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course ought to be, and the easiest way is To begin with, you have the natural adto illustrate by example. Two years ago, vantages of the sea and the rolling sandy seventy men in this country subscribed one hills which have been associated with the thousand dollars apiece in order to buy game from time immemorial. Surroundland and lay out a course that might ings go for a good deal. Who would prenot only equal the best courses abroad but fer, let us say, Sunningdale in England to combine as far as possible the best features North Berwick in Scotland, even if techof all. They intrusted Mr. C. B. Macdon- nically speaking Sunningdale were the betald with the task of collecting information ter golf course of the two? And the new and adapting the materials to the actual National course on the Shinnecock Hills conditions. In two years the course has will certainly challenge comparison with been made and will be ready for play this the links by the Firth of Forth in point of summer. The experiment cannot be en- natural beauty. Your true golfer and your tirely successful for a year or two, since it true sportsman can never be quite satisfied takes time to produce the best quality of when he is playing 'round suburban lots, turf. But I imagine that the difference in even though the putting greens are true the quality of the golf will become at once and the club house only thirty-five minutes apparent.

from town. At the present moment I would

rather play on the old course at Shinne- laying out a course is to attain variety. cock, which has nearly all the faults that in- Every hole should as far as possible be genuity could invent, than any other course different from all the rest, and each should in the country simply for the sake of the contain in itself a variety of possibilities. wide sweep of ocean and down, and the Roughly speaking, there may be only three sunset over Peconic Bay and the gleam or four underlying principles, but these of water on a thousand inlets. There is the three or four suggest a variety of combinatrue links. You may get a fairly good imi- tions. We might begin, for simplicity's sake, tation of it further inland, but when you with two categories: Holes that can alhave once seen the real painting you will ways be reached in one shot, and holes that never be content with a chromo-lithograph. generally require two shots or more.

So much for the surroundings. When we It should be easy enough to make a short come to particulars it will be observed that hole; yet how few really good short holes most American courses consist of a long are there in existence. The first requisite strip of turf about sixty yards wide laid out —and this is very important–is that not like a race course, with long grass or trees, only the flag should be visible from the tee, or bushes, on either side. Hazards are but, if possible, every bit of ground beplaced at stated intervals, generally about tween the tee and the flag. One ought to 120 yards and 260 yards from the tee, in play always for a two at a short hole, and the form of ditches and cops stretching at one can only do that with any degree of acright angles across the course. The only curacy when the flag and the ground round difference between one hole and another is about it are visible. The much boasted the difference of length. Any shot off the Maiden at Sandwich is really a very intee suffices as long as it carries 120 yards different hole because a three is very easy and keeps within a width of sixty yards, un- and a two is largely a matter of luck, since less it is an exceptionally long and straight in playing from the tee the entire putting shot, when it goes into a bunker intended green is invisible. In the second place, to catch a second. The putting greens it is well to vary the short holes in length are large and flat expanses with no hazards so as to get every kind of shot. On the near them so that the approach shot be- National links the shortest hole is about comes as simple as possible. The one 140 yards. The shot is played from high thing the player has to worry about is the ground across a wide bunker on to a small chance of a bad slice or pull. If he goes plateau which is entirely surrounded by a yard off the course to left or right he bunkers. Where the hole is so short it will probably lose his ball and his temper. should be made as difficult as possible; conThere is no variety or finesse about the sequently the little plateau is undulating game under such conditions. The advan- and slopes off on every side toward the tage of skill is reduced to a minimum and bunkers. The nicest accuracy is necessary the wonder is that the game has remained in order to keep the ball on the green. so popular as it is. A spirit of trade union- With the wind behind the shot must be ism seems to have invaded the game. Just played with a good deal of back spin. The as it is made impossible nowadays for a bunker in front of the green is deep and good bricklayer to lay bricks as fast as he sheer, so that it is quite impossible for a wants to, it is considered wrong that the topped ball to run through. The bunkers golfer who can hit the ball far and straight round about will not be so severe because should have any advantage over the short even a well played shot may just run over and inaccurate driver. As for the finer the green and a recovery should be possible, points of the game-putting spin on the though difficult. Lastly, the fact that the ball to stop it, etc.—the idea of developing tee is a good deal higher than the little plathose points is firmly discouraged. I have teau green makes the distance deceptive, already mentioned a few courses which do and calls for the most careful judgment. afford opportunities to the fine player and The next hole in point of distance is the variety to all classes. It must be confessed, 4th; about 160 yards in length. Here the however, that this is not the case with the green is modelled and bunkered exactly as majority.

the 11th hole at St. Andrews is, and more The first thing, then, to be aimed at in or less like the last hole at Garden City.

VOL. XLV.-64

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There is such a consensus of opinion among racy. It would be practically impossible good golfers that it is impossible to be- for a bad shot to get near the hole in any lieve that the 11th at St. Andrews is not case. Notice first, that in each case all the about the best short hole in the world. The ground between the tee and the flag is green in this case is a good deal larger- visible from the tee, and secondly, that the the distance being greater-but it is undu- bunkers are deep and very near the hole. lating and the bunkers to left and right and One might almost say that a short hole beyond are so severe that a mistake is apt cannot be a good one unless it has one deep to be expensive. A great many American bunker within twenty feet of the flag. players have criticised the new bunkers Now we come to the two-shot holes. at the last hole at Garden City as being far These are of great variety and of all lengths, too difficult. That is partly because they from 250 yards up to 500. It used to be have never learned to play out of deep considered that anything between 200 bunkers—the shot really is not difficult if yards and 350 was bad because it meant the sand is soft-and partly because they a drive and a mashie shot. Now a hole of overlook entirely the moral aspect of the that length is bad on the ordinary stereogame. A shallow patch of sand is the worst typed course in America because it means kind of hazard for a short hole. It does that you can miss your drive and go about not affect the nerves of the player on the 120 yards and still be about as well off as a tee to any extent. If the worst comes to man who hits his drive but cannot get the worst and he goes into the sand he home in less than two. But there is no has still a good chance of a three after reason in the world why a hole of any dismaking a bad tee shot. But with the deep tance should not be made a good one probunkers staring him in the face, he knows vided it is not over 500 yards. Who does that a mistake will be disastrous, if not not know those courses supposed to be fatal. The moral effect of the bunker is, first-class simply because they are long, therefore, twice or three times as great, and nearly every hole is marked 400 yards, and that is exactly what makes the differ- and is described as a fine two-shot hole? ence between good golf and poor golf. The As far as may be, every hole on the course 4th hole on the National course is better should have a distinct length of its own. than the with at St. Andrews because it On the National Links you will find the has a water hazard right in front of the tee following approximate distances: 140, 160, to punish a topped shot. But between the 180, 240, 290, 310, 330, 360, 380, 400, 410, hazard and the plateau edge of the green 440, 460, 480, 500; that is to say, only three there is plenty of good ground, so that the duplicates out of eighteen. player has the option, as at St. Andrews, The shortest of the two-shot holes is the of pitching right onto the green or of ith, or Sahara, copied from the 3d at playing a low running shot.

Sandwich. The principle of this hole is one The third short hole is a copy of the which may be used very frequently in difRedan at North Berwick and is the 13th ferent forms and disguises. A rough plan hole on the National links. The flag should will explain better than words. The driver be about 175 yards from the tee on a calm can risk as much of the bunker as he day. Next to the 11th at St. Andrews the likes. If he goes straight on the hole be Redan is conceded to be the best one-shot must carry 180 yards, and then he can reach hole in the world. The green is protected the green or the edge of the green and has by a deep bunker in front and is so narrow a good chance of a three. By playing more that it is necessary to play the shot with a to the right he gets a carry of 100 yards good deal of back spin if it is played straight; only but cannot reach the green. Still, his but the conformation of the ground is such approach is a short one and he has an easy that the bunker may be avoided by playing four with a possible three. If he can only to the right and allowing the ball to roll in carry 130 yards or 120, he has to go still toward the hole with the slope. Either further to the right and has a long and diffshot requires considerable skill.

cult approach, so that the hole may cost him There you have three short holes of five strokes. In other words, courage and three different lengths, each with great in- clean hitting are rewarded, while for the dividuality and each calling for great accu- poorer player there is still a way around. The same principle is applied at the 5th easy four. Or, if he cannot, owing to wind, hole, which will be perhaps the most cele- carry that distance, he can carry, say, 150 brated in the country. The actual distance yards and pull his ball so as to end up well from tee to flag is about 290 yards—one to the left. Otherwise he has to play would have said the worst possible distance straight on the hole which is protected in for a hole—but it works out beautifully. The hazard in this case is water. Here it is impossible quite to reach the green, but the

290 fine driver if he likes to take a risk and go almost straight for the hole, may get within putting distance and so have a good chance for a three. But the least slice will carry his ball into Sebonac Creek; or if he fails to get 240 yards he will have a difficult little pitch shot onto the promontory. The man who can drive 200 yards may prefer to play fairly well to the left so as to be sure of

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front by mounds and beyond by a bunker, so that his approach is extremely difficult. There is a bunker to the right about 180 yards from the tee to catch a sliced drive.

Another splendid example is the 9th hole; 480 yards with a gradual slope uphill all the way. The big driver can carry the bunker in a direct line and by so doing can practically get home in two, or so near

Eleventh. Sahara hole.

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opening the hole; but then he has a long approach onto the promontory. Finally, the short driver can get across the water by playing well to the left and carrying less

240 than 100 yards; but he has a long second

180 to play and may easily take a five. In fact,

120 the hole is either a three or a four or a five, according to the way the tee shot is played.

The principle of the “Dog's Hind Leg,” as Old Tom Morris used to call it, is the underlying feature of most of the best holes. The 8th is another good example. Here the

Eighth. Leven hole. hole is about 330 yards long and the application is a little different. The long home as to have a good chance of a four. driver does not play straight on the hole The poorer driver has to play more to the but out to the left. If he can carry 18o right, and then he is confronted with a big yards, his second shot is an easy run-up to carry for his second if he wants to play the flag, and he has a possible three and straight on the hole. If he is afraid of it, he must play his second ball to the left, worth punishing. But put your cross making his third a long and very difficult bunker 320 yards, or 330 yards, from the approach. The green itself, by the way, tee, so that the actual distance of the carry standing on a bluff 60 feet above Peconic is about 350, then matters are different.

The best drive cannot reach the bunker, and you must hit a really fine second in order to carry it. There is no prettier shot in golf than a second played with a brassie over a bunker onto the green where the carry is considerable. Always remember that it is far more important to punish the indifferent or sloppy shots than the very bad ones. The very bad ones punish themselves through loss of distance. Neither of these fine two-shot holes is spoiled when the wind is against the player. The great

beauty of the Alps Hole at Prestwick is that 240

the middle part of the hole is so well bunkered that the second shot is always a diffi

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Bay, rivals Point Garry at North Berwick for picturesqueness.

Then there is the two-shot hole where the big carry is on the second shot, like the 12th hole, which is taken from the Alps at Prestwick, and the 7th where the Punch Bowl green is protected by a very severe bunker across the front. In both cases the tee shot must be a long one in order to make it possible to carry the bunker with the second. Notice here that in each case there is a cross bunker which has to be carried. As a rule, bunkers going at right angles across the course are to be avoided, and the modern tendency is to leave them out altogether; in fact, the modern tendency is rather to omit all bunkers. It is always a mistake to go to extremes. Much depends on where the cross bunker

Seventeenth. Bottle-neck hole. is placed. Garden City is spoiled by the number of cross hazards which occur cult one, even when you have to play short about 250 yards from the tee, just in the of the final hazard. It is quite easy to place to catch a very fine drive on a calm leave yourself in such a position as to make day. They really are bad hazards in every it impossible to reach the green with the way, for they only catch very good drives third. The Alps is never a bad hole in or seconds which are so bad as to be hardly any wind.

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