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one of the bigger boys, or the usher. He was evidently a kind-hearted man, who did not seem so much desirous of provoking discussion by the questions which he put, as of obtaining information at any rato. It did not appear that he took any interest, either, in such kind of inquiries, for their own sake; but that he was in some way bound to seek for knowledge. A greenish-coloured coat which he had on forbade me to surmise that he was a clergyman. The adventure gave birth to some reflections on the difference between persons of his profession in past and present times.
Rest to the souls of those fine old pedagogues—the breed, long since extinct, of the Lilys and the Linacres—who, believing that all learning was contained in the languages which they taught, and despising every other acquirement as superficial and useless, came to their task as to a sport ! Passing from infancy to age, they dreamed away all their days as in a grammar school. Revolving in a perpetual cycle of declensions, conjugations, syntaxes, and prosodies ; renewing constantly the occupations which had charmed their studious childhood ; rehearsing continually the part of the past; life must have slipped from them at last like one day. They were always in their first garden, reaping harvest of their golden time, among their Flori and their Spicilegia; in Arcadia still, but kings; the ferule of their sway not much harsher, but of like dignity with that mild sceptre attributed to King Basileus ; the Greek and Latin, their stately Pamela and their Philoclea; with the occasional duncery of some untoward tyro, serving for the refreshing interlude of a Mopsa, or a clown Damætas !
With what a savour doth the preface to Colet's, or (as it is sometimes called) Paul's Accidence, set forth ! • To exhort every man to the learning of grammar, that intendeth to attain the understanding of the tongues, wherein is contained a great treasury of wisdom and knowledge, it would seem but vain and lost labour ; for so much as it is known, that nothing can surely be ended, whose beginning is either feeble or faulty ; and no building be perfect, whereof the foundation and groundwork are ready to fall, and unable to uphold the burden of the frame.” How well doth this stately preamble (comparable to those which Milton commendeth as
having been the usage to prefix to some solemn law, then first promulgated by Solon or Lycurgus") correspond with and illustrate that pious zeal for conformity, expressed in a succeeding clause, which would fence about grammar rules with the severity of faith articles !" as for the diversity of grammars, it is well profitably taken away by the king majesty's wisdom, who, foreseeing the inconvenience, and favourably providing the remedy, caused one kind of grammar by sundry learned men to be diligently drawn, and so to be set out, only everywhere to be taught for the use of learners, and for the hurt in change ing of schoolmasters.” What a gusto in that which follows; “ wherein it is profitable that he (the pupil) can orderly de. cline his noun and his verb." His noun !
The fine dream is fading away fast; and the least concern of a teacher in the present day is to inculcate grammar rules.
The modern schoolmaster is expected to know a little of everything, because his pupil is required not to be entirely ignorant of anything. He must be superficially, if I may so say, omniscient.
He is to know something of pneumatics ; of chymistry: of whatever is curious, or proper to excite the attention of the youthful mind; an insight into mechanics is desirable, with a touch of statistics; the quality of soils, &c., botany, the constitution of his country, cum multis aliis. You may get a notion of some part of his expected duties by con. sulting the famous Tractate on Education, addressed to Mr. Hartlib.
All these things—these, or the desire of them—he is expected to instil, not by set lessons from professors, which he may charge in the bill, but at school intervals, as he walks the streets, or saunters through green fields, (those natural instructers,) with his pupils. The least part of what is expected from him, is to be done in school hours. He must insinuate knowledge at the mollia tempora fandi. He must seize every occasion—the season of the year; the time of the day; a passing cloud ; a rainbow; a wagon of hay; a regiment of soldiers going by—to inculcate something useful. He can receive no pleasure from a casual glimpse of nature, but must catch at it as an object of instruction. He must interpret beauty into the picturesque. He cannot relish a beggar man or a gipsy, for thinking of the suitable improvement. Nothing comes to him not spoiled by the sophisticating medium of moral uses. The universe—that great book, as it has been called--is to him indeed, to all intents and purposes, a bouk, out of which he is doomed to read tedious homilies to distasting schoolboys. Vacations themselves are none to him, he is only rather worse off than before ; for commonly he has some intrusive upper boy fastened upon him at such times; some cadet of a great family ; some neglected lump of nobility or gentry, that he must drag after him lo the play, to the Panorama, to Mr. Bartley's Orrery, to the Panopticon, or into the country, to a friend's house, or his favourite watering place. Wherever he goes, this uneasy
shadow attends him. A boy is at his board, and in his path and in all his movements. He is boy rid, sick of perpetual boy.
Boys are capital fellows in their own way, among their mates ; but they are unwholesome companions for grown people. The restraint is felt no less on the one side than on the other Even a child, that “plaything for an hour," tires always. The noises of children, playing their own fancies—as I now hearken to them by fits, sporting on the green before my window, while I am engaged in these grave speculations at my neat suburban retreat at Shacklewell by distance made more sweet—inexpressibly take from the labour
task. It is like writing to music. They seem to modulate my periods. They ought at least to do so--for in the voice of that tender age there is a kind of poetry, far unlike the harsh prose accents of man's conversation. I should but spoil their sport, and diminish my own sympathy for them, by mingling in their pastime.
I would not be domesticated all my days, with a person of very superior capacity to my own--not, if I know myself at all, from any considerations of jealousy or self-comparison, for the occasional communion with such minds has constituted the fortune and felicity of my life ; but the habit of too constant intercourse with spirits above you, instead of raising you, keeps you down. Too frequent doses of original think ing from others, restrain what lesser portion of that faculty you may possess of your own. You get entangled in another man's mind, even as you lose yourself in another man's grounds. You are walking with a tall varlet, whose strides outpace yours to lassitude. The constant operation of such potent agency would reduce me, I am convinced, to imbecility. You may derive thoughts from others; your way of thinking, the mould in which your thoughts are cast, must be your
Intellect may be imparted, but not each man's intellectual frame.
As little as I should wish to be always thus dragged upward, as little (or rather still less) is it desirable to be stunted downward, by your associates. The trumpet does not more stun you by its loudness, than a whisper teases you by its provoking inaudibility.
Why are we never quite at our ease in the presence of a schoolmaster ?-because we are conscious that he is not quite at his ease in ours. He is awkward and out of place in the society of his equals. He comes like Gulliver from among his little people, and he cannot fit the stature of his understanding to yours. He cannot meet you on the square.
He wants a
point given him, like an indifferent whistplayer. He is so used to teaching, that he wants to be teaching you. One of these professors, upon my complaining that these little sketches of mine were anything but methodical, and that I was unable to make them otherwise, kindly offered to instruct me in the method by which young gentlemen in his seminary were taught to compose English themes. The jests of a schoolmaster are coarse, or thin. They do not tell out of school. He is under the restraint of a formal and didactive hypocrisy in company, as a clergyman is under a moral one. no more let his intellect loose in society, than the other can his inclinations. He is forlorn among his coevals; his juniors cannot be his friends. “I take blame to myself,” said a sensible man of this
profession, writing to a friend respecting a youth who had quitted his school abruptly, “ that your nephew was not more attached
But persons in my situation are more to be pitied than can well be imagined. We are surrounded by young, and, consequently, ardently affectionate hearts, but we can never hope to share an atom of their affections. The relation of master and scholar forbids this. How pleasing this must be to you, how I envy your feelings, my friends will sometimes say to me, when they see young men, whom I have educated, return after some years absence from school, their eyes shining with pleasure, while they shake hands with their old master, bringing a present of game to me, or a toy to my wife, and thanking me in the warmest terms for my care of their education. A holyday is begged for the boys, the house is a scene of happiness. I, only, am sad at heart. This fine-spirited and warm-hearted youth, who fancies he repays his master with gratitude for the care of his boyish yearsthis young man, in the eight long years I watched over him with a parent's anxiety, never could repay me with one look of genuine feeling. He was proud when I praised; he was subinissive when I reproved him; but he did never love me and what he now mistakes for gratitude and kindness for me, is but the pleasant sensation which all persons feel at revisiting the scene of their boyish hopes and fears; and the see. ing on equal terms the man they were accustomed to look up to with reverence. My wife, too,” this interesting correspondent goes on to say, “my once darling Anna, is the wife of a schoolmaster. When I married her-knowing that the wife of a schoolmaster ought to be a busy notable creature, and fearing that my gentle Anna would ill supply the loss of my dear bustling mother, just then dead, who never sat still, was in every part of the house in a moment, and whom I was obliged sometimes to threaten to fasten down in a chair, to save her from fatiguing herself to death--l expressed my fears, that I was bringing her into a way of life unsuitable to her; and she, who loved me tenderly, promised, for my sake, 10 exert herself to perform the duties of her new situation. She promised, and she has kept her word. What wonders will not woman's love perform? My house is managed with a decorum unknown in other schools, my boys are well fed, look healthy, and have every proper accommodation ; and all this performed with a careful economy, that never descends to meanness. But I have lost my gentle, helpless Anna ! When we sit down to enjoy an hour of repose after the fatigue of the day, I am compelled to listen to what have been her useful (and they are really useful) employments through the day, and what she proposes for her to-morrow's task. Her heart and her features are changed by the duties of her situation. To the boys, she never appears other than the master's wife, and she looks up to me as the boy's master; to whom ali show of love and affection would be highly improper, and unbecoming the dignity of her situation and mine. Yet this my gratitude forbids me to hint to her. . For my sake she submitted to be this altered creature, and can I reproach her for it?" For the communication of this letter, I am indebted to my Cousin Bridget.
Hall to thy returning festival, old Bishop Valentine! Great is thy name in the rubric, thou venerable arch-flanien of Hymen! Immortal go-between! who and what manner of person art thou ? Art thou but a name, typifying the restless principle which impels poor humans to seek perfection in union ? or wert thou indeed a mortal prelate, with thy tippet and thy rochet, thy apron on, and decent lawn sleeves ? Mysterious personage ! like unto thee, assuredly, there is no other mitred father in the calendar; not Jerome, nor Ambrose, nor Cyril ; nor the consigner of undipped infants to eternal torments, Austin, whom all mothers hate ; nor he who hated all mothers, Origen; nor Bishop Bull, nor Archbishop Parker, nor Whitgift. Thou comest attended with thousands and ten thousands of little loves, and the air is
“ Brush'd with the hiss of rustling wings'