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heaven would reward with long possession of a disinterested friend, and an unbiassed patriot, that reputation into which you have made so is the hearty prayer of, sir, your most obliged, early an entrance, the reputation of a man of and most obedient, humble servant, sense, a good citizen, and agreeable companion,



It is a justice which Mr. Ironside owes gen- | Mr. Pope for their author. Now I mention this tlemen who have sent him their assistances gentleman, I take this opportunity, out of the from time to time, in the carrying on of this affection I have for his person, and respect to work, to acknowledge that obligation, though his merit, to let the world know, that he is now at the same time he himself dwindles into the translating Homer's Iliad by subscription. He character of a mere publisher, by making the has given good proof of his ability for the work, acknowledgment. But whether a man does it and the men of greatest wit and learning of this out of justice or gratitude, or any other virtuous nation, of all parties, are, according to their difreason or not, it is also a prudential act to take ferent abilities, zealous encouragers, or solicitors no more upon a man than he can bear. Too for the work, large a credit has made many a bankrupt, but But to my present purpose. The letter from taking even less than a man can answer with Gnatho of the Cures performed by Flattery, and ease, is a sure fund for extending it whenever that of comparing Dress to Criticism, are Mr his occasions require. All those papers which Gay's. Mr. Martin, Mr. Philips, Mr. Tickell, are distinguished by the mark of a Hand, were Mr. Carey, Mr. Eusden, Mr. Ince, and Mr. written by a gentleman who has obliged the Hughes, have obliged the town with entertain. world with productions too sublime to admit ing discourses in these volumes; and Mr. Berke. that the author of them should receive any ad- ley, of Trinity College in Dublin, has embeldition to his reputation, from such loose occa- lished them with many excellent arguments in sional thoughts as make up these little treatises ; honour of religion and virtue. Mr. Parnell will I for which reason his name shall be concealed. hope forgive me, that without his leave I mention, Those which are marked with a Star, were that I have seen his hand on the like occasion. composed by Mr. Budgell. That upon Dedica. There are some discourses of a less pleasing na. tions, with the Epistle of an Author to Himself, | ture which relate to the divisions amongst us, and the Club of little Men, the Receipt to make an such (lest any of these gentlemen should suffer Epic Poem, the paper of the Gardens of Alci- from unjust suspicion,) I must impute to the right nous, and the Catalogue of Greens, that against author of them, who is one Mr. Steele, of Langun. Barbarity to Animals, and some others, have nor, in the county of Carmarthen, in South Wales.


No. 1.] Thursday, March 12, 1713. some hope of having my vanity, at the end of

them, indulged in the sort above-mentioned. -Ille quem requiris, Mart. Epig. ii. 1. I should not have assumed the title of Guar. He, whom you seek.

dian, had I not maturely considered, that the THERE is no passion so universal, however qualities necessary for doing the duties of that diversified or disguised under different forms character, proceed from the integrity of the and appearances, as the vanity of being known mind more than the excellence of the underto the rest of mankind, and communicating a standing. The former of these qualifications it man's parts, virtues, or qualifications, to the is in the power of every man to arrive at; and world : this is so strong upon men of great the more he endeavours that way, the less will genius, that they have a restless fondness for he want the advantages of the latter; to be faith. satisfying the world in the mistakes they might ful, to be honest, to be just, is what you will possibly be under, with relation even to their demand in the choice of your Guardian; or if physiognomy. Mr. Airs, that excellent pen. you find added to this, that he is pleasant, inman, has taken care to affix his own image genious, and agreeable, there will overflow opposite to the title-page of his learned treatise, satisfactions which make for the ornament, if wherein he instructs the youth of this nation to not so immediately to the use of your life. As arrive at a flourishing hand. The author of to the diverting part of this paper, by what as. The Key to Interest, both simple and compound, sistance I shall be capacitated for that, as well containing practical rules plainly expressed in as what proofs I have given of my behaviour as words at length for all rates of interest, and to integrity in former life, will appear from my times of payment, for what time soever, makes history to be delivered in ensuing discourses. up to us the misfortune of his living at Chester, The main purpose of the work shall be, to proby following the example of the above-men- tect the modest, the industrious ; to celebrate the tioned Airs, and coming up to town, over wise, the valiant; to encourage the good, the against his title-p in a very becoming pe- pious; to confront the impudent, the idle; to riwig, and a flowing robe or mantle, inclosed contemn the vain, the cowardly; and to disapin a circle of foliages ; below his portraiture, point the wicked and profane. This work canfor our farther satisfaction as to the age of that not be carried on but by preserving a strict useful writer, is subscribed, 'Johannes Ward regard, not only to the duties but civilities of de civitat. Cestriæ, ætat. suæ 58. An. Dom. life, with the utmost impartiality towards things 1706. The serene aspect of these writers, and persons. The unjust application of the joined with the great encouragement I observe advantages of breeding and fortune, is the is given to another, or what is indeed to be source of all calamity, both public and private; suspected, in which he indulges himself, con- the correction, therefore, or rather admonition, firmed me in the notion I have of the prevalence of a Guardian in all the occurrences of a various of ambition this way. The author whom I hint being, if given with a benevolent spirit, would at shall be nameless, but his countenance is certainly be of general service. communicated to the public in several views In order to contribute as far as I am able to and aspects drawn by the most eminent paint. it, I shall publish in respective papers whatever ers, and forwarded by engravers, artists by way I think may conduce to the advancement of of mezzotinto, etchers, and the like. There the conversation of gentlemen, the improve. was, I remember, some years ago,"one John ment of ladies, the wealth of traders, and the

a fellow that played upon a pipe, and encouragement of artificers. The circumstance diverted the multitude hy dancing in a ring relating to those who excel in mechanics, shall they made about him, whose face became gene- be considered with particular application. It rally known, and the artists employed their is not to be immediately conceived by such as skill in delineating his features, because every have not turned themselves to reflections of that man was a judge of the similitude of them. kind, that Providence, to enforce and endear the There is little else, than what this John Gale necessity of social life, has given one man's arrived at, in the advantages men enjoy from hands to another man's head, and the carpenter, common fame; yet do I fear it has always a the smith, the joiner, are as immediately neces. part in moving us to exert ourselves in such sary to the mathematician, as my amanuensis things as ought to derive their beginnings from will be to me, to write much fairer than I can nobler considerations. But I think it is no myself. I am so well convinced of this truth, great matter to the public what is the incentive that I shall have a particular regard to mecha. which makes men bestow time in their service, nics; and to show my honour for them, I shall provided there be any thing useful in what place at their head the painter. This gentlethey produce ; I shall proceed therefore to give man is, as to the execution of his work,

a mea an account of my intended labours, not without I chanic; but as to his conception, his spirit, and



design, he is hardly below even the poet, in

No. 2.)

Friday, March 13, 1713. liberal art. It will be from these considerations useful to make the world see the affinity be

The readiest way to proceed in my great tween all works which are beneficial to man- undertaking, is to explain who I am my self kind is much nearer, than the illiberal arrogance that promise to give the town a daily half of scholars will at all times allow. But I am sheet: I shall therefore enter into my own his. from experience convinced of the importance tory, without losing any time in preamble. I of mechanic heads, and shall therefore take was born in the year 1642, at a lone house them all into my care, from Rowley, who is within half a mile of the town of Brentford, in improving the globes of the earth and heaven the county of Middlesex; my parents were of in Fleet-street, to Bat. Pigeon, the hair cutter ability to bestow upon me a liberal education, in the Strand.

and of a humour to think that a great happiness But it will be objected upon what pretensions even in a fortune which was but just enough to I take upon me to put in for the prochain ami, keep me above want. In my sixteenth year I or nearest friend of all the world. How my in Oxford. It was one great advantage, among

was admitted a commoner of Magdalene-hall, head is accomplished for this employment towards the public, from the long exercise of it many more, which men, educated at our uniin a private capacity, will appear by reading versities, do usually enjoy above others, that me the two or three next days with diligence they often contract friendships there, which are and attention. There is no other

paper in being of service to them in all the parts of their future which tends to this purpose. They are most life. This good fortune happened to me; for of them histories, or advices of public

transac- during the time of my being an under-graduate, tions; but as those representations affect the I became intimately acquainted with Mr. Ampassions of my readers, I shall sometimes take brose Lizard, who was a fellow-commoner of care, the day after a foreign mail, to give them the neighbouring college. I have the honour an account of what it has brought. The parties to be well known to Mr. Josiah Pullen, of our amongst us are too violent to make it possible hall above-mentioned; and attribute the florid to pass them by without observation. As to old age I now enjoy to my constant morning these matters, I shall be impartial, though I walks up Hedington-hill, in his cheerful concannot be neuter: I am, with relation to the pany, If the gentleman be still living, I hereby government of the church, a tory, with regard give him my humble service. But as I was going to the state, a whig.

to say, I contracted in my early youth, an in. The charge of intelligence, the pain in com.

timate friendship with young Mr. Lizard, of piling and digesting my thoughts in proper Northamptonshire. He was sent for a little style, and the like, oblige me to value my paper before he was of bachelor's standing, to be mar. a half-penny above all other half sheets.* And ried to Mrs. Jane Lizard, an heiress, whose all persons who have any thing to communicate father would have it so for the sake of the name. to me, are desired to direct their letters (postage Mr. Ambrose knew nothing of it till he came paid,) to Nestor Ironside, Esq, at Mr. Tonson's to Lizard-hall, on Saturday night, saw the in the Strand. I declare beforehand, that I will young lady at dinner the next day, and was at no time be conversed with any other way married, by order of his father, sir Ambrose, than by letter: for as I am an ancient man, I shall between eleven and twelve the Tuesday followfind enough to do to give orders proper for their ing: Some years after, when my friend came service, to whom I am, by will of their parents, to be sir Ambrose himself

, and finding upon Guardian, though I take that to be too narrow proof of her, that he had lighted upon a good a scene for me to pass my whole life in. But wife, he gave the curate who

joined their hands I have got my wards so well off my hands, and the parsonage

of Welt, not får off Wellingbothey are so able to act for themselves, that I rough. My friend was married in the year have little to do but give a hint, and all that I sixty-two, and every year following, for eighteen desire to be amended is altered accordingly.

years together, I left the college (except that My design upon the whole is no less than to year wherein I was chosen fellow of Lincoln,). make the pulpit, the bar, and the stage, all act and sojourned at sir Ambrose's for the months in concert in the care of piety, justice, and of June, July, and August. I remember very virtue;

for I am past all the regards of this life, well that it was on the fourth of July, in the and have nothing to manage with any person year 1674, that I was reading in an arbour to or party, but to deliver myself as becoines an my friend, and stopt of a sudden, observing he old man with one foot in the grave, and one

did not attend. Lay by your book,' said he, who thinks he is passing to eternity. All sor.

• and let us take a turn in the grass-walk, for I rows which can arrive at me are comprehended

have something to say to you.' After a silence in the sense of guilt and pain ; if I can keep for about forty yards, walking both of us with clear of these two evils, I shall not be appre-our eyes downward, one big to hear, the other hensive of any other. Ambition, lust, envy,

to speak a matter of great importance, sir Amand revenge, are excrescences of the mind, brose expressed himself to this effect : My which I have cut off long ago : but as they are good friend,' said he, you may have observed excrescences which do not only deform, but that from the first moment I was in your com also torment those on whom they grow, I shall pany at Mr. Willis's chambers, at Úniversity do all I can to persuade all others to take the College, I ever after sought and courted you, same measures for their cure which I have.

that inclination towards you has improved

from similitude of manners, if I may so say * Two pence was the original price of this paper.

when I tell you I have not observed in any man

a greater candour and simplicity of mind than entertainment will arise from what passes at the in yourself. You are a man that are not in- tea-table of my lady Lizard. That lady is now clined to launch into the world, but prefer secu- in the forty-sixth year of her age, was married rity and ease, in a collegiate or single life, to in the beginning of her sixteenth, is blessed with going into the cares which necessarily attend a a numerous offspring of each sex, no less than public character, or that of a master of a fami- four sons and five daughters. She was the mo. ly. You see within, my son Marmaduke, my ther of this large family before she arrived at only child; I have a thousand anxieties upon her thirtieth year: about which time she lost me concerning him, the greater part of which her husband, sir Marmaduke Lizard, a gentle I would transter to you, and when I do so, I man of great virtue and generosity. He left be. would make it, in plain English, worth your hind him an improved paternal estate of six while.' He would not let me speak, but pro- thousand pounds a-year to his eldest son, and ceeded to inform me, that he had laid the whole one year's revenue, in ready money, as a porscheme of his affairs upon that foundation. As tion to each younger child. My lady's Chrissoon as we went into the house, he gave me a | tian name is Aspasia ; and as it may give a cer. bill upon his goldsmith,* in London, of two tain dignity to our style to mention her bg that thousand pounds, and told me, with that he had name, we beg leave at discretion to say lady purchased me, with all the talents I was master Lizard, or Aspasia, according to the matter we of, to be of his family, to educate his son, and shall treat of. When she shall be consulting to do all that should ever lie in my power for about her cash, her rents, her household affairs, the service of him and his to my life's end, ac we will use the more familiar name; and when cording to such powers, trusts, and instructions, she is employed in the forming the minds and as I should hereafter receive.

sentiments of her children, exerting herself in The reader will here make many speeches for the acts of charity, or speaking of matters of reme, and without doubt suppose I told my friend ligion or piety, for the elevation of style we will he had retained me with a fortune to do that use the word Aspasia. Aspasia is a lady of which I should have thought myself obliged to great understanding and noble spirit. She has by friendship: but, as he was a prudent man, passed several years in widowhood, with that and acted upon rules of life, which were least abstinent enjoyment of life, which has done holiable to the variation of humour, time, or sea- nour to her deceased husband, and devolved re. son, I was contented to be obliged by him his putation upon her children. As she has both own way; and believed I should never enter into sons and daughters marriageable, she is visited any alliance which should divert me from pur. by many on that account, but by many more for suing the interests of his family, of which I her own merit. As there is no circumstance in should hereafter understand myself a member. human life, which may not directly or indirectly Sir Ambrose told me, he should lay no injunc- concern a woman thus related, there will be tion upon me, which should be inconsistent with abundant matter offer itself from passages in any inclination I might have hereafter to change this family to supply my readers with diverting, my condition. All he meant was, in general, to and perhaps useful notices for their conduct in insure his family from that pest of great estates, all the incidents of human life. Placing money the mercenary men of business who act for them, on mortgages, in the funds, upon bottory, and and in a few years become creditors to their almost all other ways of improving the fortune masters in greater sums than half the incoine of a family, are practised by my lady Lizard, of their lands amounts to, though it is visible with the best skill and advice. all which gave rise to their wealth was a slight The members of this family, their cares, passalary, for turning all the rest, both estate and sions, interests, and diversions, shall be repre. credit of that estate, to the use of their princi- sented, from time to time, as news from the teapals. To this purpose we had a very long con table of so accomplished a woman as the intelli. ference that evening, the chief point of which gent and discreet lady Lizard. was,

that his only child Marmaduke was from that hour under my care, and I was engaged to turn all my thoughts to the service of the child in particular, and all the concerns of the family

No. 3.]

Saturday, March 14, 1713. in general. My most excellent friend was so well satisfied with my behaviour, that he made Quicquid est illud, quod sentit, quod sapit, quod vult, me his executor, and guardian to his son. My quod viget, cæleste et divinum est, ob eamque rem æterown conduct during that time, and my manner of educating his son Marmaduke to manhood,

Whatever that be, which thinks, which understands, and the interest I had in him to the time of his which wills, which acts, it is something celestial and

divine, and, upon that account, must necessarily be death also, with my present conduct towards the eternal. numerous descendants of my old friend, will make, possibly, a series of history of common I am diverted from the account I was giving life, as useful as the relations of the more pomp- the town of my particular concerns, by casting ous passages in the lives of princes and states- my eye upon a treatise which I could not over. men. The widow of sir Ambrose, and the no look without an inexcusable negligence, and less worthy relict of sir Marmaduke, are both want of concern for all the civil, as well as re. living at this time.

ligious interests of mankind. This piece has for I am to let the reader know, that his chief its title, A Discourse of Free-thinking, occasion.

ed by the rise and growth of a sect called Froe. * A banker at this time was called a goldsmith.

thinkers. The author very methodically enters B

num sit necesse est.


upon his argument, and says, 'by free-thinking, safe from reflection by dabbling in their rhapI mean the use of the understanding in endea- sodies, without tasting the pleasures for which vouring to find out the meaning of any proposi. their doctrines leave them unaccountable. Thus tion whatsoever, in considering the nature of do heavy mortals, only to gratify a dry pride of the evidence for or against, and in judging of it heart, give up the interests of another world, according to the seeming force or weakness of without enlarging their gratifications in this: the evidence.' As soon as he has delivered this but it is certain there are a sort of men that can definition, from which one would expect he did puzzle truth, but cannot enjoy the satisfaction of not design to show a particular inclination for it

. This same free-thinker is a creature unacor against any thing before he had considered quainted with the emotions which possess great it, he gives up all title to the character of a minds when they are turned for religion, and it free-thinker, with the most apparent prejudice is apparent that he is untouched with any

such against a body of men, whom of all other a sensation as the rapture of devotion. Whatever good man would be most careful not to violate, I one of these scorners may think, they certainly mean men in holy orders. Persons who have want parts to be devout; and a sense of piety devoted themselves to the service of God, are towards heaven, as well as the sense of any thing venerable to all who fear him; and it is a cer- else, is lively and warm in proportion to the fatain characteristic of a dissolute and ungovern- culties of the head and heart. "This gentleman ed mind, to rail, or speak disrespectfully of them may be assured he has not a taste for what he in general. It is certain, that in so great a pretends to decry, and the poor man is certainly crowd of men, some will intrude who are of more a blockhead than an atheist. I must re. tempers very unbecoming their function: but peat, that he wants capacity to relish what true because ambition and avarice are sometimes piety is; and he is as capable of writing an helodged in that bosom which ought to be the roic poem, as making a fervent prayer. When dwelling of sanctity and devotion,

must this un. men are thus low and narrow in their apprehen. reasonable author vilify the whole order? He sions of things, and at the same time vain, they has not taken the least care to disguise his be. are naturally led to think every thing they do ing an enemy to the persons against whom he not understand, not to be understood. Their writes, nor any where granted that the institu- contradiction to what is urged by others, is a tion of religious men to serve at the altar, and necessary consequence of their incapacity to reinstruct such who are not as wise as himself, is ceive it. The atheistical fellows who appeared at all necessary or desirable ; but proceeds, the last age did not serve the devil for nought, without the least apology, to undermine their but revelled in excesses suitable to their princicredit, and frustrate their labours: whatever ples; while in these unhappy days mischief is clergymen, in disputes against each other, have done for mischief's sake. These free-thinkers, unguardedly uttered, is here recorded in such a who lead the lives of recluse students, for no manner as to affect religion itself, by wresting other purpose but to disturb the sentiments of concessions to its disadvantage from its own other men, put ine in mind of the monstrous re. teachers. If this be true, as sure any man that creation of those late wild youths, who, without reads the discourse must allow it is, and if reli. provocation, had a wantonness in stabbing and gion is the strongest tie of human society, in defacing those they met with. When such wri. what manner are we to treat this our common ters as this, who have no spirit but that of ma. enemy, who promotes the growth of such a sect lice, pretend to inform the age, mohocks and as he calls free-thinkers ? He that should burn cut-throats may well set up for wits and men of a house, and justify the action by asserting he pleasure. is a free agent, would be more excusable than It will be perhaps expected, that I should this author in uttering what he has from the produce some instances of the ill intention of right of a free-thinker. But there are a set of this free-thinker, to support the treatment I dry, joyless, dull fellows, who want capacities here give him. In his fifty-second page he says, and talents to make a figure amongst mankind Secondly, The priests throughout the world upon benevolent and generous principles, that differ about scriptures, and the authority of think to surmount their own natural meanness, scriptures. The Bramins have a book of scripby laying offences in the way of such as make ture called the Shaster. The Persees have their it their endeavour to excel upon the received Zundavastaw. The Bonzes of China have books maxims and honest arts of life. If it were pos- written by the disciples of Fo-he, whom they sible to laugh at so melancholy an affair as what call the “God and Saviour of the world, who hazards salvation, it would be no unpleasant in- was born to teach the way of salvation, and to quiry to ask, what satisfactions they reap, what give satisfaction for all men's sins." The Talaextraordinary gratification of sense, or what de-poins of Siam have a book of scripture written licious libertinism this sect of free-thinkers en- by Sommonocodom, who, the Siamese say, joy, after getting loose of the laws which con born of a virgin, and was the God expected by fine the passions of other men ? Would it not the universe." The Dervises have their Alcoran.' be a matter of mirth to find, after all, that the I believe there is no one will dispute the heads of this growing sect are sober wretches, author's great impartiality in setting down the who prate whole evenings over coffee, and have accounts of these different religions. And I not themselves fire enough to be any further de. think it is pretty evident he delivers the matter bauchees, than merely in principle? These with an air that betrays that the history of sages of iniquity are, it seems, themselves only 'one born of a virgin' has as much authority speculatively wicked, and are contented that all with him from St. Sommonocodom as from St., the abandoned young men of the age are kept | Matthew. Thus he treats revelation. Then as


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