Зображення сторінки

tor, when he started first up into the knowledge of the world? For he, and all men and families, ay, and all stats and kipgrioms too, huve had their upstarts, that is, their beginnings. This is like being the True Church, becaus.. old, vot becaus? good; for families to be noble by being old, and not by being virtuous. No sicla Thatter: it must be ag, iu virtue, or else virtue b.forage; for otherwise, a man should be noble by means of his predecessor, and y't the predecessor less noble ihan he, because he was the acquirer; which is a paradox that will puzzle all their lieruldry to explaiv. Stranger that they should b: more noble than their ancestor, that got their nobility for thein! But if this be absurd, as it is, th n the up-tart is the noble man; the man that got it by his virtue: and those only are entitled to his honour that are imitators of his virtue: the rest may bear his name from his blood, bat that is all. If virtue, then, give nobility, which heathens themselves agree, then funilies are no longer truly noble than they ars virtuous. And if virtue go not by blood, but by the qualifications of the descendants, it followe, blood is excluded; else blood would bar vírtus, and no man that wanted the one should be allowed the beuefit of the other; which were to stint and bound nobility for want of antiquity, and make virtue usel-83. No, let blood and naine go together ; but pray, let nobility and virtne keep company, for they are nearest of kin...

But, methinks, it should suffice to say, our own eyes see that men of blood, out of th gir gear and trappiug;, withoat their feathers and inery, have no more marks of honoar by natnre stamped upon them than their interior neighbours. Nay, thenelves being jadges, they will frankly tell us they feel all those passione in their blood that make them like other men. if not further from the virtue that truly (lignificus. Tue lamentable ignorance and debanchery that now råges among too many of our Teater o't of folks, is too clear and casting an evideuce in the point: and pray, tell me of what blood are they come ?

Howheit, when I have said all this, I intend not, by debasing on: false quality, to Inak: insolent another that is not true. I would uot be thought to set the chur! upon the present gentleman's shoulder: by no meanz; his rudeness will not mend t'i? inutter. But what I have writ, is to give aim to all, where true nobility dwells, t:at every one may arrive at it by the ways of virtue and goodness. But for all this, I must allow a great ndvantage to the g ntleman; and ther fore prefer his station, jut as the apostle Paul, who, aft:r he hai humbled th:J:ws, that insulted upon this Christians with their law and rites, gave them the advant:14. upon all other nations ip statates and judgments. I must grant that the condition of our great men is much to be prefurrd to the ranks of inferior people. For, first, they have more power to do good; and, if their hearts h: equal to their ability, thy are bles-ings to the people of any country, S.condly, the cyes of the people are usually directed to thein; and if they will b: kiud, jast, and helpful, they shall have their atfections and Bervices. Thirdly, they are vot under egn:lsiraits with the inferior sort; aud consequently they have more help. Isisury, and ocension, to polish their passions and tempers with books and couvèrsation. Fourthly, thiydir? more time to observa the actions of other nat ons; to travel and viw the law's, customs, and interests of other countries; and bring home whatsoever is wortlıy or imitable. And so, an easier wily is open for great mou to get honour; and such as love true reputation will embrac the best means to it. But cause it too often happ us that great man do lit de mind to give God the glory of the'r prosperity, and to live answerable to his mercies, but, on the contrary, live without God in the world, fulfiling the lust:3 thereof. His hand is often Ben, either in impoverishing or extinguishing thein, and r sing up men of more virtue and humility to their erta.t3 and (lignity. Hora ever, I rust alow, that among people of this rank, ther: have been some of them of more than ord.ntry virtu?, whose examples bave given light to their families. And it has been something natural for some of their descendants to endeavour to keep up the cr dit of their houses in proportion to the merit of their foundar. And, to say tru, if there bu any advantage in suc'ı d'scnt, 'rig not from blood, but education; for blood has no intelligence in it, and is often spurious and uncertain; but education has a mighty influence and strong bias upon the affections aud actions of mon. Iu this the ancient nobles arg’ntry of this kingdom dd (Icel; and it were mach to be wished that our great peonle woull set about 10 recover the ancient ecodomy of their honses, the strict and virtuous discipline of their anc stors, when mon were honoured for their achievements, iud when nothing more exposed a man to shame, than his being born to a noblity that he bed uot a virtue to stpport.


[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]


Penn's Advice to his children. Next, betake yourself to some honest, industrious course of life, and that not of sordid covetousn ss, but for example, and to avoid idleness. And if you change your condition and marry, choose with the knowledge aud consent of your mother, if living, or of guardians, or of those that have the charge of you. Mind neither beauty nor riches, but the fear of the Lord, and a sweet and amiable disposition, such as you can love above all this world, and that may make your habitations pleasant and desirable to you.

And being married, be tender, affectionate, patient, and meek. Live in the fear of the Lord, and He will bless you and your offspring. Be sure to live within compass; horrow not, neither be beholden to any. Ruin not yourselves by kindness to others; for that exceeds the due bonds of friendship, neither will a true friend expect it. Small matters I heed not.

Let your industry and parsimony go no further than for a sufficiency for life, and to make a provision for your children, and that in moderation, if the Lord gives you any. I charge you help the poor and needy: let the Lord have a voluntary share of your income for the good of the poor, both in our society and others : for we are all his creatures: remembering that he that giveth to the poor lendeth to the Lord.'

Know well your incomings, and your outgoings may be better regulated. Love not money nor the world: 19. them only, and they will serve you ; but if you love them, you serve them, which will debase your fpirits, as well as offend the Lord. Pity the distressed, and hold out a hund of help to them; it may be your case, and as you mete to others, God will mete to you again. Be humble and gentle in your conversation; of few words, I charg: you ; but always pertinent when you speak, hiaring out before yon att mpt to answer, and then speaking as if you would persuade, not impos. Affront none, neither revenge the affronts that are done to you; but forgive, and yon gall be forgiven of your heavenly Father.

In making friends, consider well first; and when you are fixed, be true, not wavering by reports, nor deserting in amiction. for that becomes not the good and intu

Watch against anger; nither speak Dor act in it; for, like drunkenness, it makes a man a bust, and throws people into desperate inconveniences. Avoid flatterers, for they are thieves in disguise; their praise is costly, designing to get by those they bespeak; they ar: the worst of creatures; they lie to flatter, aud flatter 10 cheat; and which is wors, if you belive them, you cheat yourselves most dangerously. But the virtuous, though poor, love, cherish, and prefer. Remember David, who, asking the Lord : Who sha'l abide in thy tabernacle? who shall dwell in thy holy hill ? answers: “He ihat walketh uprightly, and worketh righteousness, and speaketh the truth in his heart; in whoso cycs a vile person is contemned; but he bonoureth them that fear the Lord,'

Next, my children, b: temp rate in all things: in your diet, for that is physic by prevention; it ke pa, nay, it inakes people b althy, and their generation sound. This is exclusive of the spiritual advantage it brings. Bealso plain in your apparel; keep out that lust which reigus too much over some; let your virtucs be your ornaments, remembering life is more than food, and the boily than raiment. Lit your furniture be simple and cheap. Avoid prale, avarice, and luxury. Read my : No Cross, DO Crown. There is instruction. Make your conversation with the most eminent for Wisdom and piety, and shun all wickd men av you hope for the blessing of God and the comfort of your father's living and dying prayers. Bu eure yon epeak no evil of any, no, not of the meanest; much less of your sup riors, as magistrates, guardians, tutors, teachers, and ciders in Christ.

Be no busybolies; meddle not with other folk's matiers, but when in conscience and duty pressed; for it procures trouble, and is ill manners, and very unseemly to wise men. In your families remember Abraham, Moscs, and Joshua, their integrity to the Lord, and do as you have them for your examples. Lut the fear and service of the living God be encouraged ia your houses, and that plainness, sobriety, and moderation in all things, as becometh God's chosen people; and as I advise you, my beo loved children, do you conneel yours, if God should give you any. Yen, I counsel and command them as my posterity, that they love and serve the Lord God with an upright heart, that he inay bless you and yours from generation to generation.

And as for you, who are likely to be concerned in the government of Pennsylvania and my parts of East Jersey, especially the first, I do charge you before the Lord God

and his holy angels, that you be lowly, diligent, and tender, fearing God, loving the people, and hating covetousness. Lei justice have its impartial course, and the law free passage. Though to your loss, protect no man against it; for you are not above the law, but the law above you. Live, therefore, the lives yourselves you would have the p ople live, and then you have right and boldness to punish the transgressor. Keep npon the square, for God sees you : therefore, do your duty, and be sure you see with your own eyes, and hear with your own ears. Entertain no lurchers, cherish no informere for gain or revenge, use no tricks, fly to no devices to support or cover injast ce; but let your hearts be upright before the Lord, trusting in him above the contrivances of men, and none shall be able to hurt or supplant.


The two great founders of Quakerism, as a respectable and considerable religious body in this country, were ROBERT BARCLAY and WilliaN Penn. Both were gentlemen by birth and education, amiable and accomplished men, who sacrificed worldly honours, and suffered persecution for conscience' sakc. Barclay was born at Gordonstown, in Morayshire, December 23, 1618. He was educated at the Scots College at Paris, of which liis uncle was rector, but returned to his native country in 1664. Two years afterwards, his father, Colonel Barclay of Ury, in Kincardineshire, made open profession of the principles of Quakerism; and in 1667, when only nineteen years of age, Robert Barclay became 'fully convinced,' as bis friend William Penn bas expressed it, and publicly owned the testimony of the true light.' His first (lefence of the new doctrines appeared in 1670, and bore the title of Truth cleared of Calumpies.' . It was a reply to a work published in Aberdeen. About this time (1672), Barclay walked ihrough the streets of Aberdeen clothed in sackcloth and ashes, and published a 'Seasonable Waruing and Serious Exhortatin to, and Expostulation with, the Inhabitants of Aberdeen.' Other controversial treatises followed : 'A Catechism and Confession of Faith,' 1673; and “Tue Anarchy of the Ranters,' &c. 1674. His great work, originally written and published in Latin, appeared in 1676, and is entitled An Apology for the true Christian Divinity, as the same is held forth and preached by the People called in scorn Quakers, &c.' The · Apology' of Barclay is a learned and methodical treatise, very different from what the world expected on such a subject, and it was therefore read with avidity both in Britain and on the continent. Its most remarkable theological feature is the attempt to prove that there is an internal light in min, which is better fitied to guide bim aright in religious matters than even the Scriptures themselves; the genuine doctrines of which he asserts to be rendered uncertain by various readings in different manuscripts, and the fallibility of translators and interpreters. These circumstances, says he,

and much more which might be alleged, put the minds, even of the learned, into infinite doubts, scruples, and inextricable difficulties; whence we may very safely conclude, tbat Jesus Christ, who promised to be always with his children, to leail them into all iruth, to guard them against the devices of lue cnemy, and to establish their faith

upon an unmovable rock, left them not to be principally ruled by that
which was subject, in itself, to many uncertainties; and therefore he
give them bis Spirit as their privcipal guide, which neither moths
nur time can wear out, nor transcribers nor translators corrupt;
which none are so young, none so illiterate, none in so remote a place
but they may come to be reached and righily informed by it.' It
would be erroneous, however, to regard this work of Barclay is an
exposition of all the doctrines which have ben or are prevalent
among the Quikers, or, indeed, to consider it as anything more than
the vehicle of such of his own views as, in lis.character of an apolo-
gist, lic thonght it desirable to stałe. The dedication of Barclay's
Apology' to King Charles II. has always been particularly adınired
for its respectful yet manly freed m of style, and for the pathos of
its allusion 10 his m:jesty's own early troubles, as a reason for his es.
tending merey and livour to the persecuted Quakers. “Thou hast
uustudd,' says lie, 'of prosperity and adversity ; ihou knowest wliat it
is to be buinished iy native country. 10 be over-ruled as well as to
rule and sit upon the throne; and, being oppressed, thou hast reason
10 know how hateful the oppressor is to bow God and man: if, after
all these warnings and a:lvertisements, thou dost not turn unto the
Lord with all thy heart, but forget Him, who remembered thee in
thy distress, and give thyself up to follow lust and vanity, surely great
will be thy condemnation. But this appeal had no effect in stopping
persecution; for asier Barclay's return from Hollanıl and Germany,
which he hill visited in company withi Foxandi Penn, he was, in 1677,
imprisonel along with many other Quakers, at Aberdeen, through
the in-trumentality of Archbishop Slurp. 1a prison lie wrote a
treatise on Universal Love' He was soon liberated, and subse-
quently gaine i firvour it court. Both Penn and he were on terms of
intimicy with James II ; and just before the suiling of the Prince of
Orange for England in 1648, Barclay, in a private conference with
liis möjesty, urged Jimes lu make some concessions to the people.
The math of ihis respectable and amiable person took place at his
seal of Ury on the 31 of October 1090.

Against Titles of Ilonour.
We afirm positively, that it is not lawful for Christians eitlier to give or to re-
ceive these titics of honour, as, Your Holiness, Your Majesty, Your Excelency,
Your Eminency, &c.

First, because these titles are no part of that obedience which is tine to magis. trates or superiors; weither doth the giving them add to or diminish from that subjection we owe to them, which consista in obeying their jusi and lawful commands, Lot in titles and designations.

Secondly, we fiud vot that in the Scripture any such titles are used, either under the law or ihe gospel; but that, in spaking to kings, princes, or nobles, they used cnly a simple compellation, as, :oʻking and that without any further desiguaton, save, perhaps, the name of the person. as, O King Agrippa,' &c.

Thirdly, it lays a necessity upou Christians most frequently to lie; because the -pas-0119 obtaining these titles, either by election or hereditarily, may frequently be hond to have bothing really in thein deserving them, or answering to them : as some, io whom it is said, 'Your Excellency,'having nothing of excellency in them;

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors][merged small]


[ocr errors]

and who is called "Your Grace,' appear to be an enemy to grace; and he who is called Your Honour,' is known to be base and ignoble. I wonder what law of man, or what putent, ought to oblige me to make it lie, in culling gooul evil and evil good. I wonder what law of man can secure me, in so doing, from the best judgment of Gol, that will niake me count for every idie word. And to lie is something more. Surely Christians should be usbamed that such laws, manifestly crossiug the law of Goul, should be a nong them.

Fourthly, as to those tities of 'Holiness,'. 'Eininency,' and · Excellence,' used among the Papists to the pope and cardinals, &c.; and · Gruce,'.· Lordship, and • Worship,' used to the clergy amoug the I rotestants, it is a mont blaphenous usurpation. For if they use • Holiness and · Grace' because these things ought to be in å pope or a bishop, how came they to usurp that peculiarly to themselves ? Onglit pot holiness and grace to be in every Christian : And so every Christian should say “Your Holiness' and Your Grace' one to another. Nexi, how can they in reason claim any more titles than were practised and received by the apostles and primitive Christians, whose successors they pretend they are; and as whose enccesgors, and no otherwise, themselves, I judge, will confess any honour they seek is due to them? Now, if they neither sought, received, nor admitted such honour nor titles, how caine th:82 by them? It they say they did, let them prove it if they can: we find no such thing in the Scripture. The Christians speak to the aportle's without any such denomination, neither saying, “If it please your Grace, your Holiness,' nor. your Worship ;' they are neither called My Lord Peter, vor My Lord Paul; nor yet Master Peter, nor Master Paul; nor Doctor Peter, nor Doctor Paul; but singly Peter and Paul ; and that not only in the Scripture, but for some hundreds of years after: so that this appears to be a manifest fruit of the apostasy. For if these titles arise either from the office or worth of the persons, it will not be denied but the apostles deserved them better than any now that call for them. But the case is plain; the apostles had the holiness, the excellency, the grace; and hecause they were holy, excellent, and gracious, they neither used nor admitted such titles; but these having neither holiness, excellency, nor grace, will needs be so called to satisfy their ambitions and ostentatious mind, which is a manifest token of their hy's pocrisy.

Fifthiy, as to that title of Majesty' usually ascribed to princes, we do not find it given to any such in the Holy Scripture ; but that it is specially and peculiarly ascribed unto God. We find in the Scripture the proud kiny. Nebuchadnezzar assuming this title to himself, who at that time received a sufficient reproof, by a sudden judgment which came upon him. Therefore, in all the compellations used to princes iu the Old Testament, it is not to be found, nor yet in the New. Paul was very civil ro Agrippa, yet he gives him no such title. Neither was this title used among Christians in the primitive times.

RICHARD BAXTER. RICHARD BAXTER (1615–1691) is justly esteemed the most eminent of the Nonc informist divines of ibis period. Ile was a native of Rowton, in Shropshire, and was educated chiefly at Wroxeter. My faults,' he sail, are no disgrace to any university, for I was of none; I have little but what I had out of books, and inconsiderable lielps of country tutor's. Weakness and pain helped me to study how to die; that set me on studying how to live.' In 1638 he was ordained, an i was appointed master of the Free School of Dudley. From 1640 10 1612 he was pastor of Kidderminster, and was highly popular and useful. During the Civil War he sided with the Parliament, and accepted the office of chaplain in the army, in which capacity he was present at the sieges of Bridgewater, Exeter, Bristol, and Worcester. İle was disgusted with the frequent and vehement disputes about liberty of conscience, and was glad to leave the army and return to Kidderminster. Whilst there, whilst recovering from a severe illness,

« НазадПродовжити »