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men about her, had her health drank in gay , nis tamen excidit ausis ;' though he could not companies, and distinguished at public assem. command the chariot of the sun, his fall from it blies: I say, madam, if within three or four was illustrious. So far as I conceive, * Hæc est years of her first appearance in town, she is not sola nostra anchora, hæc jacenda est in nobis disposed of, her beauty is grown familiar, her alea;' this is our only anchor, this die must be eyes are disarmed, and we seldom after hear her thrown. In our instability, .Unum momentum mentioned but with indifference. What doubles est uno momento perfectum factum, ac dictum my grief on this occasion is, that the more dis- stabilitatem facere potest;'_ one lucky moment creetly the lady behaves herself, the sooner is would crown and fix all. This, or else nothing her glory extinguished. Now, madam, if merit is to be looked for but continual dalliance and had a greater weight in our thoughts, when we doubtfulness, so far as I can see. Your assured form to ourselves agreeable characters of women, friend,
THOMAS SMITH.” men would think, in making their choices, of “ From Killingworth, Aug. 22, 1572.” such as would take care of, as well as supply children for, the nursery. It was not thus in Though my lady was in very good humour, the illustrious days of good queen Elizabeth. I upon the insinuation that, according to the Eli. was this morning turning over a folio, called zabeth scheme, she was but just advanced above The Complete Ambassador, consisting chiefly the character of a girl; I found the rest of the of letters from lord Burleigh, earl of Leicester, company as much disheartened, that they were and sir Thomas Smith. Sir Thomas writes a still but mere girls. I went on, therefore, to atletter to sir Francis Walsingham, full of learned tribute the immature marriages which are sogallantry, wherein you may observe he promises lemnized in our days to the importunity of the himself the French king's brother (who it seems men, which made it impossible for young ladies was but a cold lover) would be quickened by to remain virgins so long as they wished from seeing the queen in person, who was then in their own inclinations, and the freedom of a sinthe thirty-ninth year of her age. A certain so- gle life. briety in thoughts, words, and action, which was There is no time of our life, under what chathe praise of that age, kept the fire of love alive ; racter soever, in which men can wholly divest and it burnt so equally, that it warmed and pre- themselves of an ambition to be in the favour served, without tormenting and consuming our of women. Cardan, a grave philosopher and beings. The letter I mention is as follows: physician, confesses in one of his chapters, that
though he had suffered poverty, repulses, ca“ To the Right Worshipful Mr. Francis Wal- lumnies, and a long series of afflictions, he never
singham, Ambassador, resident in France. was thoroughly dejected, and impatient of life
“Sir, I am sorry that so good a matter itself, but under a calamity which he suffered should, upon so nice a point, be deferred. We from the beginning of his twenty-first to the end may say that the lover will do little, if he will of his thirtieth year. He tells us, that the rail. not take the pains once to see his love; but she lery he suffered from others, and the contempt must first say yea, before he see her, or she him : which he had of himself, were afflictions beyond twenty ways might be devised why he might expression. I mention this only as an argument come over, and be welcome, and possibly do extorted from this good and grave man, to supmore in an hour than he may in two years. port my opinion of the irresistible power of wo.
Cupido ille qui vincit omnia, in oculos insidet, men. He adds in the same chapter, that there et ex oculis ejaculatur, et in oculos utriusque vi. are ten thousand afflictions and disasters attend dendo non solum, ut ait poeta, foemina virum, the passion itself; that an idle word imprudentsed vir fæminam ;' that powerful being Cupid, ly repeated by a fair woman, and vast expenses who conquers all things, resides in the eyes, he to support her folly and vanity, every day re. sends out all his darts from the eyes : by throw. duce men to poverty and death; but he makes ing glances at the eyes (according to the poet) them of little consideration to the miserable and not only the woman captivates the man, but also insignificant condition of being incapable of the man the woman. What force, I pray you, their favour. can hearsay,' and 'I think, and I trust,' do in I make no manner of difficulty of professing comparison of that. cum presens præsentem tu. I am not surprised that the author has expressetur et alloquitur, et furore forsitan amoris duc. ed himself after this manner, with relation to tus, amplectitur,' when they face to face see and love : the heroic chastity so frequently professed converse with each other, and the lover in an by humorists of the fair sex, generally ends in ecstacy, not to be commanded, snatches an em. an unworthy choice, after having overlooked brace, and saith to himself, and openly that she overtures to their advantage. It is for this reamay hear, ' Teneone te me, an etiamnum somno son that I would endeavour to direct, and not volunt fæminæ videri cogi ad id quod maximum pretend to eradicate the inclinations of the sexes capiunt ?'. Are you in my arms, my fair one, or to each other. Daily experience shows us, that do we both dream, and will women even in their the most rude rustic grows humane as soon as sleep seem forced to what they most desire ? If he is inspired by this passion; it gives a new we be cold, it is our part, besides the person, the grace to our manners, a new dignity to our sex requireth it. Why are you cold ? Is it not minds, a new visage to our persons. Whether a young man's part to be bold, courageous, and we are inclined to liberal arts, to arms, or ad. to adventure ? If he should have, he should have dress in our exercise, our improvement is hasbut honorificam repulsam ;' even a repulse here tened by a particular object whom we would is glorious: the worst that can be said of him please. Cheerfulness, gentleness, fortitude, libeis but as of Phaeton, Quam si non tenuit mag. Irality, magnificence, and all the virtues which
adorn men, which inspire heroes, are most con- during the very time of their mediation for the spicuous in lovers. I speak of love as when such prisoner, he insulted them also, by commanding as are in this company are the objects of it, who with a haughty tone, that his orders should be can bestow upon their husbands (if they follow executed that very instant. This, as it is usual their excellent mother) all its joys without any on such occasions, made the whole town flock of its anxieties.
together; but the principal inhabitants, abhor. ring the severity of Licenciado, and pitying a
gentleman in the condition of Aguire, went in a No. 8.]
body, and besought the governor to suspend, if Friday, March 20, 1713.
not remit the punishment. Their importunities Animum rege
prevailed on him to defer the execution for eight Hor. Lib. 1. Ep. ii. 62. days; but when they came to the prison with Govern the mind.
his warrant, they found Aguire already brought
forth, stripped, and mounted on an ass, which A GUARDIAN cannot bestow his time in any is the posture wherein the basest criminals are office more suitable to his character, than in whipped in that city. His friends cried out, representing the disasters to which we are ex. Take him off, take him off,' and proclaimed posed by the irregularity of our passions. I their order for suspending his punishment; but think speak of this matter in a way not yet the youth, when he heard that it was only put taken notice of, when I observe that they make off for eight days, rejected the favour, and said, men do things unworthy of those very passions. All my endeavours have been to keep myself I shall illustrate this by a story I have lately from mounting this beast, and from the shame read in the Royal Commentaries of Peru, where of being seen naked; but since things are come in you behold an oppressor a most contemptible thus far, let the sentence proceed, which will be creature after his power is at an end; and a per- less than the fears and apprehensions I shall son he oppressed so wholly intent upon revenge have in these eight days ensuing; besides, I till he had obtained it, that in the pursuit of it shall not need to give further trouble to my he ntterly neglected his own safety; but when friends for intercession on my behalf, which is that motive of revenge was at an end, returned as likely to be ineffectual as what hath already to a sense of danger, in such a manner as to be passed. After he had said this, the ass was unable to lay hold of occasions which offered whipped forward, and Aguire ran the gantlet themselves for certain security, and expose him- according to the sentence. The calm manner self from fear to apparent hazard. The motives in which he resigned himself, when he found which I speak of are not indeed so much to be his disgrace must be, and the scorn of dallying called passions, as ill habits arising from pas- with it under a suspension of a few days, which sions, such as pride and revenge, which are im- mercy was but another form of the governor's provements of our infirmities, and are, methinks, cruelty, made it visible that he took comfort in but scorn and anger regularly conducted. But some secret resolution to avenge the affront. to my story.
After this indignity, Aguire could not be perLicenciado Esquivel, governor of the city Po- suaded (though the inhabitants of Potocsi often toesi, commanded two hundred men to march importuned him from the spirit they saw in out of that garrison towards the kingdom of him) to go upon any military undertaking, but Tacman, with strict orders to use no Indians in excused himself with a modest sadness in his carrying their baggage, and placed himself at a countenance, saying, that after such a shame convenient station without the gates, to observe as his was death must be his only remedy and how his orders were put in execution; he found consolation, which he would endeavour to obthey were wholly neglected, and that Indians tain as soon as possible.' were laden with the baggage of the Spaniards, Under this melancholy he remained in Peru, but thought fit to let them march by till the last until the time in which the office of Esquivel zank of all came up, out of which he seized one expired; after which, like a desperate man, he man called Aguire, who had two Indians laden pursued and followed him, watching an opporwith his goods. Within few days after he was tunity to kill him and wipe off the shame of the taken in arrest, he was sentenced to receive two late affront. Esquivel, being informed of this hundred stripes. Aguire represented by his desperate resolution by his friends, endeavoured friends, that he was the brother of a gentleman, to avoid his enemy, and took a journey of three who had in his country an estate with vassalage or four hundred leagues from him, supposing of Indians, and hoped his birth would exempt that Aguire would not pursue hirn at such a dishim from a punishment of so much indignity. tance;
but Esquivel's flight did but increase Licenciado persisted in the kind of punishment Aguire's speed in following. The first journey he had already pronounced; upon whieh Aguire which Esquivel took was to the oity Los Reyes, petitioned that it might be altered to one that he being three hundred and twenty leagues distant; should not survive; and though a gentleman, but in less than fifteen days Aguire was there and from that quality not liable to suffer so ig. with him; whereupon Esquivel took another nominious a death, humbly besought his exoel flight, as far as to the city of Quito, being four lency that he might be hanged. But though hundred leagues distant from Los Reyes ; but Licenciado appeared all his life, before he came in a little more than twenty days Aguire was into power, a person of an easy and tractable dis again with him; which being intimated to Es. position, he was so changed by his office, that quivel, he took another leap as far as Cozco, these applications from the unfortunate Aguire which is five hundred leagues from Quito; but did but the more gratify his insolence ; and in a few days after he arrived there, came also Aguire, travelling all the way on foot, without | very fortunate adventures, was about twenty shoes or stockings, saying, that it became not years since, and the fortieth year of his age, the condition of a whipt rascal to travel on arrived to the estate which we usually call a horseback, or appear amongst men.' In this plum. This was a sum so much beyond his manner did Aguire haunt and pursue Esquivel first ambition, that he then resolved to retire for three years and four months; who being from the town and the business of it together. now tired and wearied with so many long and Accordingly he laid out one half of his money tedious journies, resolved to fix his abode at upon the purchase of a nobleman's estate, not Cozco, where he believed that Aguire would many miles distant from the country seat of my scarce adventure to attempt any ing against lady Lizard. From this neighbourhood our first him, for fear of the judge who governed that acquaintance began, and has ever since been city, who was a severe man, impartial and in continued with equal application on both sides. flexible in all his proceedings; and accordingly, Mr. Charwell visits very few gentlemen in the took a lodging in the middle of the street of country; his most frequent airings in the sum. the great church, where he lived with great mer time are visits to my lady Lizard. And if care and caution, wearing a coat of mail under ever his affairs bring him up to town during the his upper coat, and went always armed with winter, as soon as these are despatched, he is his sword and dagger, which are weapons not sure to dine at her house, or to make one at agreeable to his profession. However Aguire her tea-table, to take her commands for the followed hither also, and having in vain dogged country: him from place to place, day after day, he re. I shall hardly be able to give an account how solved to make the attempt upon him in his own this gentleman has employed the twenty years house, which he entered, and wandered from since he made the purehase I have mentioned, room to room, till at last he came into his without first describing the conditions of the study where Licenciado lay on a couch asleep. estate. Aguire stabbed him with his dagger with great The estate then consisted of a good large old tranquillity, and very leisurely wounded him in house, a park of two thousand acres, eight other parts of the body, which were not covered thousand acres more of land divided into farms. with his coat of mail. He went out of the The land not barren, but the country very thin house in safety; but as his resentment was of people, and these the only consumers of the eated, he now began to reflect upon the inexor. wheat and barley that grew upon the premises. able temper of the governor of the place. Under A river running by the house, which was in this apprehension he had not composure enough the centre of the estate, but the same not nato fly to a sanctuary, which was near the place vigable, and the rendering it navigable had where he committed the fact; but ran into the been opposed by the generality of the whole street frantic and distracted, proclaiming him country. The roads excessive bad, and no posself a criminal, by crying out, «Hide me, hide sibility of getting off the tenants' corn, but at
such a price of carriage as would exceed the The wretched fate and poor behaviour of Li. whole value when it came to market. The cenciado, in flying his country to avoid the underwoods all destroyed, to lay the country same person whom he had before treated with, open to my lord's pleasures; but there was inso much insolence, and the high resentment of deed the less want of this fuel, there being a man so inconsiderable as Aguire, when much large coal-pits in the estate, within two miles injured, are good admonitions to little spirits in of the house, and such a plenty of coals as was exalted stations, to take care how they treat sufficient for whole counties. But then the want brave men in low condition.
of water-carriage made these also a mere drug, and almost every man's for fetching. Many
timber-trees were still standing only for want Saturday, March 21, 1713.
of chapmen, very little being used for building
in a country so thin of people, and those at å In tantas brevi creverant opes, seu maritimis seu ter- greater distance being in no likelihood of buying restribus fructibus, seu multitudinis incremento, seu pennyworths, if they must be at the charge of sanctitate disciplinæ.
Yet every tree was valued at They rose in a short time to that pitch of wealth and a much greater price than would be given for it grandeur, by means of an extensive commerce both by in the place; so was every acre of land in the sea and land, by an increase of the people, and by the park ; and, as for the tenants, they were all rigour of their laws and discipline.
racked to extremity, and almost every one of Many of the subjects of my papers will con- them beggars. All these things Mr. Čharwell sist of such things as I have gathered from the knew very well, yet was not discouraged from conversation, or learned from the conduct of a going on with his purchase. gentleman, who has been very conversant in
But in the first place, he resolved that a our family, by name Mr. Charwell.* This hundred in family should not ruin him, as it person was formerly a merchant in this city, had done his predecessor. Therefore, pretending who, by exact economy, great frugality, and to dislike the situation of the old house, he
made choice of another at a mile distance,
higher up the river, at a corner of the park, * The person here alluded to, is said to have been the where, at the expense of four or five thousand in charitable Edward Colston, of Bristol, member of Par. 1 pounds, and all the ornaments of the old house, liament for that city, who died unmarried in October, he built a new one, with all convenient offices, 1721, about the close of his eighty-fifth year, without deray in his understanding, without labour or sorrow.' more suitable to his revenues, yet not much
larger than my lord's dog-kennel, and a great yearly fuel. And as these are taken out of the deal less than his lordship’s stables.
coal-pits of Mr. Charwell, he receives a penny The next thing was to reduce his park. He for every bushel ; so that this very article is an took down a great many pales, and with these addition of four hundred pounds per annum to inclosed only two hundred acres of it near ad- his revenues. And as the town and people are joining to his new house. The rest he con every year increasing, the revenues in the verted to breeding cattle, which yielded greater above-mentioned, and many other articles, are profit.
increasing in proportion. The tenants began now to be very much dis- There is now no longer any want of the fasatisfied with the loss of my lord's family, which mily of the predecessor. The consumption of had been a constant market for great quantities five thousand people is greater than can be of their corn; and with the disparking so much made by any fifty of the greatest families in land, by which provisions were likely to be in. Great Britain. The tenants stand in no need creased in so dispeopled a country. They were of distant markets to take off the product of afraid they must be obliged themselves to con- their farms. The people so near their own doors sume the whole product of their farms, and are already more than they are able to supply; that they should be soon undone by the econo- and what is wanting at home for this purpose my and frugality of this gentleman.
is supplied from places at greater distance, at Mr. Charwell was sensible their fears were whatsoever price of carriage. but too just; and that, if neither their goods All the farmers every where near the river could be carried off to distant markets, nor the are now, in their turn, for an act of parliament markets brought home to their goods, his te. to make it navigable, that they may have an nants must run away from their farms. He easy carriage for their corn to so good a mar. had no hopes of making the river navigable, ket. The tenants of Mr. Charwell
, that they which was a point that could not be obtained may have the whole market to themselves, are by all the interest of his predecessor, and was almost the only persons against it. But they therefore not likely to be yielded up to a man will not be long able to oppose it: their leases who was not yet known in the country. All are near expiring; and as they are grown very that was left for him was to bring the market rich, there are many other persons ready to home to his tenants, which was the very thing take their farms at more than double the prehe intended before he ventured upon his pur- sent rents, even though the river should be made chase. He had even then projected in his navigable, and distant people let in to sell their thoughts the plan of a great town just below provisions together with these farmers. the old house ; he therefore presently set him. As for Mr. Charwell himself, he is in no self about the execution of this project. manner of pain lest his lands should fall in their
The thing has succeeded to his wish. In the value by the cheap carriage of provisions from space of twenty years he is so fortunate as to distant places to his town. He knows very well see a thousand new houses upon his estate, and the cheapness of provisions was one great at least five thousand new people, men, women, means of bringing together so great numbers, and children, inhabitants of those houses, who and that they must be held together by the are comfortably subsisted by their own labour, same means. He seems to have nothing more without charge to Mr. Charwell, and to the in his thoughts than to increase his town to great profit of his tenants.
such an extent, that all the country for ten It cannot be imagined that such a body of miles round about shall be little enough to suppeople can be subsisted at less than five pounds ply it. He considers that at how great a disper head, or twenty-five thousand pounds per tance soever provisions shall be brought thither, annum, the greatest part of which sum is an. they must end at last in so much soil for his nually expended for provisions among the farm- estate, and that the farmers of other lands will ers of the next adjacent lands. And as the tenants by this means contribute to the improvement of Mr. Charwell are nearest of all others to the of his own. market, they have the best prices for their goods But by what encouragement and rewards, by by all that is saved in the carriage.
what arts and policies, and what sort of people But some provisions are of that nature, that he has invited to live upon his estate, and how they will not bear a much longer carriage than he has enabled them to subsist by their own from the extreme parts of his lands; and I think labour, to the great improvement of his lands, I have been told, that for the single article of will be the subjects of some of my future premilk, at a pint every day for every house, his cautions. tenants take from this town not much less than
• To the Guardian. five hundred pounds per annum.
The soil of all kinds, which is made every “Sır,-By your paper of Saturday last, you year by the consumption of so great a town, I give the town hopes that you will edicate that have heard has been valued at two hundred day to religion. You could not begin it better pounds per annum. If this be true, the estate than by warning your pupils of the poison of Mr. Charwell is so much improved in this vented under a pretence to free-thinking. If you very article, since all this is carried out upon can spare room in your next Saturday's paper his lands by the back carriage of those very for a few lines on the same subject, these are at carts, which were loaden by his tenants with your disposal. provisions and other necessaries for the people. I happened to be present at a public conver
A hundred thousand bushels of coal are ne. sation of some of the defenders of this discourse cessary to supply so great a multitude with lof free-thinking, and others that differed from
them; where I had the diversion of hearing the of the Sparkler's, which is to come home next same man in one breath, persuade us to free-week. i design it a model for the ladies. She dom of thought, and in the next, offer to de- and I have had three private meetings about it. monstrate that we had no freedom in any thing. As to the men, I am very glad to hear, being One would think men should blush, to find myself a fellow of Lincoln college, that there is themselves entangled in a greater contradiction at last in one of our universities risen a happy than any the discourse ridicules. This princi- genius for little things. It is extremely to be ple of free fatality or necessary liberty, is a lamented, that hitherto we come from the col. worthy fundamental of the new sect; and, in lege as unable to put on our own clothes as we deed, this opinion is an evidence and clearness do from nurse. We owe many misfortunes, so nearly related to transubstantiation, that the and an unhappy backwardness in urging our same genius seems requisite for either. It is way in the world, to the neglect of these less fit the world should know how far reason aban. matters. For this reason I shall authorise and dons men that would employ it against religion ; support the gentleman who writes me the follow. which intention, I hope, justifies this trouble ing letter; and though, out of diffidence of the re. from, sir, your hearty well-wisher,
ception his proposal should meet with from me, •MISATHEUS.' he has given himself too ludicrous a figure ; I
doubt not but from his notices to make men
who cannot arrive at learning in that place, No. 10.] Monday, March 23, 1713.
come from thence without appearing ignorant:
and such as can, to be truly knowing without Venit ad me sæpe clamitans
To the Guardian.
Oxford, March 18, 1712–13. He is perpetually coming to me, and ringing in my Sır, -I foresee that you will have many cor. ears, that I do wrong to indulge him so much in the ar. respondents in this place; but as I have often ticle of dress: but the fault lies in his own excessive and observed, with grief of heart, that scholars are unreasonable severity.
wretchedly ignorant in the science I profess, I When I am in deep meditation, in order to Aatter myself that my letter will gain a place give my wards proper precautions, I have a in your papers. I have made it my study, sir, principal regard to the prevalence of things in these seats of learning, to look into the nawhich people of merit neglect, and from which ture of dress, and am what they call an aca: those of no merit raise to themselves an esteem : demical beau. I have often lamented that I am of this nature is the business of dress. It is obliged to wear a grave habit, since by that weak in a man of thought and reflection to be means I have not an opportunity to introduce either depressed or exalted from the perfections fashions amongst our young gentlemen; and so or disadvantages of his person. However there am forced, contrary to my own inclinations, and is a respective conduct to be observed in the the expectation of all who know me, to appear habit, according to the eminent distinction of in print. I have indeed met with some success the body, either way. A gay youth in the pos- in the projects I have communicated to some session of an ample fortune, could not recom- sparks with whom I am intimate ; and I cannot mend his understanding to those who are not without a secret triumph confess, that the of his acquaintance more suddenly, than by sleeves turned up with green velvet, which now sobriety in his habit; as this is winning at first flourish throughout the university, sprang orisight, so a person gorgeously fine, which in it. ginally from my invention. self should avoid the attraction of the beholders' As it is necessary to have the head clear, as eyes, gives as immediate offence.
well as the complexion, to be perfect in this I make it my business when my lady Lizard's part of learning, I rarely mingle with the men, youngest daughter, Miss Molly, is making (for I abhor wine,) but frequent the tea-tables clothes, to consider her from head to foot, and of the ladies. I know every part of their dress, cannot be easy when there is any doubt lies and can name all their things by their names. I upon me concerning the colour of a knot, or am consulted about every ornament they buy ; any other part of her head-dress, which, by its and, I speak it without vanity, have a very darkness or liveliness, might too much allay or pretty fancy to knots, and the like. Sometimes brighten her complexion. There is something I take a needle, and spot a piece of muslin for loose in looking as well as you possibly can; but pretty Patty Cross-stitch, who is my present it is also a vice not to take care how you look. favourite, which, she says, I do neatly enough ; The indiscretion of believing that great qua- or read one of your papers
, and explain the lities make up for the want of things less con- motto, which they all like mightily. But then siderable, is punished too severely in those who I am a sort of petty tyrant amongst them, for I are guilty of it. Every day's experience shows own I have my humours. If any thing be us, among variety of people with whom we are amiss, they are sure Mr. Sleek will find fault; not acquainted, that we take impressions too if any hoity-toity things make a fuss, they are favourable and too disadvantageous of men at sure to be taken to pieces the next visit. I am first sight from their habit. I take this to be a the dread of_poor Celia, whose wrapping-gown point of great consideration, and I shall consi. is not right India ; and am avoided by Thalasder it in my future precautions as such. As to tris, in her second-hand mantua which several the female world, I shall give them my opinion masters of arts think very fine, whereas I peret large, by way of comment, upon a new suitceived it had been scoured, with half an eye.