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over-rating them at 30,000. Brighton is, however, a place of considerable antiquity, and is said, on the authority of some urns, coins, &c. which have been found in the neighbourhood, to have been, known to the Romans; and to have derived its late name (softened by its fashionable visitants into Brighton) from Brighthelm, a Saxon bishop, who resided here. By the Conqueror it was bestowed on Earl Warrenne. During the frequent wars with France, from the eleventh to the sixteenth century, this town suffered heavily; Henry VIII, in 1539, erected a block-house for its protection, and Elizabeth surrounded it with walls, having four gates; the sea, however, undermined and destroyed these fortifications; and a Battery of six guns at the west end of the town is now its only defence. In 1699 a violent storm swept 130 houses into the sea, and the damage occasioned by this calamity was estimated at £40,000. To prevent the recurrence of such a visitation, an Act of Parliament passed for the erection and maintenance of a jetty, called the Groynes, which projects a considerable distance into the sea, and has hitherto resisted those destructive inroads which it had begun to make on this part of the coast. About 1750 Brighton was first visited for the purpose of sea-bathing; and in 1784 his late Majesty, George IV, then Prince of Wales, by making it his summer residence, and erecting the Pavilion, contributed greatly to the prosperity which it has subsequently enjoyed. By the shortest road, through Crawley, it is 51 miles from London.
The town stands on a declivity, gradually sloping to the south-east, as far as the Steyne, from whence it again stretches with a gentle ascent along the cliffs to a considerable distance. The amphitheatri. cal hills which protect it from the north and northeast winds, are easy of access, covered with an agreeable verdure, and command, from their summit, an extensive view over the Weald of Sussex, the Channel, and the Isle of Wight. The air is peculiarly salubrious, the soil naturally dry, the neighbourhood presents a variety of beautiful walks and rides; and when to these objects of attraction we add the numerous amusements which invite the votaries of pleasure, the easy distance and rapid communication with the metropolis, and the distinction
conferred by the frequent residence of royalty, its prosperity will cease to astonish.
The government of the town, which is not incorporated, is vested in a Constable and eight Headboroughs, chosen annually at the Court Leet of the Earl of Abergavenny, Lord of the Manor; and 64 of the inhabitants are constituted, by Act of Parliament, Commissioners for the paving, lighting, and cleansing of the streets. Its general form may be said to be quadrangular, the principal streets intersecting each other at right angles; it is divided from north to south by the Steyne, the Parade, and the New Steyne; and to the east of this line most of the modern buildings are situated. These it is impossible to particularize here; but it may be remarked that the Royal Crescent ranks among the most elegant ranges of building in the town, and has in front an enclosed area, with a statue of George IV, as Prince of Wales, in a military uniform. About a mile east of the Steyne is the magnificent pile of buildings, called Kemp Town, from being the property, and erected on the estate, of T. R. Kemp, Esq. It comprises a noble square, opening into an immense circus, 840 feet in the span, and ornamented in the most tasteful and elegant manner.
Among the buildings of Brighton the Marine Pavilion is certainly the most remarkable. It is situated at the north-west corner of the Steyne, and nearly in the centre of the town. It was begun to be erected in 1784, and during the thirty following years, very few passed which did not witness some addition or alteration, characteristic of that fickleness of taste and profusion of expense by which its royal proprietor was distinguished. It is believed that not less than a million and a half of money has been lavished on this edifice; and the result is a pile of splendid absurdity; partly Chinese, partly Russian, and a great part, perhaps, neither one nor the other, Its walls are of brick, covered with cement; the numerous cupolas and minarets are framed and covered with iron, but also coated with cement. In the centre is a dome, the interior of which is fitted up as a billiard-room; it is entirely surrounded with windows, and furnished with telescopes, for the purpose of enjoying a more extensive prospect of the varied and beautiful scenery which is thence discernible. The exterior is said to be in imitation of the Kremlin at Moscow, while the interior is entirely in the Chinese taste, and the Stables are in the Moorish style of architecture, containing magnificent accommodations for 68 horses, a spacious riding-house, and other offices; the stalls surround a circular area of nearly 100 feet diameter, and are surmounted by a magnificent dome, only 20 feet less in span than that of St. Paul's Cathedral.
The interior arrangements of the Pavilion comprise a splendid entrance-hall, a magnificent diningroom, superb drawing-rooms, and a small apartment, twelve feet by eight, called the Chinese Lantern, the sides of which are of glass, stained with representations of insects, fruit, flowers, &c. peculiar to that country, and having a singular and beautiful effect, when illuminated from without. The Conservatory, the Music Saloon, the Rotunda, and the Banqueting Hall, are all adorned, to profusion, with Chinese paintings, Chinese paper, statues, vases, mirrors, lanterns, &c. Such was the Pavilion a few years since; but as, perhaps in conformity with its Oriental decorations, it has been thought fit to adopt a prin. ciple, as regards the public, of almost Eastern seclusion, and as stability was not the characteristic of the royal owner, it would be unsafe to vouch for the correctness of every particular at the present moment. It should be observed, that the former custom of attending divine service at the Chapel Royal in the town being found inconvenient to his Majesty, a handsome building, called the Royal Chapel, was attached to the Pavilion, in 1821, and consecrated in his presence, on January 1, 1822. It is superbly, yet appropriately fitted up, and forms a splendid and useful appendage to the palace. The Grounds, which are handsomely laid out, occupy about seven
In the contemplation of this building it must excite regret, if not indignation, that the immense sums lavished on its erection have been bestowed in perpetuating and increasing the absurdities of Tartarian palaces, and Chinese temples; and that the classical dignity of Roman and Grecian architecture, and the exquisite beauty of that which is unjustly called Gothic, have been rejected for the barbarous pomp of the Kremlin, and the tawdry splendour of the Pagoda.
Next to the Pavilion, perhaps before it, the most interesting object at Brighton is
This magnificent structure was erected in 1823, under the superintendence of Captain Brown, of the Royal Navy, and cost about £30,000. It commences directly opposite to the New Steyne, a short distance from the end of which an excavation was made for the reception of eight ponderous chains, by which the whole fabric is suspended. To the extremity of each chain an iron plate weighing more than 2500 lbs. was attached; and after the chains were thus secured, the excavations were closed with bricks, strong cement, &c. The foundations of the Pier are formed by four clusters of piles, standiug about 260 feet apart. The first three clusters consist of 20 piles each, driven perpendicularly; the fourth cluster, having to support the head of the Pier, has 100 perpendicular piles; and all the clusters are strengthened by a number of horizontal and bracing timbers. Below the platform are galleries and flights of stairs, facilitating the embarkation and landing of passengers according to the state of the tide. The piles are driven into a bed of chalk, some to the depth of 10
feet, and others about seven feet; and their height above high-water mark is 14 feet. · Upon each cluster of piles 'two towers of iron are erected, of a pyramidal form, about 12 feet from each other, and united by an ornamental arch running across; the lower part of each of these towers is fitted up as a shop for the sale of refreshments, &c. and the
platform is furnished with seats for the accommodation of the company, who resort hither in great numbers to enjoy the refreshing sea breezes, a band of music stationed in the centre adding to the attraction. A small sum is paid by each person for admission to this favourite promenade.
The platform is about 12 feet wide, formed of wooden planks, and guarded on each side by a handsome iron railing. The whole weight is supported by eight chains, each of which consists of 104 links, 10 feet long, and weighing 112 lbs. These links are connected by moveable joints, from the caps covering which a suspending rod runs downward, and supports an iron bar, on which the platform rafters rest. The chains beneath this are of wrought iron, and each link is 54 inches in circumference. They are carried over the tops of the towers, and imbedded in the bottom, with about 60 tons of Purbeck stone attached to them.
The Esplanade, commencing at the end of the Old Steyne, is raised several feet above high-water mark, and is nearly midway between the summit of the cliff and the beach; it has a carriage road 24 feet wide, and a pavement 10 feet wide, for promenaders. The bank is defended from the waves by a massive seawall, finished with a neat wooden railing, about 31 feet high. The Esplanade is 1250 feet in length, is entered by a handsome toll-gate, and at its termination commences the Chain Pier.
After the Pier, the most fashionable and favourite promenade is the Steyne, a charming lawn, with the Pavilion and many handsome buildings on three sides, and the ocean in front; its edges are paved with brick, and it is divided from the road by a rail. ing: Many other agreeable walks may be found in various parts of the town; the East Cliff commands a noble view of the sea; and the old Churchyard affords delightful prospects, comprehending almost the