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the first Renaissance. The nature, date, authenticity, Christology, and eschatology of the Clementine Homily is discussed by M. Turmel, who controverts many of Professor Harnack's findings on the subject. — M. Blampignon concludes his essay on Jean Jacques Rousseau.— The editor replies to the attack made on him and his friends, Abbé Naudet and Abbé Lefranc, in a Belgian “anti-apologetic” periodical by the Reverend Père Fontaine, S.J., who applies some very severe terms to the new school of biblical critics, whom he accuses of being rebels to, spiritual authority. M. Denis defends the orthodoxy of the movement, emphasizes the necessities which have created it, and begs his adversary to remember the dictates of Christian charity. As an introduction to a future analysis, by M. Bernard, of a recently published synopsis of Kant's philosophy, M. Denis offers a few pages of observations on the histori.

cal position of the German philosopher. La Revue Apologetique (16 March): Reviewing the progress of

exegesis, regarding the long-debated questions in the.
Pentateuch, M. C. De Kirwan, without committing him-
self very deeply, is inclined to make some concessions
to scientific criticism. He would abandon, for instance,
the old opinion concerning the age of man, and the uni-
versality and miraculous character of the deluge. But
he contends for the exactitude of the account of the
dial of Achaz; for the phenomenon did not exceed the
power of Omnipotence.- I. Vosters attacks the brochure
of Professor Viollet directed against the infallibility of the
Syllabus. The Syllabus, argued the professor, cannot be
infallible; it declares, for example, that matrimony is in-
dissoluble by natural law; if so it never could be dissolved
by ecclesiastical authority; but we have cases where it has
been thus dissolved. Ergo. The defender of the Sylla-
bus would save its veracity by recurring to the old dis-
tinction between primary and secondary precepts of the
natural law.- Against Father Lagrange's view con-
cerning the later origin of Daniel, Chanoine Mémain
continues his repetition of the traditional arguments.
M. H. Appelmans defends the reasonableness of faith.

Civiltà Cattolica (18 Feb.): Describes how the Italian govern

ment, when guaranteeing to the Pope the maintenance
of his Pontifical dignity, recognized that this must in-
clude a guarantee of the rights of the Cardinals. - De-
scribes the Educational Exhibit at the St. Louis Fair,
mentioning the Medical Exhibit of the Università Gio-
vanni Hopkins, and concludes with some considerations
on the opinion entertained by outsiders generally as to
the worth of Catholic philosophy: It is true that to
expose the errors of science is the highest service which
philosophy can render to science; but would this ser-
vice not be immensely more valuable, if our writers
were always loyal in recognizing all the truth and the
good with which science is to be credited ?- Reviews
the first volume of the monumental work, The Acts of
the Council of Trent, and takes occasion to speak of
the superior accuracy of Pallavicino as compared with
Sarpi.
(4 March): Records a movement on foot among some of
the Italian journals to establish a law of temperance
with regard to the publication of details about filthy
and vicious crimes.- Reviews the collection Science et
Religion (known to readers of the review columns of
THE CATHOLIC WORLD), a series of brochures, now
numbering over three hundred, which instruct Catholics
on the latest questions in history, philosophy, Scrip-
ture, and theology; the series is being translated into

Italian by the publishing house of Désclee.
Stimmen aus Maria Laach (Feb.): Fr. Krose, S J., in a paper

dealing with the religious condition of Switzerland, shows that Catholicism is rapidly regaining ground in that country.- Fr. Knabenbauer, S.J., in an article entitled “The Author of the Fourth Gospel and Loisy," refutes the arguments advanced against the genuinity of St. John's Gospel.

THE COLUMBIAN READING UNION.

R. CHARLES G. HERBERMANN, editor-in-chief of the new Catholic Encyclopedia, has received from many prominent ecclesiastics warm letters of commendation for the work. Cardinal Gibbons writes as follows: I have heard with great pleasure the proposal to publish a Catholic encyclopedia. The need of such a work has long been recognized. For Englishspeaking Catholics especially it is necessary to have the concise and authentic statements regarding the Church which the encyclopedia will give. And I am convinced that non-Catholics also will welcome a publication in which the doctrine, practice, and history of the Church are clearly set forth. The character and ability of the scholars who have undertaken this work guarantee its success. I shall look forward to the appearance of the first volume, and meantime I shall gladly commend the Catholic Encyclopedia to our clergy and people. From his Grace Archbishop Farley Dr. Herbermann has received the following letter: Your arrangements for publishing the Catholic Encyclopedia fulfil a desire which I have cherished for over twenty years. The work is planned on the broadest possibie lines. With a board of editors and numerous contributors thoroughly representative of the best scholarship in every part of the world, the encyclopedia will be eminently Catholic in scope and spirit. It augurs well for the interests of religion in English-speaking countries that we are to have a work which will be an end to much useless and oftentimes painful controversy, and be a source of valuable information for all serious readers, non-Catholic as well as Catholic. You are fortunate in having a business organization in which the public can have entire confidence. You may rely upon me always for whatever assistance I can give in this enterprise. While wishing you and the editors associated with you godspeed in the work, I think I can predict that you will meet with so much encouragement and co-operation on every side that your success is already assured. e - * Outside the domain of faith and morals, there are many questions open for discussion among Catholics. Certain historical events may be distorted by the personal bias of the writer, or by racial antipathies. On both sides of controverted points Catholics have been known to exaggerate and misrepresent other Catholics of good standing and most loyal to the faith. To illustrate the Catholic idea as to how history should be written and taught, Bishop O'Dwyer, of Limerick, re-told this story in the course of his evidence before the Royal Commission on University Education in Ireland: As to history I might give the Commission a story that goes the rounds; whether it is true or not, it expresses our view on the matter. It is said that the very learned Father Pastor, who was writing a history of the Popes, obtained access to the secret archives of the Vatican for the purpose of studying unpublished papers, and he asked Pope Leo XIII. as to how he should deal with certain inconvenient incidents in some of these documents. The Pope said: Simply tell the truth; write the history; tell the truth. I verily believe that there are some Catholic men now who, if they were writing the Gospels, would leave out the denial of St. Peter in the interests of the Papacy. Well, for my part, Bishop O'Dwyer continued, and speaking for my brother bishops, if we had a professor of history we should never dream of asking him to falsify his own judgment, to suppress the facts of history; we would ask him to teach his history truthfully and honestly as he found it. If history were taught and written everywhere and always in this Catholic spirit, there would be a great deal less bitter controversy and bigotry in relation at least to the historical aspect of religion. The trustees of Adelphi College, Brooklyn, N. Y., have considered the objections presented against Professor Emerton's History of Medieval Europe, and rightly decided to reject it as an unreliable text-book. Out of five hundred and ninety-two pages, a Catholic critic found sixteen glaring errors within three pages—542, 543, 544, of which this is a specimen: At the age of puberty he (the child) was received into the full membership of the Christian community of potential sinners by the act of Confirmation, whereby his sinlessness for the moment was established.—Emerton, page 544. - o The recent death of General Lew Wallace, at Crawfordsville, Ind., has given opportunity for discussion of his career as an author. His books, 7 he Boyhood of Christ and The Prince of India, were properly censured for many doctrinal and historical errors. His best known book, Ben Hur, is a fine specimen of narrative writing, though containing allusions to the divinity of Christ not approved by orthodox teaching. A story often told, which was never denied by Wallace, was that he had a conversation with Colonel Robert G. Ingersoll one day on a train, and during the talk Ingersoll advised him to do some thinking on the question of religious belief. Ben Hur was the result. It is stated that General Wallace wrote only by laborious study and painstaking toil. He was his own best critic, and scrutinized every line before he let it appear in his final copy. His habit was to write the rough draft of his ideas on a slate, so that erasures could be made easily, then to transfer the writing with a soft pencil to paper, and finally, when all was to his satisfaction, to copy the book in ink with the precision of a clerk. When Ben Hur was sent to Harper's it was beautifully executed in purple ink, every line of exact length, every page of writing almost identical in the number of words with an ordinary printed page. This was the book that the publishing house hesitated for a time about accepting, fearing that it might not prove a financial success. It is said that Ben Hur has been translated into every important tongue in the world. The General had a fine home in Crawfordsville, Ind., an old fashioned rambling house with acres of ground. His library was in a beautiful stone building in the rear. In the library hangs a portrait in oil of the Sultan Abdul Hamid, painted by the General. It was produced from secret sketches made by Wallace while Minister to Turkey, though the Mohammedans regard such a thing as a sacrilege. Thousands of Indiana people made annual pilgrimages to Crawfordsville. Whenever possible General Wallace shook hands with every one. In 1852 he married Susan Elston, of a well-known Hoosier family of pioneers.

Miss Josephine Lewis, a devoted worker for the Columbian Reading Union in past years, was invited by the Buffalo Society of Natural Sciences to give an account of her recent trip to Mexico, which is here condensed: The first impression in landing at Vera Cruz is of the wonderful atmospheric brilliancy, color and light drown everything else. The turquoise sky, the blue and green water, the glowing flowers, light-toned buildings, all give a curious feeling of a sudden transposition from a low-toned harmony to one in the upper keys. There, to one who paints the natives with dark skins and white or colored loose garments, are models that one wants at once to put into a picture. Our men in black clothes are contrasted with black men in white clothes. And those animated bronze beings, who came out in quaint little boats to take us ashore, give one an unearthly feeling, as if some statues with sinewy, lithe figures, began to move around us. Vera Cruz is an Oriental city, both buildings and people proclaim the fact. As we go into the interior of Mexico one sees, beyond the marvelous mountain ranges, plains with narrow winding lanes outlined by high walls of dried mud. And as we look at the novel scene, a man in native costume comes dashing down on his prancing horse, the silver trimmings flashing in the light, and it seems impossible that we are really in this picturesque country. We feel like the little old lady in Mother Goose, who says if this be I, as I think it be, I have a little dog at home and he'll know me. The native women of the poorer class move shyly about, covered to the eyes with the long blue scarf, or rebosa, the men in wide-rimmed hats and gay serape. They glance respectfully at the Americans. We see an Indian woman moving along with the tall earthen jar on her head in the old biblical fashion. Now we see a group of black-haired Indian girls washing some clothes on the flat stones at the edge of a stream and spreading the pieces on a cactus plant to dry. Again we see a town with narrow cobble-paved streets, swept with dust-pan and brush, the open market place, the sparkling fountain falling into carved basins, all blend in one picturesque harmony that sets the nervestingling with delight. And the courtesy of the people is charming, because the Americans are loud in their praise of the lovely flowers. At Cordova a Mexican on the train at once bought the finest boguet of camelias and presented it with a deep bow to the stranger who was for once speechless with surprise and pleasure. These bouquets are swung from the bundle racks overhead, and give sweetness for the long journey from Vera Cruz to Mexico City. As the train swings along, and the paintable quality of it all gives perfect delight, we begin to think of the history of art in the old land. Miss Lewis closed her talk with a charming description of the Cathedral and Churches of Mexico, relating a number of the pretty legends that are

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