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lege, Oxford. Here he became acquainted with the Hon. Robert Boyle and Dr, Ward, from the latter of whom he received instructions in astronomy; and assisted the former in many of his mechanical and philosophical works, particularly in the construction of the air pump. About 1659 he announced his invention of the pendulum spring for watches; bis claim, however, is contested by foreigners in behalf of Huygens, a Dutch philosopher, who flourished at the same period. Hooke became one of the first Fellows of the Royal Society, and was appointed Keeper of its repository; he was also Professor of Geometry in Gresham College, and enjoyed several other distinguished and lucrative offices. His talents were undoubtedly great, but his temper was bad, which involved him in perpetual disputes with his contemporaries; he was also degraded by the most sordid avarice; and yet is said to have been a reli. gious man! He published a great many papers in the Philosophical Transactions, and several separate works, and died in 1703, in the sixty-eighth year of
Freshwater Gate is a little creek which falls into the sea, near the centre of the Bay of the same name: its head is divided from the source of the Yar only by a narrow ridge of pebbles. On its western side is a natural Cavern, communicating with the sea; its principal entrance is by a kind of rugged archway, 20 feet high, and 35 wide. The depth of the Cave is about 120 feet; the bottom is strewed with fragments of rock, while the terrific masses suspended from the roof seem to threaten the visitor with instantaneous destruction. It can be approached only at low water. Along this coast are many other rocks of singular shape; and the Cliffs have an awful and magnificent appearance, while the views from their summits, and especially from the Light-house, on the highest point, are extensive and beautiful beyond description. The road from hence to Mottestone, a pleasant village, about six miles distant, passes over ranges of Downs, varying from 400 to 600 feet above the level of the sea; on one of these, called Brook Down, are several barrows, supposed to have been raised for the interment of the slain, after a battle with the Danish invaders.
GODSHILL, a village five miles from Newport, has an ancient Church, built in the form of a cross, which occupies the summit of an eminence, and thus forms an interesting object from the neighbouring hills; it contains many monuments, principally in memory of the Worsley family, whose principal residence, called Appuldurcombe Park, is beautifully situated in an extensive and well-wooded Park, at the distance of about a mile. Here was anciently a Priory, which after the Dissolution became the
property of the Worsleys, who resided in “the Old Priory House” until 1710, when it was pulled down, and the present edifice commenced, which, however, was not completed until the latter end of the last century. This mansion is a fine structure of freestone, having four fronts of the Corinthian order, with smaller buildings projecting from each front. Its magnitude and its situation give it a maguificent appearance; and its interior is enriched with some of the finest specimens of sculpture, painting, and drawing; they were principally collected by the late Sir R. Worsley*, during a tour in various parts of Europe, Asia Minor, and Egypt. About two miles from hence, in one of the most beautiful parts of the Island, on the sea shore, is a Cottage, or Marine Villa, erected by Sir Richard, and standing amidst grounds of a highly romantic and picturesque character; here is also the celebrated Vineyard, which occupies about three acres, and is said to be the only one in this country. Near this spot is the ancient Church of St. Lawrence, perhaps the smallest in England, being only 20 feet in length, and 12 feet in width.
About a mile further is Shanklin Chine, which commences about half a mile from the shore, and, gradually increasing in magnitude, is, at its opening to the sea, nearly 200 feet wide, and 270 in depth. A rivulet, which rises at a short distance from the village of Shanklin, runs through this chasm, and in one part forms a fall of nearly 20 feet, while in other places it is almost hidden by the exuberant foliage with which each side of the Chine is covered. The village and neighbourhood of Shanklin are among the most beautiful and interesting spots in the Island.
* Sir Richard wrote a History of the Island, which was first published "in 1781; he died intestate in 1805, and this seat became the property of a female relative; it is now the residence of Lord Yarborough.
Newtown is five miles from Newport; it is situated on the river of the same name, whose junction with the sea forms the Haven, an excellent harbour, with sufficient depth of water for vessels of 500 tons burden; on the creeks which run into it are several salt works. Newtown, although now an inconsiderable village, containing only a few cottages, was formerly a place of some importance; it had a charter of incorporation previously to the fourteenth century, which was confirmed by several monarchs, particularly by Queen Elizabeth, in whose reign the town first sent two Members to Parliament, which privilege, as well as its Mayor and Corporation, it still retains. The right of election is vested in the Mayor and Burgesses, and the ceremony takes place in the Town Hall, which stands on an eminence near the harbour.
About a mile from Newtown is Shalfleet, a village with a very ancient Church, the windows of which have still some fragments of painted glass, and the north porch, which is of Norman architecture, exhibits a rudely sculptured figure of a bishop.
The Church is a neat and venerable building, in the eastern windows of which a small portion of the painted glass with which it was formerly ornamented still remains; and in the churchyard are some fragments of an ancient cross.
St. Catherine's Hill, which rises to the height of 750 .feet above high-water mark, had on its summit a Chapel, erected in 1323, and dedicated to St. Catherine; the tower of this edifice served as a sea-mark, and its great utility having often been experienced on this dangerous shore, it was repaired about 30 years ago, and is now employed in the same capacity; it is 36 feet high, and of an octangular form. Here is also a Light-house, of modern construction, built at the expense of the Trinity Corporation of London, but which, in consequence of the vapours that frequently cover the summit of the hill, and would render the light imperceptible, is now not used.
Blackgang Chine, which commences on the southwestern declivity of St. Catherine's Hill, is a still more striking object than Shanklin Chine. It has probably been formed by two streams which rise in different parts of the hill, and flowing in distinct channels for some distance, unite at a certain point, and hurrying rapidly down a steep channel for about 200 yards, fall from a precipice 40 feet high, in one vast perpendicular sheet. Large masses of rock lie iu every part of the channel; and the appearance of the Chine from the sea-shore is strikingly grand, especially when heavy rains have augmented its stream, which then comes rushing down between the precipitous and overhanging cliffs in a manner awfully impressive. In 1799, during a severe frost, an extraordinary phenomenon occurred in this neighbourhood: about 100 acres of land, forming a
farm called Pitlands, was observed to be in motion towards the sea, into which it would in all probability have been precipitated, had not its progress been arrested, after two days, by an insurmountable barrier of rocks: this landslip was supposed to have been occasioned by the freezing of the springs in the hill, when a separation was caused by the consequent expansion; in some places the earth sunk to the depth of 30 or 40 feet, some buildings were thrown down, and large masses of rock overturned.
Ryde is a neat town, about nine miles from Newport, and being nearly opposite to Portsmouth, is the place where persons visiting the Island from that town usually land. It is divided into Upper and Lower Ryde; the latter being the nearest to the shore, but the former the most pleasant and best built. It has a Chapel of Ease, two Meeting-houses for Dissenters, a Charity School, and a Theatre, originally intended for a Market-house, but converted to its present use, in consequence of the supposed necessity for providing amusement for the numerous visitants who are attracted to this town during the summer by its increasing celebrity as a bathing-place. The same cause has led to the establishment of a Library and Reading Rooms; an excellent Hotel, and several good lodging-houses: the beach is considered to be superior to that of Cowes, and bathing-machines are in constant attendance. A Pier, which extends a quarter of a mile into the sea, was completed about fifteen years ago, and cost nearly £15,000; it is frequented as a favourite promenade, and each visitor pays a small sum for the indulgence.
About four miles to the south-east of Ryde is a beautifully-situated mansion called the Priory, which occupies the site of a Priory of Cluniac monks, founded early in the twelfth century. The grounds are laid out with great taste, and from some parts of them delightful views of the coasts of Hampshire and Sussex are obtained. About a mile from hence is the neat village of St. Helen's Green, whose ancient Church having been injured by the encroachments of the sea, was taken down (with the exception of the tower, which still remains as a sea-mark), early in the eighteenth century, and a small edifice was erected in its stead, which stands to the north-west of the village.
Two miles west of Ryde is Binstead, whose Church displays marks of great antiquity: a rudely-sculptured figure over a doorway on the north side, which in the neighbourhood is called the Idol, has occasioned much discussion among antiquaries, which, as usual, has not produced any satisfactory result. About three quarters of a mile from hence are the ruins of Quarr Abbey, founded in 1132, and beautifully situated, both for sea and land views: a great part of the wall which enclosed its demesne is still