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pany as I have chosen, he gives himself up to them very differently. For here lies the differ the pleasing delusion; and since every one doth ence. Men, who, by long study and experience not know how it comes to pass, I will venture have reduced their ideas to certain classes, and to tell him why he is pleased.

consider the general nature of things abstracted The first reason is, because all mankind love from particulars, express their thoughts after a ease. Though ambition and avarice employ more concise, lively, surprising manner. Those most men's thoughts, they are such uneasy ha- who have little experience, or cannot abstract, bits, that we do not indulge them out of choice, deliver their sentiments in plain descriptions, but from some necessity, real or imaginary. We by circumstances, and those observations which seek happiness, in which ease is the principal either strike upon the senses, or are the first ingredient, and the end proposed in our most motions of the mind. And though the former restless pursuits is tranquillity. We are there. raises our admiration more, the latter gives fore soothed and delighted with the representa- more pleasure, and soothes us more naturally. tion of it, and fancy we partake of the pleasure. Thus a courtly lover may say to his mistress :

A second reason is our secret approbation of innocence and simplicity. Human nature is

With thee for ever I in woods could rest,

Where never human foot the ground hath prest; not so much depraved, as to hinder us from re

Thou e'en from dungeons darkness canst exclude, specting goodness in others, though we ourselves And from a desert banish solitude.' want it. This is the reason why we are so much charmed with the pretty prattle of children, and A shepherd will content himself to say the even the expressions of pleasure or uneasiness same thing more simply: in some part of the brute creation. They are,

Come, Rosalind, oh! come, for without thee without artifice or malice; and we love truth What pleasure can the country have for me?' too well to resist the charms of sincerity. A third reason is our love of the country.

Again, since shepherds are not allowed to Health, tranquillity, and pleasing objects are

make deep reflections, the address required is the growth of the country; and though men,

so to relate an action, that the circumstances for the general good of the world, are made to put together shall cause the reader to reflect love populous cities, the country hath the great. Thus, by one delicate circumstance, Corydon est share in an uncorrupted heart. When we tells Alexis that he is the finest songster of the paint, describe, or any way indulge our fancy, country : the country is the scene which supplies us with

Of seven smooth joints a mellow pipe I have, the most lovely images. This state was that Which with his dying breath Dametas gave : wherein God placed Adam when in Paradise ;

And said, " This, Corydon, I leave to thee,

For only thou deserv'st it after me.”' nor could all the fanciful wits of antiquity imagine any thing that could administer more As in another pastoral writer, after the same exquisite delight in their Elysium.

manner a shepherd informs us how much his mistress likes him :

• As I to cool me bath'd one sultry day, No. 23.) Tuesday, April 7, 1713. Fond Lydia lurking in the sedges lay,

The wanton laugh'd, and seemed in haste to fly,

Yet often stopp'd, and often turnd her eye.'
Extrema per illos
Justicia excedens terris vestigia fecit.

If ever a reflection be pardonable in pastorals,
Virg. Georg. ii. 473.

it is where the thought is so obvious, that it From hence Astrea took her flight, and here The prints of her departing steps appear.

seems to come easily to the mind; as in the Dryden. following admirable improvement of Virgil and

Theocritus : HAVING ady conveyed my reader into the fairy or pastoral land, and informed him what

Fair is my flock, nor yet uncomely I, manner of life the inhabitants of that region If liquid fountains flatter not. And why lead; I shall, in this day's paper, give him some Should liquid fountains flatter us, yet show marks whereby he may discover whether he is

The bordering flowers less beauteous than they grow?' imposed upon by those who pretend to be of

A second characteristic of a true shepherd is that country; or, in other words, what are the simplicity of manners, or innocence. This is characteristics of a true Arcadian.

so obvious from what I have before advanced, From the foregoing account of the pastoral that it would be but repetition to insist long life, we may discover that simplicity is neces

upon it. I shall only remind the reader, that as sary in the character of shepherds. Their the pastoral life is supposed to be where nature minds must be supposed so rude and unculti. is not much depraved, sincerity and truth will vated, that nothing but what is plain and unaf generally run though it. Some slight transfected can come from them. Nevertheless, we

gressions for the sake of variety may be adare not obliged to represent them dull and stupid, mitted, which in effect will only serve to set off since fine spirits were undoubtedly in the world the simplicity of it in general. I cannot betbefore arts were invented to polish and adorn ter illustrate this rule than by the following them. We may therefore introduce shepherds example of a swain who found his mistress with good sense, and even with wit, provided asleep: their manner of thinking be not too gallant or refined. For all men, both rude and polite, think

Once Delia slept on easy moss reclin'd,

Her lovely limbs half bare, and rude the wind; and conceive things the same way, (truth being I smooth'd her coats, and stole a silent kiss : ternally the same to all) though they express Condemn me, shepherds, if I did amiss.'

A third sign of a swain is, that something of demonstrate to them that all the ribandı were religion, and even superstition is part of his of the same colour; or rather, says Jack, of no character. For we find that those who have colour at all. My lady Lizard herself

, though lived easy lives in the country, and contemplate she was not a little pleased with her son's imthe works of nature, live in the greatest awe of provements, was one day almost angry with their Author. Nor doth this humour prevail | him; for having accidentally burnt her fingers less now than of old. Our peasants as sincerely as she was lighting the lamp for her tea-pot, in believe the tales of goblins and fairies, as the the midst of her anguish Jack laid hold of the heathens those of fauns, nymphs, and satyrs. opportunity to instruct her that there was no Hence we find the works of Virgil and Theo such thing as heat in fire. In short, no day critus sprinkled with left-handed ravens, blasted passed over our heads, in which Jack did not oaks, witchcrafts, evil eyes, and the like. And imagine he made the whole family wiser than I observe with great pleasure that our English they were before. author of the pastorals I have quoted hath That part of his conversation which gave me practised this secret with admirable judgment. the most pain, was what passed among those

I will yet add another mark, which may be country gentlemen that came to visit us. On observed very often in the above-named poets, such occasions Jack usually took upon him to which is agreeable to the character of shep- be the mouth of the company; and thinking herds, and nearly allied to superstition, I mean himself obliged to be very merry, would enterthe use of proverbial sayings. I take the com- tain us with a great many old sayings and abmon similitudes in pastoral to be of the pro- surdities of their college-cook. I found this verbial order, which are so frequent, that it is fellow had made a very strong impression upon needless, and would be tiresome to quote them. Jack's imagination ; which he never considered I shall only take notice upon this head, that it was not the case of the rest of the company, is a nice piece of art to raise a proverb above till after many repeated trials he found that his the vulgar style, and still keep it easy and un- stories seldom made any body laugh but himaffected. Thus the old wish, God rest his self. soul,' is finely turned :

I all this while looked upon Jack as a young Then gentle Sidney liv'd, the shepherd's friend, tree shooting out into blossoms before its time; Eternal blessings on his shade attend !

the redundancy of which, though it was a little unseasonable, seemed to foretell an uncommon

fruitfulness. No. 24.) Wednesday, April 8, 1713. In order to wear out the vein of pedantry

which ran through his conversation, I took him Dicenda tacendaque calles ? Pers. Sat. iv. 5. out with me one evening, and first of all insinu

ated to him this rule, which I had myself learned Dost thou, so young, Know when to speak, and when to hold thy tongue ? wise, but talk with the vulgar. Jack's good

from a very great author, •To think with the

sense soon made him reflect that he had exposed JACK LIZARD was about fifteen when he was himself to the laughter of the ignorant by a first entered in the university, and being a contrary behaviour; upon which he told me, youth of a great deal of fire, and a more than that he would take care for the future to keep ordinary application to his studies, it gave his his notions to himself, and converse in the comconversation a very particular turn. He had mon received sentiments of mankind. He at too much spirit to hold his tongue in company; the same time desired me to give him any other but at the same time so little acquaintance with rules of conversation which I thought might be the world, that he did not know how to talk like for his improvement. I told him I would think other people.

of it; and accordingly, as I have a particular After a year and a half's stay at the univer- affection for the young man, I gave him the sity, he came down among us to pass away a next morning the following rules in writing, month or two in the country. The first night which may perhaps have contributed to make after his arrival, as we were at supper, we were him the agreeable man he now is. all of us very much improved by Jack's table. The faculty of interchanging our thoughts talk. He told us, upon the appearance of a with one another, or what we express by the dish of wild fowl, that according to the opinion word conversation, has always been represented of some natural philosophers they might be by moral writers as one of the noblest privi. lately come from the moon. Upon which the leges of reason, and which more particularly Sparkler bursting out into a laugh, he insulted sets mankind above the brute part of the creation. her with several questions relating to the bigness Though nothing so much gains upon the afand distance of the moon and stars; and after fections as this extempore eloquence, which we every interrogatory would be winking upon me, have constantly occasion for, and are obliged to and smiling at his sister's ignorance. Jack practise every day, we very rarely meet with any gained his point; for the mother was pleased, who excel in it. and all the servants stared at the learning of The conversation of most men is disagreeable, their young master. Jack was so encouraged not so much for want of wit and learning, as of at this success, that for the first week he dealt good-breeding and discretion. whully in paradoxes. It was a common jest If you resolve to please, never speak to grawith him to pinch one of his sister's lap-dogs, tify any particular vanity or passion of your and afterwards prove he could not feel it. When own, but always with a design either to divert the girls were sorting a set of knots, he would | or inform the company. A man who only aims

at one of these, is always easy in his discourse. Though good humour, sense, and discretion, He is never out of humour at being interrupted, can seldom fail to make a man agreeable, it may because he considers that those who hear him be no ill policy sometimes to prepare yourself in are the best judges whether what he was saying a particular manner for conversation, by look. could either divert or inform them.

ing a little further than your neighbours into A modest person seldom fails to gain the good. whatever is become a reigning subject. If our will of those he converses with, because nobody armies are besieging a place of importance envies a man who does not appear to be pleased abroad, or our house of commons debating a bill with himself.

of consequence at home, you can hardly fail of We should talk extremely little of ourselves. being heard with pleasure, if you have nicely Indeed what can we say? It would be as im- informed yourself of the strength, situation, and prudent to discover our faults, as ridiculous to history of the first, or of the reasons for ard count over our fancied virtues. Our private against the latter. It will have the same effect, and domestic affairs are no less improper to be if when any single person begins to make a introduced in conversation. What does it con- noise in the world, you can learn some of the cern the company how many horses you keep smallest accidents in his life or conversation, in your stables ? or whether your servant is most which though they are too fine for the observa. knave or fool ?

tion of the vulgar, give more satisfaction to men A man may equally affront the company he of sense (as they are the best openings to a real is in, by engrossing all the talk, or observing a character) than the recital of his most glaring contemptuous silence.

actions. I know but one ill consequence to be Before you tell a story, it may be generally feared from this method, namely, that coming not amiss to draw a short character, and give full charged into company, you should resolve the company a true idea of the principal per. to unload whether a handsome opportunity offers sons concerned in it. The beauty of most things itself or no. consisting not so much in their being said or Though the asking of questions may plead for done, as in their being said or done by such a itself the specious names of modesty, and a departicular person, or on such a particular occa. sire of information, it affords little pleasure to sion.

the rest of the company who are not troubled Notwithstanding all the advantages of youth, with the same doubts; besides which, he who few young people please in conversation : the asks a question would do well to consider that reason is, that want of experience makes them he lies wholly at the mercy of another before he positive, and what they say is rather with a de- receives an answer. sign to please themselves than any one else. Nothing is more silly than the pleasure some

It is certain that age itself shall make many people take in what they call speaking their things pass well enough, which would have minds. A man of this make will say a rude been laughed at in the mouth of one much thing for the mere pleasure of saying it, when vuunger.

an opposite behaviour, full as innocent, might Nothing, however, is more insupportable to have preserved his friend, or made his fortune. anen of sense, than an empty formal man who It is not impossible for a man to form to speaks in proverbs, and decides all controversies himself as exquisite a pleasure in complying with a short sentence. This piece of stupidity with the humour and sentiments of others, as is the more insufferable, as it puts on the air of of bringing others over to his own; since it is wisdom.

the certain sign of a superior genius, that can A prudent man will avoid talking much of take and become whatever dress it pleases. any particular science, for which he is remark- I shall only add, that, besides what I have ably famous. There is not, methinks, a hand- here said, there is something which can never somer thing said of Mr. Cowley in his whole life, be learnt but in the company of the polite. The than, that none but his intimate friends ever dis. virtues of men are catching as well as their covered he was a great poet by his discourse : vices; and your own observations added to these besides the decency of this rule, it is certainly will soon discover what it is that commands founded in good policy. A man who talks of attention in one man, and makes you tired and any thing he is already famous for, has little to displeased with the discourse of another. get, but a great deal to lose. might add, that he who is sometimes silent on a subject where every one is satisfied he could speak well, will

No. 25.]

Thursday, April 9, 1713. often be thought no less knowing in other matters, where perhaps he is wholly ignorant.

Quis tam Lucili fautor inepte est, Women are frightened at the name of argu- Ut non hoc fateatur ? ment, and are sooner convinced by a happy turn, or witty expression, than by demonstra. So blindly partial, to deny me this? tion.

Whenever you commend, add your reasons The prevailing humour of crying up aut hors for doing so; it is this which distinguishes the that have writ in the days of our forefathers, and approbation of a man of sense from the flattery of passing slightly over the merit of our conof sycophants, and admiration of fools. temporaries, is a grievance that men of a free

Raillery is no longer agreeable than while and unprejudiced thought have complained; of the whole company is pleased with it. I would through all ages in their writings. least of all be understood to except the person rallied.

* Of the poet Lucillius.

Hor. Lib. 1. Sat. x. 2 What friend of his*



I went home last night full of these reflec. | memory or mention of the king's attainder, tions from'a coffee-house, where a great many should be defaced, cancelled, and taken off the excellent writings were arraigned, and as many file.-Divers secret and nimble scouts and spies, very indifferent ones applauded, more (as it &c. to learn, search, and discover all the cirseemed to me) upon the account of their date, cumstances and particulars.- To assail, sap, and than upon any intrinsic value or demerit. The work into the constancy of sir Robert Clifford.' conversation ended with great encomiums upon I leave the following passages to every one's my lord Verulam's History of Henry the VIIth. consideration, without making any farther reThe company were unanimous in their appro- marks upon them. bation of it. I was too well acquainted with the • He should be well enough able to scatter the traditional vogue of that book throughout the Irish as a flight of birds, and rattle away his whole nation, to venture my thoughts upon it. swarm of bees with their king.–The rebels Neither would I now offer my judgment upon took their way towards York, &c. but their that work to the public, (so great a veneration snow-ball did not gather as it went.—So that (in have I for the memory of a man whose writings a kind of mattacina* of human fortune) he are the glory of our nation,) but that the autho- turned a broacht that had worn a rity of so leading a name may perpetuate a whereas fortune commonly doth not bring in vicious taste amongst us, and betray future his- a comedy or farce after a tragedy.— The queen torians to copy after a model which I cannot was crowned, &c. about two years after the help thinking far from complete.

marriage, like an old christening that had As to the fidelity of the history, I have no- stayed long for god-fathers.—Desirous to trouthing to say: to examine it impartially in ble the waters in Italy, that he might fish the that view would require much pains and leisure. better, casting the net not out of St. Peter's, but But as to the composition of it, and sometimes out of Borgia's bark.—And therefore upon the the choice of matter, I am apt to believe it will first grain of incense that was sacrificed upon appear a little faulty to an unprejudiced reader. the altar of peace at Bulloigne, Perkin was A complete historian should be endowed with smoked away. This was the end of this little the essential qualifications of a great poet. His cockatrice of a king, that was able to destroy style must be majestic and grave, as well as those that did not espy him first.-It was simple and unaffected; his narration should be observed, that the great tempest, which drove animated, short, and clear, and so as even to Philip into England, blew down the Golden outrun the impatience of the reader, if possible. Eagle from the spire of St. Paul's; and in the This can only be done by being very sparing fall, it fell upon a sign of the Black Eagle, and choice in words, by retrenching all cold which was in Paul's church-yard, in the place and superfluous circumstances in an action, and where the school-house now standeth, and batby dwelling upon such alone as are material, and tered it, and broke it down : which was a strange fit to delight or instruct a serious mind. This stooping of a hawk upon a fowl.-- The king is what we find in the great models of antiquity, began to find where his shoe did wring him. and in a more particular manner, in Livy, In whose bosom or budget most of Perkin's sewhom it is impossible to read without the warm- crets were laid up.-One might know afar off est emotions.

where the owl was by the flight of birds.—Bold But my lord Verulam, on the contrary, is men, and careless of fame, and that took toll of ever in the tedious style of declaimers, using their master's grist.--Empson and Dudley two words for one ; ever endeavouring to be would have cut another

chop out of him.-Peter witty, and as fond of out-of-the-way similies as Hialas, some call him Elias ; surely he was the some of our old play-writers. He abounds in forerunner of, &c.—Lionel, bishop of Concordia, low phrases, beneath the dignity of history, and was sent as nuncio, &c. but notwithstanding he often condescends to little conceits and quibbles. had a good ominous name to have made a peace, His political reflections are frequently false, nothing followed.–Taxing him for a great almost every where trivial and puerile. His taxer of his people.—Not by proclamations, but whole manner of turning his thoughts is full of by court-fames, which commonly print better affectation and pedantry; and there appears than printed proclamations.—Sir Edward Poynthroughont his whole work more the air of a ings was enforced to make a wild chase upon recluse scholar, than of a man versed in the the wild Irish.--In sparing of blood by the world.

bleeding of so much treasure.—And although After passing so free a censure upon a book his own case had both steel and parchment which, for these hundred years and upwards, more than the other; that is to say, a conquest has met with the most universal approbation, I in the field, and an act of parliament.—That am obliged in my own defence to transcribe pope knowing that king Henry the Sixth was some of the many passages I formerly collected reputed in the world abroad but for a simple for the use of my first charge, sir Marmaduke man, was afraid it would but diminish the estiLizard. It would be endless, should I point out mation of that kind of honour, if there were not the frequent tautologies and circumlocutions distance kept between innocents and saints.' that occur in every page, which do, as it were, Not to trouble my reader with any more inrarify, instead of condensing his thoughts and stances of the like nature, I must observe that

matter. It was, in all probability, his applica- the whole work is ill conducted, and the story dtion to the law that gave him a habit of being so of Perkin Warbeck (which should have been

wordy; of which I shall put down two or three only like an episode in a poem) is spun out to
“That all records, wherein there was any * A frolicsome dance.

† A spit

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near a third part of the book. The character formed, they are pleased, instead of taking noof Henry the Seventh, at the end, is rather an tice of my precaution; to call me an ill-bred old abstract of his history than a character. It is fellow, and say I do not understand the world. tedious, and diversified with so many particu- It is not, it seems, within the rules of goodlars as confound the resemblance, and make it breeding to tax the vices of people of quality, almost impossible for the reader to form any and the commandments were made for the vul. distinct idea of the person. It is not thus the gar. I am indeed informed of some oblations ancients drew their characters; but in a few sent into the house, but they are all come from just and bold strokes gave you the distinguish- the servants of criminals of condition. A poor ing features of the mind, (if I may be allowed chamber-maid has sent in ten shillings out of the metaphor,) in so distinct a manner, and in her hush-money, to expiate her guilt of being so strong a light, that you grew intimate with in her mistress's secret ; but says she dare not your man immediately, and knew him from a ask her ladyship for any thing, for she is not to hundred.

suppose that she is locked up with a young gen. After all, it must be considered in favour of tleman, in the absence of her husband, three my lord Verulam, that he lived in an age where hours together, for any harm; but, as my lady in chaste and correct writing was not in fashion, is a person of great sense, the girl does not know and when pedantry was the mode even at court; but that they were reading some good book toso that it is no wonder if the prevalent humour gether ; but because she fears it may be other. of the times bore down his genius, though su- wise, she has sent her ten shillings for the guilt perior in force, perhaps, to any of our country of concealing it. We have a thimble from a men that have either gone before or succeeded country girl that owns she has had dreams of a him.

fine gentleman who comes to their house, who gave her half-a-crown, and bid her have a care

of the men in this town; but she thinks he does No. 26.) Friday, April 10, 1713. not mean what he says, and sends the thimble

because she does not hate him as she ought. Non ego illam mihi dotem esse puto, quæ dos dicitur, The ten shillings, this thimble, and an occamy Sed pudicitiam et pudorem et sedatam cupidinem. spoon from some other unknown poor sinner,

are all the atonement which is made for the A woman's true dowry, in my opinion, is not that body of sin in London and Westminster. I have which is usually so called; but virtue, modesty, and re

computed that there is one in every three hun. strained desires.

dred who is not chaste; and if that be a modest A HEALTHY old fellow, that is not a fool, is the computation, how great a number are those who happiest creature living. It is at that time of make no account of my admonition! It might life only, men enjoy their faculties with pleasure be expected one or two of the two hundred and and satisfaction. It is then we have nothing to ninety-nine honest, might, out of mere charity manage, as the phrase is; we speak the down and compassion to iniquity, as it is a misfortune, right truth, and whether the rest of the world have done something upon so good a time as will give us the privilege or not, we have so lit. that wherein they were solicited. But major tle to ask of them, that we can take it. I shall Crab-tree, a sour pot companion of mine, says, be very free with the women from this one con. the two hundred ninety and nine are one way sideration; and, having nothing to desire of or other as little virtuous as the three hundredth them, shall treat them as they stand in nature, unchaste woman– I would say lady. It is cerand as they are adorned with virtue, and not as tain, that we are infested with a parcel of jilflirts, they are pleased to form and disguise themselves. who are not capable of being mothers of brave A set of fops, from one generation to another, men, for the infant partakes of the temper and has made such a pother with bright eyes, the disposition of its mother. We see the unaccountfair sex, the charms, the air,' and something so able effects which sudden frights and longings incapable to be expressed but with a sigh, that have upon the offspring; and it is not to be the creatures have utterly gone out of their very doubted, but the ordinary way of thinking of being, and there are no women in all the world. the mother, has its influence upon what she bearg If they are not nymphs, shepherdesses, graces, about her nine months. Thus, from the want or goddesses, they are to a woman, all of them of care in this particular of choosing wives, you *the ladies. Get to a christening at any alley see men, after much care, labour, and study, surin the town, and at the meanest artificer's, and prised with prodigious starts of ill-nature and the word is, 'Well, who takes care of the ladies ?' passion, that can be accounted for no otherwise I have taken notice that ever since the word For. but from hence, that it grew upon them in emsooth was banished for Madam, the word Woman bryo, and the man was determined surly, peevhas been discarded for Lady. And as there is ish, froward, sullen, or outrageous, before he now never a woman in England, I hope I may saw the light. The last time I was in a public talk of women without offence to the ladies. place I fell in love by proxy for sir Harry Lizard. What puts me in this present disposition to tell The young woman happens to be of quality. them their own, is, that in the holy week I very Her father was a gentleman of as noble a discivilly desired all delinquents in point of chastity position as any I ever met with. The widow, to make some atonement for their freedoms, by her mother, under whose wing she loves to apbestowing a charity upon the miserable wretches pear, and is proud of it, is a pattern to persons who languish in the Lock hospital. But I hear of condition. Good sense, heightened and erof very little done in that matter; and I am in. I erted with good-breeding, is the parent's distin

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