was the milder dangers of a love intrigue, founded upon the words of Christ, or into the tipsy valor loudest in the “If any man will come after midnight brawl. The sons of those me, let him deny himself and heroes who in their youth had gone take up his cross and follow out into the world, subdued kingdoms, me.” * St. Gregory himself dwells and had been drawn by captive with peculiar emphasis upon this pasmonarchis through the streets of Rome sage, which he expounds thus, “Let us ia triumph, now squandered the listen to what he said in this paswealth and disgraced the name of sage-let him who will follow me deny their fathers over the dice-box and himself; in another place it is said the drinking cup. Roman society that we should forego our possessions ; was corrupt to its core, the leaders here it is said that we should deny were sinking into the imbecility of ourselves, and perhaps it is not licentiousness, the people were fol- laborious to a man to relinquish his lowing their steps with that impet- possessions, but it is very laborious to uosity so characteristic of a demora- relinquish himself. For it is a light lized populace, whilst far up in the thing to abandon what one has, but rude, bleak North the barbarian, with a much greater thing to abandon the keen instinct of the wild beast, what one is.” † Fired by the notion sat watching from his lonely wilds of self-mortification imparted to these the tottering towers of Roman glory words of Christ by their own material -the decaying energies of the emas- interpretation, these men forsook the culated giant - until the moment world and retired to caves, rocks, came when he sallied forth and with forests, anywhere out of sight of one hardy blow shattered the mighty
. * Matt. xvi. 21. fabric, and laid the victors of the + St. Greg. Hom. 32 in Evangel.