« НазадПродовжити »
appearance of a park. At the north-east corner of the Common is a handsome Church, erected about 1776, at an expense of £11,000. On the site of the old Church a Chapel of Ease has been built, which is exceedingly.plain in its exterior. Several Chapels for Dissenters are established here and in the neighbourhood; and here is also a National School on the Lancasterian plan, and a Workhouse. The elegant villas and mansions with which this village and its vicinity abound, the charming aspect of its Common, and the reputed salubrity of its situation, render it a favourite spot either for occasional or permanent residence. The population of the parish, according to the returns of 1821, was 7151 persons, but a great increase has, since that period, taken place.
COBHAM, a small village, 19 miles from London, on the river Mole, has in its vicinity many noblemen's and gentlemen's seats, the principal of which is Cobham Park, formerly the residence of H. C. Combe, Esq. the patriotic Alderman, and representative of the City in Parliament. Population of the parish, in 1821, 1340.
COOPER's Hill, familiar to every reader as the subject of an elegant poem by Sir John Denham*, is an eminence near Egham, commanding an extensive and delightful prospect, whose principal objects have been admirably depicted by the bard.
* This poem extorted the following tribute of praise from Dr. Johnson, whose se yerity of crịticism it required no slight degree of merit to disarm:
Cooper's Hill,” says he is the work that confers upon Denham the rank and dignity of an original author. He seems to have been, at least among us, the author of a species of composition that may be termed local poetry, of which the fundamental subject is some particular landscape, to be poetically described, with the addition of such embellishments as may be supplied by historical retrospection or incidental meditation. To trace a new species of poetry has in itself a very high claim to praise, and its praise is yet more when it is apparently copied
by Garth and Pope. Yet Cooper's Hill, if it be maliciously inspected, will not be found without its faults. The digressions are too long, the morality too frequent, and the sentiments, sometimes, such as will not bear a rigorous inquiry.” also been eulogized hy Pope and by Somervile, and will continue to be admired, while manly sense, harmonious verse, felicitous 'deliņeation, and happy allusion, have power to charm,
CROYDON. This respectable and populous market-town is situated in the midst of a beautiful country, about ten miles from London. The parish is very large, being 36 miles in circumference; and the town is of considerable antiquity. It consists of one principal street, more than a mile in length, and a number of smaller ones. The Church, a noble ancient structure, is of extensive dimensions, and has a lofty square tower, adorned with pinnacles. It contains monuments to the memory of the following Archbishops of Canterbury; Grindal, who died in 1583; Whít. gift, in 1610; and Sheldon, in 1677; and grave-stones for Archbishop Wake, 1731; Potter, 1747; and Her- ring, 1757.
Whitgift's Hospital was founded by the prelate whose name it bears in 1596, for the maintenance of a Warden, twenty-eight poor brethren and sisters, or more if the funds would permit; and a Schoolmaster, who is to teach ten poor boys and girls. A small Chapel is attached to this Hospital, in which is a portrait of the founder, who, to use the words of Stow," through God's favourable assistance, in his own lifetime performed and perfected these premises, for that (as I myself have heard him say) he .would not be to his executors a cause of damnation." In this town are several other Schools, a Quaker's Meeting, and Chapels for various classes of Dissenters.
The Summer Assizes are held here, alternately with Guildford, and the Town Hall, in which the Judges sit, is a handsome stone building, erected about twenty years ago. The Market, granted by Edward III, is held every Saturday, and there are two annual fairs, one of which, on October 2, is remarkable for the sale of an immense quantity of walnuts. The Croydon Canal, which joins the Grand Surrey Canal at Rotherhithe, and the Iron Railway from Wandsworth, add much to the facility of communication with this town, which is one of the most thriving and busy in the county. The number of inhabitants in this parish, in 1821, was 10,288, while in 1801 it was no more than 5743.
The manor of Croydon has belonged to the see of Canterbury ever since the Norman Conquest, and a
magnificent Palace was erected here in the thirteenth century, in which the Archbishops frequently resided until about 1757, when it was deserted, and having so remained during more than twenty years, had fallen into decay, when in 1780 an Act of Parliament was obtained for its disposal, and it was accordingly sold for £2520 to Sir A. Pitches; it was afterwards occupied by a bleacher
!!!.is About a mile and a half from this town is ADDISCOMBE House, a handsome building, formerly the seat of the Earl of Liverpool, but purchased, in 1809, by the East India Company, and converted into a College for the education of Cadets for their military service. The course of instruction comprises all the usual branches of warlike science, to which are added the native languages of the inhabitants of those countries in which the students are destined to be employed.
CUDDINGTON, was a village between Ewell and Cheam, which no longer exists, and is here noticed merely as having contained, a magnificent palace begun by Henry VIII, and called from its upparalleled beauty, Nonsuch. The king dying before he had completed the building, Henry, Earl of Arundel, “ for the love and honour he bare to his olde maister,” purchased the estate of Queen Mary, and completed the erection. It was reconveyed to the crown in 1591, and became a favourite residence of Elizabeth*. It was afterwards settled successively on the Queens of James and Charles I; and
During this reign it was visited by Hentzner, whose description of the Court at Greenwich we have already quoted: and the following extract from his account of this palace will serve to give an idea of its splendour and magnificence :-“ One would imagine every thing that architecture can perform to have been employed in this one work: there are every where so many statues that seem to breathe, so many miracles of consummate art, so many casts that riyal even the perfection of Roman antiquity, that it may well claim its name of Nonsuch, It is so encompassed with parks full of deer, delightful gårdens, groves ornamented with trellis work, cabinets of verdure, and walks so embowered by trees, that it seems to be a place pitched upon by Pleasure herself to dwell along with Health. In the pleasure and artificial gardens are many columns and pyramids of marble, two fountains that spout water, one round the other, like a pyra. mid, upon which are perched small birds that stream water out of their bills. In the grove of Diana is a very agreeable fountain, with Actæon turned into a stag, as he was sprinkled by the goddess and bernymphs, with inscriptions; and there is another pyramid of marble full of concealed pipes, which spirt upon all who come within their reach."
Charles II gave it to the beautiful and profligate Barbara, Duchess of Cleveland, who pulled down the house, sold the materials, and disparked the land.
DORKING. This town is situated in a valley near the river Mole, 24 miles from London, and is surrounded by hills, which command some of the most beautiful views in the kingdom. It is a place of considerable antiquity, and before the Conquest the manor was in the possession of Editha, Queen of Edward the Confessor; and it still retains the ancient custom of Borough English, by which the youngest son inherits the copyhold estate of his father.
This town was destroyed by the Danes, but rebuilt soon after the cessation of their ravages; it at present consists of one main street, which contains many well built houses and elegant shops, and several smaller ones. The population, in 1821, was 3812. The Church is a neat building, containing a nave, with its aisles, a chancel, and transept, with a low embattled tower in the centre. Its architecture is various, it having been erected at different periods; the interior is neatly fitted up, and contains several handsome monuments.
Dorking is a great thoroughfare, and a considerable trade is carried on in lime, flour, &c. many mills being erected on the Mole. It is also a favourite summer resort of invalids and lovers of rural scenery, and it would be difficult to name any place better caloulated to answer the expectations of both those classes, as the salubrity of the air, and the beauty of the surrounding country, cannot be surpassed, we might almost say, equalled, within so short a distance from the metropolis. The market is held on Thursday, and among its principal commodities are corn and poultry, of which a remarkable breed, having five claws, and attaining a great size, are well known.
In the neighbourhood are numerous mansions and villas, among which the most prominent are Betchworth Castle, once the seat of A. Tucker, Esq. author of“The Light of Nature pursued;" Deepden, formerly belonging to the Duke of Norfolk; and Denbighs, remarkable for its grounds, laid out in a very singular style by Mr. Tyers, the original proprietor of Vauxhall Gardens.
Dulwich, a delightful hamlet of the parish of Camberwell, is about five miles from London, and its pleasant situation has made it the residence of many persons, whose neat and handsome houses and grounds give an agreeable variety to the natural beauties of the surrounding country. The most remarkable object in this place is
THE COLLEGE OF GOD'S GIFT,
founded in 1614 by Edward Alleyne, Esq. who had acquired a considerable fortune as a theatrical
performer, and was a contemporary and friend of Shakspeare. He had previously purchased the manor of Dulwich, which he bestowed on his new foundation, together with various lands and tenements there, and in other places, altogether producing at that time an income of about £800 per annum, which is now augmented to more than five times that sum.
The buildings being completed in 1619, the institution commenced on September 13th of that year, and was limited to a Master, Warden, four Fellows, six poor Brethren, and six poor Sisters (all of whom must continue unmarried, on pain of expulsion), twelve Scholars, and thirty Out-Members. The Master and Warden must be of the surname of the founder; three of the Fellows must be clergymen, and the fourth, a layman, officiates as organist. The