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year he was created Baron Eymouth, and in 1685 Lord Churchill; he was also sent as Ambassador to France to notify James's accession to the throne, and on his return was engaged in the suppression of Monmouth's rebellion. In 1688, however, he joined the Prince of Orange, and was severely censured for the desertion of his former master; his ostensible motive was a regard for the religion and liberties of his country, while his enemies charge him with a sordid attention to his own interest. He was rewarded by William with several offices, and the title of Earl of Marlborough; and, as Commanderin-Chief of the English army, served with great reputation in the Netherlands and in Ireland. In 1692, however, he was committed to the Tower on a charge of high treason, which not being substantiated he was discharged, although, from subsequent disclosures, there is reason to believe that he was actually engaged in a plot for the restoration of James.
On the death of Queen Mary, in 1694, he was restored to favour, and appointed governor to the Duke of Gloucester, the heir presumptive to the throne. He was afterwards reinstated as Commander of the English forces in Holland, and was also constituted Ambassador to the Hague. In 1702 the States appointed him Captain-general of their army, with a large salary; and having thus the uncontrolled command of the united forces, he carried on the war against France with the greatest vigour and success; subdued Liege, and several other towns in Flanders, and received the thanks of Parliament, and the title of Duke of Marlborough, with a pedsion for life of £5000. It would be impossible here to enumerate all the victories gained by this great commander; we can merely mention, that during nearly ten years, he was uniformly successful; in 1704 he gained the battle of Blenheim, which was rewarded by his own country with the manor of Woodstock, a large grant of land, and the magnificent palace of Blenheim; and by the Emperor of Germany with the principality of Mindelsheim; subsequent victories were recompensed by further honours and rewards; and while the Duke was astonishing all Europe by his military talents, he distinguished himsell, in an equal degree, by the political ability he displayed in several negociations with the various Courts, whom it was the interest of England to render inimical to France, or friendly to the allies. His Duchess, also, by her unbounded influence over the Queen, contributed much to his power, and watched his interests at home with unceasing vigilance. Her insolent superiority, however, at length disgusted the Queen; intrigues were formed; she was dismissed from her office in 1709; and although the Duke still continued at the head of the army, means were taken by the Tories to raise a clamour against the war, and a new ministry being formed, he was at length deprived of his command in 1712, and, with signal ingratitude, a prosecution was commenced against him for an alleged misappropriation of the public money. In disgust he withdrew to the Netherlands, where he was received with the greatest honours, and on the accession of George I was restored to the post of Commander-inChief, which he retained but a short time. After a few years spent in the retirement of private life, his mental faculties decayed, he lingered some time in a state of dotage, and expired in 1722, in the 720 year of his age.
His Duchess survived him until 1744, and died immensely rich, the avarice of both these distinguished persons being as remarkable as their ambition.
MODBURY, an ancient Market-town, is 208 miles from London, and 14 east of Plymouth. In the reign of Edward I, it was represented in Parliament, but was afterwards excused on the score of poverty. This town has four principal streets, meeting at the Market-place, and its population, in 1821, was 2194 persons, many of whom are employed in the woollen manufacture, which, however, is now much less extensively carried on than formerly; some hats are also made here. The Church is venerable and spacious, and has a tower and spire, 135 feet high, of much more modern erection than the body of the edifice, having been constructed about 1622. Here are also two Chapels for Dissenters. A Portreeve, or Mayor, two Constables, and other officers, are annually chosen for the government of the town.
A Benedictine Priory was founded here soon after
the Conquest; it was dissolved in the reign of Henry VI, and its possessions granted to Eton College. It has been so completely demolished that even its site is now uncertain; but it is believed to have stood to the west of the Churchyard, where some ancient walls still exist. Of the once magnificent mansion called Modbury House, the residence of the Champernounes, who ranked among the most considerable families in this county from the thirteenth to the eighteenth century, nothing more than a crumbling portion of one wing now remains.
Sir John Fortescue, Chief Justice of the King's Bench in the reign of Henry VI, and author of the celebrated treatise in praise of the Laws of England, is believed to have been born, about 1381, at Wimpston, the residence of his family, near Modbury. He adhered to the Lancastrian party, and wrote the work abovementioned, while in exile in Flanders, for the instruction of Prince Edward, who was afterwards slain at the battle of Tewkesbury, where Fortescue himself was taken prisoner, but was permitted to retire to his own house at Ebrington in Gloucestershire, where he died shortly after, at more than 90 years of age. Beside the work above-mentioned, which has frequently been printed, both in Latin and English, he wrote several other treatises, which still remain in manuscript.
MORETON HAMPSTEAD, a town on the verge of Dartmoor, 185 miles from the metropolis, is finely situated on a gentle eminence, and has a population of 1932 persons, who are principally employed in the woollen manufacture. The town is governed by a Portreeve and other officers, anpually elected, and does not possess any thing remarkable. In the vicinity are many of those immense inland rocks called Tors, already mentioned in our account of Dart
NEWTON ABBOT, and NEWTON BUSHEL, two parishes now united in one towu, are situated near the river Teign, about 190 miles from London. This town does not possess any object worthy of particular remark; the houses are mean in appearance, and neither of the two Chapels of Ease is distinguished for beauty: the parish Church is situated a mile from the town. At about the same distance, but in another direction, is a charitable institution, founded in the reign of Charles I, by Lady Reynell, and called the Widow's House; it was intended for the reception of four clergymen's widows, each of whom was to receive an annuity of £5; but the number of inmates has since been reduced to two; and their yearly allowance doubled.
OAKHAMPTON, A town of great antiquity, is situated on the high road from Exeter to Launceston, 195 miles from London, and derives its name from the river Oak, which has its source at a short distance, and flows through the town. At the period of the Domesday survey, a Market was held at this place, and it had also a Castle, the ruins of which still form an interesting object, and are situated on a rocky eminence, washed by a branch of the river, about a mile from the town. It was the property of the Courtenays; and when the sanguinary Henry condemned the Marquis of Exeter, “one of the most noble and guiltless of his victims,” to the scaffold, his senseless barbarity led him to order the dilapidation of this magnificent Castle, and the devastation of its extensive park.
Notwithstanding the antiquity of Oakhampton, its earliest Charter of Incorporation was received from James I, by which its government is vested in a Mayor, chosen annually from eight Burgesses, who are themselves elected from the same number of Assistants. Parliamentary representatives * were sent from hence in 1300, and again in 1314, but not afterwards until 1640, from which time the privilege has been constantly exercised; the right of election is in the freeholders and freemen, whose number is about 200. The population of the parish, in 1821, was 1907 persons, some of whom are employed in the manufacture of serges, from which, and the expenditure of travellers, this place derives its support. The Church is situated on an eminence, at some distance from the town, and on the opposite side of the river to the Castle; it is a venerable edifice, and forms a fine object from the surrounding hills: an old
* The once celebrated Colonel Wardle was M. P. for Oakhampton when he brought forward his charges against the late Duke of York.
Chapel, in the Market-place, is now used as a Town Hall.
OTTERY ST. MARY, Is pleasantly situated on the river Otter, 161 miles from London. It is a place of considerable business, having a population of 3522 persons, principally employed in manufactures of flannel and serge. "The town is irregularly built, and, with the exception of its Church, does not contain much of interest: here are still some remains of an ancient mansion, said to have been the residence of Sir Walter Raleigh; and an old house, near the Church-yard, is pointed out as having been temporarily occupied by Oliver Cromwell. The most remarkable object, however, in this town is
a spacious and handsome building, the period of whose construction is uncertain. It has a singular appearance, owing to its towers, as in Exeter Cathedral, forming the transepts. They are of massive architecture, not very lofty, but finished with pinnacles and open battlements; the northern tower is crowned by a low spire. The interior of the Church contains many monuments, some of which have been of considerable beauty, but are now much defaced; one is believed to have been erected by Bishop Gran