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even by learned men, be at one time censured by the Roman Congregations, and at a later time tolerated and even accepted. For instance, the Holy Office in a case of a disputed text of Scripture or any similar point, after careful consideration, customary in matters of this importance, may declare that the arguments brought forward do not warrant the conclusion claimed for them by certain students. Such a decision is not immutable, and does not prevent Catholic students continuing their research, and respectfully laying before the Holy See any fresh or more convincing arguments they may discover against the authority of the text. And thus it becomes possible that, in time, the tribunals of the Holy See may decide in the sense which the earlier students had suggested, but could not at first establish by satisfactory arguments as a safe conclusion. In such a case loyal Catholics should accept her decision by virtue of 'religious obedience' as one to be followed for the present. But while they gratefully accept such guidance in a matter that concerns religion, they will be careful to distinguish between this guidance and the Church's definition of faith." . These principles are not the result of mere abstract reasoning, but the formulated inductions drawn from the history of systematic Catholic thought. Numberless instances might be cited of congregational, conciliar, and papal non-infallible rulings that, after having been vigorously asserted for long periods, gradually began to be questioned; critical examination persisted; time furnished new arguments to the opposition. The upshot was that the doctrine was not indeed abruptly abandoned or formally rescinded, but was allowed to sink gently and silently into oblivion. There was no recantation of the old; but the new that was incompatible with it was, first tolerated, and next incorporated by authority. In many instances there were theologians, devoted to everything traditional, to argue that the infallible guarantee covered the teaching. But the outcome proved them to be mistaken. Frequently the process of transition was smoothed by the retention of old forms modified in meaning—you understand that I speak only of nondogmatic tenets. It is, probably, some of these cases which your professor had in mind when he spoke of the wrigglings of Rome. It is a common weakness of us all to let our prejudices dictate our selection of the words in which we clothe our judgments, and the opulence of the English language provides us with terms of disparagement for which, in truth and justice, we might often substitute others less depreciatory. And Rome is a word which in polemics is often used to cover a multitude of logical sins. In one sentence it will stand for some theologian occupied in sweeping back the advancing tide of knowledge with his syllogistic besom; in the next, it will mean the highest authority in the exercise of its highest prerogative; and thus, by the perpetration of what logical pedantry calls the fallacy of undistributed middle, the ineptitudes of individuals are ascribed to the organization.

Are we to presume that the process of elimination, selection, and assimilation that has always gone on in the past is now at an end? To say so would be to assert that the development and growth of the Church have ceased ; that her intel. lectual life has come to an end; and that the immanent vital principle which has enabled her to carry on her organic functions in victorious adaptation to an ever changing environment has at length reached the closing phase of exhausted senility. Never, on the contrary, has the work of adaptation been carried on with more vigor. Every one who examines the present attitude of authority and scholarship towards expert knowledge and criticism must admit that they are ready to listen to any representative of thought who speaks in the name of ascertained science. The dogmas of faith, resting on the authority of the Church, and, for the most part, consisting of truths transcending reason, are beyond the range of physical science. Criti. cism, fairly exercised, can but make them stand forth in more majestic outline, by clearing them of the faded human opinions which are hanging in tatters around them. The discoveries of the scientist or the scholar can come into collision only with the occasional, the accidental, the ephemeral. Authority, while trealing with reverence all that is traditional, concedes that there are tares among the wheat. But it resists the arrogance of the irresponsible who in the name of science, of which they are seldom acknowledged spokesmen, insist upon rushing in to devastate wheat and cockle alike. “Give us,” says authority to the exponents of science, history, and criticism, “your thoroughly ascertained facts, not your immature theories, your provisional guesses, or your unverifiable speculations, which you yourselves may be throwing aside to-morrow, and we shall cheerfully, nay gratefully, accept them. But leave us to make

the adjustment with the gravity and deliberation that the sacred interests of souls, or, as you would say, the religious ideal demands."

If the scholar or scientist is a Catholic, is he to be perturbed when he finds truth controverted by representatives of that section of theologians or apologists who know nothing of the actual situation, and think that theology and biblical criticism said their last word hundreds of years ago ? Must he rush forth into secular prints and clamor for an immediate ex cathedra decision, or ask congregations to imperil their authority with the unreflecting by admitting that they were mistaken yesterday, or the day before; and, if this is refused, throw himself out of the Church? Evidently not. He can, with an easy conscience, and without compronising his intellectual liberty, sit tight and wait. Authority must pursue a Fabian policy; let him do the same—and that policy will repeat its old achievements-cunctando restituit rem. . Just a word, in conclusion, for the present, concerning the idea of Macaulay, to which you have given too much credit, regarding the relation of the Church to science. With science the Church has no direct concern. But, as the guardian of revealed truth, she may be called upon, in the legitimate exercise of her functions, to pass judgment on scientific theories which touch on matters of revelation. The unity of the human race, for example, is intrinsically connected with the doctrine of original sin; she will, therefore condemn any ethnological theory which on this point runs counter to her dogmatic teaching

Believe me,

Fraternally yours,

FATHER ALLOUEZ AND THE FOX RIVER.

(1669-1687.)

BY D. B. MARTIN.

[graphic]

THE site on the shore of Fox River, Wisconsin,

where stood the Mission House of St. Francis Xavier two hundred and thirty years ago, has. never, as in many similar instances, been wholly

lost. Through reminiscence and tradition, and the writings of Fathers Allouez and Dablon, almost the exact location of this pious retreat can be traced. The early American settlers found still visible the foundations of Chapel and dwelling house; for although burned by hostile Indians, in 1687, the stout timbers were not entirely destroyed, and have defied time's ravages. So the great name of its founder, Claude Allouez, and the work accomplished by him, withstand the waves of oblivion that have swallowed up other and less strong personalities.

It was in the month of November that Father Allouez began his journey to the great bay of the Puants, leaving his mission at Sault St. Marie in charge of a brother priest. It is a season that in our northern latitudes means blustering north winds, with a strong skimming of ice, as the days shorten, on the borders of creek and river. Allouez had steadfastly purposed to reach the extremity of the bay before winter set in. Indians of many tribes congregated at the head of this long, sheltered stretch of water, and for this reason, and also because of the great number of valuable fur-bearing animals that filled the streams in the vicinity, the place had become a Mecca for coureurs de bois. To the eastward, beyond the two mighty lakes of Michigan and Huron, dwelt that dreaded confederation of Iroquois, known as the league of the Five Nations, a scourge to other and less powerful tribes; but Green Bay, ninety miles in length and shaped like a mammoth pocket, formed, in its leagues of unfamiliar waters, a barrier that the eastern Indians feared to traverse. To the westward

the equally strong and warlike Sioux were deterred from sending out attacking parties by the distance to be traveled, and also by a great river, as yet unknown to the white man, and not to be made common property until four years later, when Father Marquette and his companion, Louis Joliet, floated their canoe on its waters.

So the isolated valley of the Fox, and the shores of Baye des Puants, were thickly settled by diverse tribes of Indians belonging to Algonquin stock with but one exception, an alien tribe of Sioux extraction, the Winnebagoes, “men of the sea" so called, and also nicknamed by the French “Puants," from whom the Bay derived its name.

Two French voyageurs accompanied Allouez in his bark canoe; hardy Canadian boatmen, skilful in the use of the paddle. All their experience was called into requisition, for the journey was a dangerous and terrible one. On the twentyninth of November ice began to form, cutting their perishable bark craft; snow fell and their garments were drenched. At intervals they landed to mend their canoe, and make friends with the Indians camped along the shores; for the most part Potta wottomies, who also were short of provisions, for there was no game and it was too early in the season to spear the sturgeon. On the travelers labored, Father Allouez ever encouraging his companions, and invoking the aid of St. Francis Xavier, while his crew implored the protection of St. Anne, patron saint of all voyageurs.

When they reached the mouth of the river, where they were to join a little band of French fur-traders, they found it closed by ice, but that night a tempestuous wind arose and cleared the channel, so that they were able to enter. On the second of December, 1669, they made port, landing a short distance up a stream on the west side of the bay, identified now as Oconto River.

Six Frenchmen had camped here for purposes of trade, and these, with the two voyageurs, formed the worshippers at the first Mass offered on these isolated shores. It was for Father Allouez a service of thanksgiving that his life had been spared through so many dangers, and that he had been enabled to gain this goal of his pious hopes.

During the winter Allouez visited various tribes in the vicinity, and made one particularly difficult trip across the bay

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