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terbury in July 1349, but died in December following. He wrote several mathematical treatises, and was considered so learned, as to receive from his contemporaries the title of “the profound Doctor.”. He also wrote on theological subjects, and his work, “ De Causa Dei,” has been highly praised.
William Juxon, à divine of a later period, was born in Chichester in 1582, and after an education at Merchant Tailors' School, removed to St. John's College, Oxford, of which he became President in 1621, and having taken orders, and being patronized by Laud, was made Dean of Worcester in 1627, and successively Bishop of Hereford and of London in 1633. He became Lord High Treasurer in 1635; an appointment which was productive of great dissatisfaction, although it was acknowledged that the Bishop discharged the duties of his office, during the six years which he held it, with integrity and ability. During the dissensions which followed, he maintained an unshaken fidelity to the king, whom he attended in his imprisonment in the Isle of Wight, and subsequently on the scaffold, where he received from the unhappy monarch the ensign of the Garter, with directions to forward it to his son. He was imprisoned a short time subsequently for his refusal to disclose the particulars of the king's conversation with him; but the Parliament were soon ashamed of persecuting a man whose character was held in universal esteem, notwithstanding the dislike of many to his office and political principles. He was deprived of his bishopric, but was permitted to live undisturbed on a small estate in Gloucestershire until the Restoration, when he was elevated to the archiepiscopal see of Canterbury, but died in little more than three years afterwards, June 4, 1663, and was interred, at his own desire, in the Chapel of his College at Oxford, to which he had been a liberal benefactor.
William Collins, one of the most distinguished English poets, was born in East Street, where his father kept a hatter's shop, in 1720 or 1721. He was educated at Winchester School, and afterwards proceeded to Oxford. While at the University, he produced his Oriental Eclogues, and some smaller pieces; and in 1744 went to London, a literary adventurer," to adopt the words of Dr. Johnson, * with many projects in his head, and very little money in his pocket. He designed many works, but his great fault was irresolution. He planned several tragedies; but he only planned them.
He wrote, now and then, odes and other poems, and did something, however little." Among others he printed proposals for a History of the Revival of Learning, of which it is probable that he had not written a single page.
In 1746 he published his Odes; but so low was then the taste of the public, that although this volume contained some of the finest poems in the language, the sale was insufficient to pay the expenses of the printing; and the indignant poet returned to the publisher the advance he had made, and burnt all the unsold copies. In 1748 a relative died and left him a legacy of £2000; but no sooner was he relieved from the miseries of poverty, than he became the victim of disease and insanity. “ He languished some years under that depression of mind which enchains the faculties without destroying them, and leaves reason the knowledge of right without the power of pursuing it.” He endeavoured to shake off this dreadful malady by travelling, but after a short tour in France he returned to London; and at Islington was visited by Dr. Johnson, whose account of the interview is pathetic and instructive:
there was nothing of disorder discernible in his mind by any but himself; but he had withdrawn from study, and travelled with no other book than an English Testament, such as children carry to school: when his friend took it into his hand, out of curiosity to see what companion a man of letters had chosen, I have but one book,' said Collins, but that is the best.' He was removed, under the care of his sister, to Chichester, where he expired in 1756, and was interred in St. Andrew's church*.
* Dr. Johnson's character of Collins, although strongly tinctured with that severity of criticism which led him to under-rate some of the most poetical of our bards, is yet so eloquent, and so honourable to the memory of its unfortunate subject, that its omission would be unjust:
“Mr. Collins was a man of extensive literature, and of vigorous faculties. He was acquainted not only with the learned tongues, but with the Italian, French, and Spanish languages. He had employed his mind chiefy upon works of fiction, and subjects of fancy; and by indulging some peculiar habits of thought, was eminently delighted with those flights
ARDINGLEY, a small village, with 579 inhabitants, is about four miles north of Cuckfield, and possesses nothing remarkable excepting a handsome Church, of Gothic architecture, and a large Chapel for Dissenters. In the Church is a grave stone, with a brass plate to the memory of Nicholas Culpeper, Esq. and Elizabeth his wife, whose figures are engraved thereon, the former, who died in 1510, being attended by the figures of ten sons, and the latter, in 1500, is represented with eight daughters,
ARUNDEL, A well-built market-town, 56 miles from London, is finely situated on the declivity of a steep hill, at the foot of which runs the river Arun, over which is a handsome stone Bridge of three arches. From the Worthing road the appearance of this town, with its majestic Castle, extensive park, and winding river, is strikingly beautiful. It is principally composed of two streets, crossing each other at right angles, and, in 1821, contained 2511 inhabitants. Arundel is a borough by prescription, and has returned two Members to Parliament ever since 1302; its government is vested, by a Charter of Queen Elizabeth, in of imagination which pass the bounds of nature, and to which the mind is reconciled only by a passive acquiescence in popular traditions. He loved fairies, genii, giants, and monsters; he delighted to rove through the meanders of enchantment, to gaze on the magnificence of golden palaces, to repose by the water-falls of Elysian gardens.
« This was, however, the character rather of his inclination than his genius; the grandeur of wildness, and the novelty of extravagance, was always desired by him, but were not always attained. Yet, as diligence is never wholly lost, if his efforts sometimes caused harshness and obscurity, they likewise produced, in happier moments, sublimity and splendour. This idea which he had formed of excellence, led him to oriental fictions and allegorical imagery; and perhaps, while he was intent upon description, he did not sufficiently cultivate sentiment. His poems are the productions of a mind not deficient in fire, nor unfurnished with know. ledge either of books or life, but somewhat obstructed in its progress by deviation in quest of mistaken beauties.
“ His morals were pure, and his opinions piouse in a long continuance of poverty, and long habits of dissipation, it cannot be expected that any character should be exactly uniform. There is a degree of want by which the freedom of agency is almost destroyed; and long association with fortuitous companions will at last relax tħe strictness of truth, and abate the fervour of sincerity. That this man, wise and virtuous as he was, passed always unentangled through the snares of life, it would be prejudice and temerity to affirm; but it may be said that at least he preserved the source of action unpolluted, that his principles were never shaken, that his distinctions of right and wrong were never confounded, and that his faults had nothing of malignity or design, but proceeded from some unexpected pressure or casual temptation."
a Mayor (annually chosen), twelve Burgesses, and inferior officers.
The Church, which is dedicated to St. Nicholas, and was formerly collegiate, is situated on an eminence at the northern extremity of the town. It is a noble Gothic structure, with cross aisles, and in the centre a tower and spire; the interior is handsome, and contains a large and fine-toned organ, and several monuments in memory of individuals of the Howard family. In this town is also a Roman Catholic Chapel, held in a part of the remains of an ancient building near the Church; a Quaker's Meeting house; a Chapel for Independents; a Charity School; a Custom House, where considerable business is transacted; and a neat and well-conducted Theatre.
The most distinguished object at Arundel is its Castle, which stands to the north-east of the town, and was of great strength in periods of remote antiquity, although the time of its first erection cannot be ascertained. It was bequeathed by King Alfred to his nephew Adhelm; and soon after the Norman Conquest was bestowed by William on his relative Roger de Montgomery, Earl of Shrewsbury and Arundel. In the reign of Henry I it was forfeited by the adherence of Robert, the third Earl, to Robert, Duke of Normandy, in his claim on the English crown, to which he was the undoubted heir. It was given by the king to his queen Adeliza, who after the death of Henry married William de Albini, called William with the Strong Hand, from the circumstance, real or fabulous, of his having pulled out by the roots the tongue of a lion, into whose den he had been thrown at the command of the Queen of France, whose hand he had declined, in consequence of his engagement to the beautiful Adeliza*.
* This lady, as brave and generous as she was beautiful, received the Empress Maud immediately after her landing at Portsmouth to dispute the crown with Stephen. The King, without delay, marched a large body of soldiers to attack the Castle; on arriving before the walls he sent a message to the Countess, desiring her to deliver up the Empress,“ his enemy." To this Adeliza replied, that she had received her as a friend and relative, not as his enemy; and rather than deliver her up, she would endure the last extremities of a siege. The Empress, unwilling to expose her protectress to such a calamity, requested leave to retire, and try her fortune in some other part of England. To this Stephen consented; and she accordingly removed, unmolested, to Bristol. Such were the exalted feelings of the days of chivalry! VOL. I.
This Castle continued during several generations in the same family; and in the reigo of Henry III passed to that of Fitz-Alan. After several confiscations it was settled by Act of Parliament in 1423 on Sir John Fitz-Alan, with the remarkable privilege that its possession should always entitle the owner to the dignity of an Earl, without creation. By the marriage of the heiress of this estate with the Duke of Norfolk, in Elizabeth's reign, it came into the possession of the Howard family, with whom it still remains. During the Civil War it was twice taken, by surprise rather than by siege; in the autumn of 1643 by Lord Hopton for the King; and in the winter of the same year by Sir William Waller for the Parliament, by whom it was ordered to be dismantled. It continued in a dilapidated state for more than a century, when the late Duke determined to restore it to its ancient magnificence. This has been done at a vast expense, and it is now one of the most elegant Gothic residences in the kingdom. The new building was entirely raised from his Grace's own plans, and the freestone employed was chosen of a colour to assimilate as nearly as possible with the remains of the ancient fabric. The furniture and internal decorations are of the most superb description, and it contains many paintings, and several painted windows, in one of which, by Mr. Eginton, the late Duke and Duchess are represented as King Solomon and the Queen of Sheba at a banquet. The situation of this Castle is singularly beautiful; it stands on an eminence, embosomed in a luxuriant grove, and commands a fine and extensive view over the surrounding country, the sea, and the Isle of Wight.
ASHBURNHAM, a small village near Robertsbridge, is principally remarkable as having given its name to a family of great antiquity, one of whom, as previously mentioned, was governor of Dover Castle at the time of the Norman invasion, and was beheaded by the Conqueror for his resistance. The estate has continued in the same family ever since; one of them was created Baron Ashburnham in 1698, and his son, Earl of Ashburnham, in 1730; the present peer received the Garter on the death of the Earl of Liver