« НазадПродовжити »
The property of the New River is divided into seventytwo shares; for the first nineteen years after the finishing of the work, the annual profit upon each share scarcely amounted to twelve shillings. A share is now considered to be worth 11,5001. and they have been sold as high as 14,0001.
Several other water companies have since been estalished, which have contributed much to the comfort and convenience of the metropolis ; and although several attempts at monopoly bave been made, yet they have met with a proper resistance in the legislature.
WHIG AND TORY.
1.-" This year (says Hume, Hist. Eng. 1680), is remarkable for being the epoch of the well-known epithets of Whig and Tory, by which, and sometimes without any material difference, this island has been so long divided. The court party reproached their antagonists with their affinity to the fanatical conventiclers in Scotland, who were known by the name of Whigs: the country party found a resemblance between the courtiers and popish banditti in Ireland, to whom the appellation of Tory was affixed. And after this manner, these foolish terms of reproach came into public and general use; and even at present, seem not nearer their end than when they were first invented.”
II.-Mr. Laing takes no notice of the term Tory, but of Whig, he gives the following as the origin:
Argyle and Lothian had begun an insurrection in the Highlands," and so forth. The expedition was termed the Whigamores' inroad, from a word employed by these western peasants in driving horses ; and the name, transferred in the succeeding reign to the opponents of the court, is still preserved and cherished by the Whigs, as the genuine descendants of the covenanting Scots *."
HI.-Bailey, in his dictionary, gives the following:
* For a further account of the term “ Whigamore,” see Burnet, as quoted in Johnson's Dictionary.
“Whig (Sax.) whey, butter-milk, or very small beer;" -again,
“A Whig-first applied to those in Scotland who kept their meetings in the fields, their common food being sour-milk*, –
,-a nicknaine given to those who were against the court interest in the time of King Charles and James II., and to such as were for it in succeeding reigns."
With regard to Tory, he says.--
“ A word first used by the Protestants in Ireland, to signify those Irish common robbers and murderers, who stood outlawed for robbery and murder; now a nickname to such as call themselves bigh churchmen, or to the partisans of the Chevalier de St. George."
IV.-Johnson, again, has “ Whig (Sax.) 1. Whey.2. The name of a faction;"—and as to Tory, he supposes it to be derived from an Irish word, signifying a savage.-“ One who adheres to the ancient constitution of the state, and the apostolical hierarchy of the church of England-opposed to a Whig."
Torbhee is the Irish appellation for a person who seizes by force, and without the intervention of law, what, whether really so or not, he alleges to be his property.
V.- Daniel Defoe, in No. 75, of Vol. vii. of his “Review of the British Nation," (1709), gives the following history of these terms :
“ The word Tory is Irish, and was first made use of in Ireland, in the time of Elizabeth's wars there. It
• In different parts of Scotland the term Whig is still commonly applied to a sort of sour liquid which is obtained from milk or cream. The whig is taken from cream after it has been collected six or eight days for a kirning, and is drawn off by a spiggot from the bottom of the cask or can. . - It is also taken from sour-milk, when in a coagulated state, or what the Scotch call lappert-milk, being merely the thin watery substance which is separated from the curd on stirring it about. The whig both of sour-milk and cream is extremely tart to the taste. It is not, so far as we know, used in any way for food by the common people. Might not this term have been first applied to the covenanters, in derision of their austere manners and unpalatable opinions ?
signified a kind of robbers, who being listed in neither army, preyed in general upon their country, without distinction of English or Irish.
“In the Irish massacre in 1641, you had them in great numbers, assisting in every thing that was bloody and willanous, and particularly when humanity prevailed upon some of the Papists to preserve Protestant relations ; these were such as chose to butcher brothers and sisters, fathers and mothers, and dearest friends and nearest relations, and these were called Tories.
“ In England, about the year 1680, a party of men appeared among us, who, though pretended Protestants, yet applied themselves to the ruin and destruction of their country. They quickly got the name of Tories.Their real godfather, who gave them the name, was Titus Oates; and the occasion as follows: the author of this happened to be present. There was a meeting of some people in the city, upon the occasion of the discovery of some attempt to stifle the evidence of the witnesses (about the popish plot), and tampering with Bedlow and Stephen Dugdale. Among the discourse, Mr. Bedlow said, he had letters from Ireland, that there were some Tories to be brought over hither, who were privately to murder Dr. Oates and the said Bedlow.
“ The doctor, whose zeal was very hot, could never hear any man talk after this against the plot, or against the witnesses, but he thought he was one of these Tories, and called almost every man who opposed him in discourse a Tory; till at last the word Tory became popular, and they owned it, just as they do now the name High-flyer.'
“ As to the word Whig, it is Scots. The use of it began there, when the western men, called Cameronians, took arms frequently for their religion. Whig was a word used in those parts for a kind of liquor the western Highlandmen used to drink, the composition of which I do not remember, but so became common to these people who drank it. These men took up arms about the year 1681, being the insurrection at Bothwell Bridge. The Duke of Monmouth, then in favour here,
was sent against them by King Charles, and defeated them. At his return, instead of thanks for his good service, he found himself ill-treated for using them mercifully. And Lauderdale told Charles, with an oath, that the duke had been so civil to the Whigs, because he was a Whig himself in his heart. This made it a court word, and in a little while all the friends and followers of the duke began to be called Whigs; and they, as the other party did by the word Tory, took it freely enough to themselves.”
THE BOGLE OF ANNESLIE.
A SCOTTISH FRAGMENT.
“And ye winna believe i'the bogle,” said a pretty young lassie to her sweetheart, as they sat in the door of her father's cottage on a five autumn evening. “Do you hear that, mither? Andrew will no believe i'the bogle."
« Gude be wi' us, Effie," exclaimed Andrew, a slender and delicate youth of about two-and-twenty, "A bonnie time I wad hae o't gin I were to heed every auld wife's clatter."
The words “auld wife” had a manifest effect on Effie, and she bit her lips in silence. Her mother immediately opened a battery upon the young man's prejudices, narrating that on Anneslie heath, at ten o'clock at night, a certain apparition was wont to appear, in the form of a young maiden, above the usual size, with a wide threecornered hat. Sundry other particulars were mentioned, but Andrew was still incredulous. “ He'll rue that, dearly will he rue it,” said Effie, as he departed.
Many days, however, passed away, and Effie was evidently much disappointed, to find that the scepticism of her lover gathered strength. Nay, he had the audacity to insult, by gibes and jests, the true believers, and to call upon them for the reasons of their faith. Effie was in a terrible passion.
At last, however, her prophecy was fulfilled. Andrew was passing over the moor while the clock struck ten; for it was his usual practice to walk at that hour in order to mock the fears of his future bride. He was just winding round the thicket, which opened to him a view of the cottage where Effie dwelt, when he heard a light step behind him, and in an instant his feet were tripped up, and he was laid prostrate on the turf. Upon looking up, he beheld a tall muscular man standing over him, who, in no courteous manner, desired to see the contents of his pocket.
“ De'il be on ye!” exclaimed the young forester, “I hae but ae coin i' the warld.” “ That coin maun
I hae'," cried his assailant. “Faith, I'se show ye play for't then,” said Andrew, and sprung upon his feet.
Andrew was esteemed the best cudgel-player for twenty miles round, so that in brief space he cooled the ardour of his antagonist, and dealt such visitations upon his skull as might have made a much former head ache for a fortnight. The man stepped back, and, pausing in his assault, raised his hand to his head, and buried it amongst his dark locks. It returned.covered with blood. « Thou hast cracked my crown,” he said, “ but ye sha' nae gang scatheless;" and, flinging dowa his cudgel, he flew on his young foe, and, grappling his body, before he was aware of the attack, whirled him to the earth with an appalling impetus. “ The Lord hae mercy on me," said Andrew, “I am a dead man.”
He was not far from it, for his rude foe was preparing to put the finishing stroke to his victory. Suddenly something stirred in the bushes, and the conqueror, turning away from his victim, cried out, “ The bogle! the bogle !" and fled precipitately. Andrew ventured to look up. He saw the figure, which had been described to him, approaching. It came nearer and nearer ; its face was pale, and its step was not heard on the grass. At last it stood by his side, and looked down on him. Andrew buried his face in his cloak. Presently the apparition spoke, indistinctly indeed, for its teeth seemed to chatter with cold