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delssohn; and the many papers of mingled biography and criticism which belong in the same field. In their direction not less important have been the great groups of articles on three of the most important factors in modern progress, widely known as the “Railway Articles,” the “Electric Articles,” and the “Steamship Articles,” perhaps the most successful series ever published by a Magazine in satisfying popular interest in these semi-technical but most practical subjects. By these latter articles a new group of authors, consisting of leading engineers, projectors, and men of affairs, may be said to have been brought into magazine literature, including such men as Thomas Curtis Clarke, General Alexander, Thomas L. James, Theodore Voorhees, Commander Chadwick, General Horace Porter, Professor Brackett, C. L. Buckingham, Professor Morton, M. N. Forney, Franklin L. Pope, and others.

The articles of description, exploration, and adventure have included some papers that will long be remembered and sought after in the permanent form which they (like the Railway and Steamship articles) have since taken. Henry M. Stanley's, Professor Drummond's, Colonel Prout's, Mr. Thomson's, Mr. Jephson's, Mr. Herbert Ward's, and Mr. Scott Keltie's African articles ; Sir Edwin Arnold's charming papers on Japan; Professor Shaler's series on “the Aspects of the Earth,” and on “Nature and Man in America”; the series on “The Great Streets of the World ”; the papers of mingled travel and art by the Blashfields, Messrs. Wilson and Jacassy, Birge Harrison, and others who have illustrated their own text; and the first of the exploration papers of Dr. Lumholtz are among these. Among the contributions to the literature of art and art criticism, the papers on J. F. Millet and the Barbizon school, on Italian art, on “The Picturesque Quality of Holland,” and others, are only made more noticeable by their grouping, among the many single elaborately illustrated papers in the same field. The remarkable papers by John C. Ropes, on the portraits of Napoleon, on some illustrations of his times, and on the portraits of Cæsar, belong to a class midway between art and history; as many papers like the charming letters called a “Girl's Life Eighty Years Ago ” belong in a ground midway between history and biography.

In essays, these volumes of the Magazine have contained the majority of Mr. W. C. Brownell's papers on French traits, Augustine Birrell's on Newman and Arnold, Professor William James's chapters of the new psychology, President Walker's on Socialism and “ What Shall We Say to the Working Classes ? ”, John C. Ropes's on Waterloo, and on the Civil War, the posthumous paper of Edwin P. Whipple on Dickens's Characters, W. F. Apthorp's on Wagner, Austin Dobson's on Pope, Professor W. P. P. Longfellow's on architecture and allied subjects, papers by W. H. Mallock, Henry James, Walter Pater, Andrew Lang, Dr. George P. Fisher, Bishop Potter, Dr. Wm. Hayes Ward, Thomas Bailey Aldrich, Charles Eliot Norton, Philip Gilbert Hamerton, Andrew D. White, Eugene Schuyler, Edward J. Phelps, Donald G. Mitchell, Prof. T. R. Lounsbury, Justin McCarthy, Russell Stur

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INDEX TO SCRIBNER'S MAGAZINE. gis, Humphry Ward, Newman Smyth, E. L. Godkin, Professor Royce, G. Stanley Hall, T. S. Perry, and many others among American and English essayists.

One department of the Magazine's activity has, it is hoped, been fruitful, and it is one the importance of which the publishers intend shall increase in the future. This is the groups and single articles which treat of practical means of improvement in the conditions of life. In this class, on the one side, have belonged such articles as the series on American Homes in City, Suburbs, and Country, Mr. Linn's articles on Building and Loan Associations and their results, and the striking group of papers on the Rights of the Citizen as a Householder, a User of the Streets, a Traveller, etc. ; perhaps, too, in no remote sense the articles on physical culture and improvement by Dr. D. A. Sargent, of the Harvard Gymnasium. On the other side, and devoted to a field vastly wider and more imperative in its demands on the attention, have been such papers as Mr. Riis's on the tenement population of New York, which, under its title “How the Other Half Lives,” can be said without exaggeration to have become well known throughout the country, and the still continued series on practical forms of Charity, including the Fresh Air Fund, Boys' Clubs, etc.

Among classes of articles which, while interesting a wider circle, have appealed with particular force to a special audience, one has been a succession of papers on Army and Navy matters :-Mr. Zogbaum's Cruise with the White Squadron, Secretary Soley's “Our Naval Policy,” the papers on Coast Defences, Torpedoes, Modern Explosives, the Ambulance Service, the Naval Apprentice System, Electricity in Warfare by Land and Sea, etc., etc. ; and of a similar kind have been the descriptions of engineering undertakings :- Irrigation Plans in the West, the Trans-Saharian Railway, and many more.

In fiction the Magazine may claim, it is believed, a substantial achievement. It has published in the last few years Stevenson's “Master of Ballantrae,” and “The Wrecker,” now in progress; the anonymous serial " Jerry,” Mr. Frederic's “In the Valley,” besides other serial novels ; Bunner's “ Story of a New York House;" Octave Thanet's “Expiation ;” and in the list of its writers of short stories it possesses a notable record. Not only are there among them many new writers, widely popular, whose work the Magazine was the first to publish, but there has come to the Magazine much of the best work from well-known writers that has appeared in recent years. The list includes:

Bret Harte, Henry James, H. C. Bunner, Joel Chandler Harris, Thomas Nelson Page, Octave Thanet, Frank R. Stockton, Sarah Orne Jewett, Frederic J. Stimson (J. S. of Dale), T. R. Sullivan, Thomas A. Janvier, F. D. Millet, Mary Tappan Wright, George A. Hibbard, Rebecca Harding Davis, Robert Grant, Brander Matthews, Henry A. Beers, Annie Eliot, Harold Frederic, Richard Harding Davis, Bliss Perry, Harrison Robertson, Margaret Crosby, Edith Wharton, LeRoy Armstrong, J. R. Spears.

The demands of modern readers call for a high class of illustration to explain and beautify the text, and it has been the object of the conductors of Scribner's Magazine to secure the best works of the most eminent illustrators. In this they believe that they have been successful, as the many examples in the pages of the Magazine will testify. For the reproduction of these drawings the most advanced processes of engraving, whether on wood or otherwise, have been made use of, the end desired being to employ such methods as best reproduce the artist's own intention.

When the publication of this magazine was begun, five years ago, the art of wood-engraving had already reached a very high standard. It has been the constant aim of the magazine to maintain this standard, and in its pages are to be found many brilliant examples of the wood-engraver's art. Among these are several portraits engraved by Mr. Gustav Kruell, so extensively known for the beauty of his portrait work.

In other subjects the best American engravers have contributed their services ;—such well-known names constantly appearing as those of Henry Wolf, Frank French, Elbridge Kingsley, Edward and George Del’Orme, Andrew, Aikman, Theodore and Irving Butler, the two Cléments (Emile and Jules), Closson, John P. Davis, Thomas Johnson, the late Frederick Juengling, F. S. King, Lindsay, Miss Powell, Peckwell, Putnam, Pettit, Schussler, Varley, Van Ness, Witte, Miss Whaley, Wellington, and Henry Marsh.

There is one branch of illustrating which during the last few years has been brought to a high state of perfection; and for the success of which quite as much has depended upon the skill of the printer as upon that of the maker of the reproduction. Photo-engraving, and particularly half-tone work, which may be designated as the process of reproducing the effects of brush and the translating of the solid color into line or stipple through a mechanical agency, has come to be considered by a large number of artists the method of reproduction which gives the greatest satisfaction, as by its means the artist's work is interpreted most literally, without the intervention of the personality of the engraver. Scribner's Magazine has attempted from the first to utilize to the best advantage these constantly improving processes, and has devoted much time and thought to the obtaining of the best results through improved methods of printing. Its custom has been not to have reproductions made directly from photographs, but from the drawings of artists, who represent the subject with entire fidelity and at the same time in an artistic manner, changing what would otherwise be a hard and uncompromising photograph into an individual picture.

The Magazine has had the good fortune to be able to print from time to time contributions from a number of artists who have both written and illustrated the text. Among the most interesting examples of these may be mentioned : Mr. and Mrs. E. H. Blashfield's contributions, already referred to; Mr. Hamilton Gibson's articles on Nature ; Mr. Zogbaum's naval articles ; Mr. Frank French's “Day with a Country Doctor" (in which case

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INDEX TO SCRIBNER'S MAGAZINE.

the engraving was also by the author); Mr. Jacassy's papers ; Mr. Birge Harrison's Australian article ; Mr. George A. Hibbard's short stories ; Mr. George Hitchcock's articles on Picturesque Holland; Mr. F. Hopkinson Smith's story, and Dr. Leroy M. Yale's Fishing article.

Nearly every American illustrator is represented in the pages of the first ten volumes of Scribner's Magazine. It has also been the effort of the conductors to enlist the services of some of the best foreign artists, whose work is especially interesting to American readers. Among the Frenchmen, who perhaps stand as high as any in the world in this branch of art, are: Charles Delort, Albert Lynch, L. Marchetti, Caran d'Ache, Montbard, Jeanniot, Riou, and Forestier.

Among Englishmen who have contributed original pictures to the Magazine are: Harry Furniss, W. Douglas Almond, J. Fulleylove, Herbert Railton, William Hole, and Frederic Villiers; and among the artists of other countries may be mentioned briefly the names of Tankei, Nankoku Ozawa, Kiyokichi, of Japan ; and the Italians, Domenico Morelli and Ettore Tito.

The Magazine has also had the good fortune to print a series of drawings by Mr. Elihu Vedder, the only ones published in an American periodical for many years;-in fact, a very large number of the works of the artists mentioned above have appeared in this country only in its pages.

Among the artists who have been of late more closely identified with the Magazine may be mentioned Mr. Robert Blum, whose remarkable pictures accompanying Sir Edwin Arnold's articles on Japan will long be remembered with pleasure ; Mr. A. B. Frost, whose drawings have been among the most successful and popular that the Magazine has published; Mr. Howard Pyle, whose charming set of pictures, “ A Pastoral without Words," was the first thing of its kind to be printed, and Mr. J. R. Weguelin, with his full-page drawings illustrating the odes of Horace.

The Index now presented includes under a single alphabetical arrangement the names both of articles and of authors, and thus makes easily accessible everything in the more than seven thousand pages issued in the past five years. The alphabetical list of artists, with page references to their work, gives an equally easy clue to the illustrations.

The Magazine's opportunities have increased enormously with the increase of its circulation; and the effort of its conductors, continued in the same lines as heretofore, will be to make its performance equal to these opportunities during the five years which are to pass before the list of contents will be again collected in this Index form.

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