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From a photograph, copyright 1908, by Detroit Publishing (.
One of two groups of panels on the third floor representing industrial Pittsburg.

Each group is about fifty feet long.

imagine Vulcan's immortal smiths to have rendering of the whole composition in carehammered out the Olympian thunderbolts. fully executed anatomical studies before the Time and fatigue are not for them; in a introduction of any accessories whatever, bigger world than this, unhampered by while insuring the correct drawing of the earthy and material limitations, they mas- figures, presents the working disadvantage ter iron and fire. This, it seems to us, is of necessitating many changes, sometimes the true theory of decoration—to present of the elimination of entire figures, when the real sublimated, as it were. Art, deco- the garments, furniture, architecture or rative art at least, should be neither bitter, landscape are put in. Other composers are cynical nor despairing, neither statistical, able to see their future picture—sometimes pathological, minatory nor too purely intel- very distinctly, and frequently better than lectual, but rather inspired by that “faculty it ever is after-behind their closed eyelids, of electing the moments and the localities like Mrs. Browning's “Poet.” Mr. Alexmost propitious for the evocation of the ander, on the contrary, sits down emptyau-delà."

handed before his great panel of white In carrying out this very large work, with canvas and looks at it, for hours if necesits very considerable amount of manual sary; finally, with a piece of charcoal tied labor, Mr. Alexander has had no assistants to the end of a long rod, he suddenly draws

—this being stipulated in the original con- a line upon it, anywhere, and in any directract, from an intelligent care that the indi- tion. This is presently supplemented by vidual expression of the work, from end to another, somewhere else or in conjunction end, should be quite undisturbed—and he with the first; then come various strokes, has wrought in methods somewhat different suggestions of forms, embryos of things, from those usually employed by mural and with the composition in this very rudipainters. He makes no preliminary stud- mentary stage the charcoal is discarded, the ies or sketches, no careful drawings of bits model summoned, mounted upon his or of drapery, of models nude, partly draped, her stage, frequently a lofty one, generally completely furnished, no carefully finished draped, and painted à premier coup on the compositions in black and white, before basis of the most important of these guidtouching color. This, perhaps, is partlying lines. The first figure, thus summarily theory, partly temperament—it is not out- brought into existence, is followed after a side the experience of most painters that certain lapse of time by another, and then the spirit, the élan, of the first study some- by another, each suggesting its attendant, how frequently evaporates when this figure, or supplement, or corollary, until the final or group, comes to be transferred to the grouping appears, and this group, thus final canvas, or wall. The fine old academ- carefully created, partly self-created as it ical recipe of a much-labored, Davidian were, but very seldom needs revision.

For the long frieze of the Populace, or In this crowded frieze the figures, we bethe People, or Humanity (the painter him- lieve, were largely put in in color before self has no name for it), the first lines, long the models were called upon. To inhorizontal ones, indicated the continuous sure the unchanging permanence of these crests of breaking waves, here swelling in paintings no medium was used but benuninterrupted procession, here curling over zine-which, for a number of years, this in foam, here broken by intervals, and, fol- artist has employed in all his paintings lowing the suggestions of these lines ap- —and this only for the preliminary laying pear the various heads of the multitude, in. The finishing is done in pure color, mounting and falling but ever moving on. specially ground for him and containing A sudden accent is marked by a head of but little oil. Care is also taken to avoid greater importance, nearer the foreground; lumps, ever so slight. After the canvases the bodies necessarily attached to these have been placed on their final wall, and heads complete the wave movement, and if are thoroughly dry, they are varnished, and the body is too long, or declines to follow the colors, thus locked in, are treated to a the required movement, it is interrupted by thin coating of dissolved beeswax, which another head, or arm, or accessory. As the can be cleaned without injuring them. preliminary charcoal line was very carefully The smoothness of surface was considered thought out (or, seen), the rhythm, the as very important in preventing the lodgstructural unity, the continuous movement ing of dust through the ages; but since of the whole, is preserved and makes itself the adoption, and the enforcement, of rigid felt. In no more ingenious way could this anti-soft-coal-smoke ordinances Pittsburg very varied multitude have been kept in has lost her claim to be called the Smoky the necessary harmony and fitness of things. City.



Plan of the second floor.
A shows the position of the eleven panels of the Apotheosis.
I shows the position of the four panels of Labor.
P shows the position of the twelve panels of the People (third floor).
V shows the position of views over cities and river.
X shows the position of figure of Pittsburg
The four panels on pages 46 and 47 are on the first door and do not

show on this diagram.

Vol. XLV.—7


By Rebecca Harding Davis

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D HE old Professor, with Mrs. home in New England had been civic re

Cross, walked down the vil- form. Always used to act with and through lage street just as the sun was clubs, she found it hard to stand alone here. setting. The street ended on “The Oakford people,” she wrote home, the bank of a narrow river “were born finished and content with their

. which crept down from the finishing." She had done her best to hills. There was no wharf, no trading, no waken them, to drag them into some great bustle there or anywhere. Oakford was al- upward movement of the age. She had ways quiet and leisurely.

applied to a well-known philanthropist for The village consisted of a small sectarian money for a free library. He promised her college, to which the sons of the poor enough for the building (with his name over farmers of the neighborhood came to make the door), but the towns-people would not men of themselves, and a few old houses, agree to give the books. She then with his set back along the crooked street, each in consent used the money to build and furits garden and grove of maples, which were nish a Home for Aged Men (with his name the homes of the professors and the poor over the door). "If we can shut up the widows, who took in the students to board. worn-out human lumber out of sight," she

When they reached the bank the Pro- thought, “perhaps the young people will fessor motioned Mrs. Cross courteously to begin to do something to justify their right an old bench under a big tree. “Will you to live.” not sit down?” he said. “It is always so So far only two rooms in the home were restful here. I like to listen to the plash- filled. The towns-people raised money ing of the water

enough to take old Sam Darrah and Jim “Rest is not precisely the thing needed Paine out of the county almshouse and put in Oakford just now," said Mrs. Cross them into it. “Men of too good birth," tartly.

they said, “to herd with paupers.” She did not sit down. She was a plump After all her unselfish efforts this lack of erect little woman, and it occurred to her success in the Home exasperated Mrs. companion that her trig tailor-made gown Cross. Her husband had finished his and cap, with its defiant red pompon, gave work and they were going home in a day or her quite a military air. Old as he was, two, not to return. She hated to be balked he liked to see a woman prettily dressed. by the stupidity of these people in her effort “But not like a drummer-boy-No!” he to help them. As she walked back through thought. His own coat and baggy trousers the village with the Professor, she scanned were faded and patched. He had worn the old man's face keenly. them many years, but it never in his lifeShe suddenly saw a way to ensure success had occurred to him that anybody would to the Home through him. Her face grew measure him by his clothes. The Paulls scarlet. No! It wasn't delicate or seemhad lived in Oakford since before the Revo- ly! But she braced herself, watching him lution. Everybody knew them for what sharply as he talked. Heaven knows she they were—for bad or good—what had had nothing to gain by it. clothes to do with it?

No doubt, he was failing. His eyes had Mrs. Cross had come to the town only a watery, senile gleam. Sometimes he for- a year ago. Her husband was prospecting got to finish a sentence. for oil through Western Pennsylvania. She She went to work. was one of the women who expect to give "I wish I could put new blood into this the world a big boost upward before they town!” she said. have done with it. Her especial work at The old man laughed. “No, we don't

keep step with the procession, I suppose,” home shall have the best plumbing and he said cheerfully. “But do we want to?” every modern convenience. Then I am

“Look at this main street," continued satisfied with it. But as for love !" Mrs. Cross without heeding him. “The T he old man looked at her wistfully for old houses, poked back into the damp a moment. “Well, well,” he said gently. among bushes and trees—and this open “We are not all built alike, you know.” gutter overgrown with dandelions and star “No. And so you all herd together. weed. You all call it a picturesque feature. And one of your sons is married? And has If I had the money I'd start some kind of a children?” factory here, and I'd build a row of neat He bowed, but again looked curiously at little dwellings with nice tin roofs for the her. Little Molly, he thought, would not hands! I'd soon put life into the place, I have asked so many questions. Molly was tell you. I'll talk to some of my friends the little daughter who had died when she who have capital—they could bring a was but two years old. He and her mother branch railway. It may be done yet!” always had loved her more perhaps than

“Factories-Hands?” gasped the old the boys, and they had fallen into the habit man. “No, we've never had that kind of of measuring other girls by their little child thing. I suppose these houses do look who was gone out of sight for a while, but mean to you. But you see the college is who was always near them. poor-the salaries always have been very H e looked critically at his companion as small. The professors built their homes, they walked, smiling to himself. “No, most of us with our own hands. I did all Molly never would ask a question that hurt. the carpenter's work on mine. I was a She was not like this person in any way,” strong young fellow then. It was a good he thought complacently. job, a first-rate job, too, if I do say it. My M rs. Cross, on her part, was scanning the wife," he stopped. He could not tell old man's face again keenly. Undoubtedthis strange woman how Jenny had painted ly, he was failing. There were signs of and papered and what fun they had over dotage. In all probability his children felt it all. “I planted these big maples my- him to be a dead-weight on them and would self," he continued, “and I laid out that be glad to be rid of him. She had once garden-forty years ago.”

seen his chamber in the Paull home, and He stopped again, suddenly. He could its old mahogany furniture. She would not tell her of the hard years after Jenny willingly herself pay the three hundred for died, when he tried to be father and mother it which would admit him to the Home. both to the boys. They were sickly lads. The bedstead alone would bring double Doctors and drugs ran away with money that sum in Boston. And when Doctor fast. There were years when he had never Paull was once an inmate of the Home, all tasted meat. If it had not been for that the other worn-out old people in Oakford little potato patch yonder he would have would crowd into it. Her work would starved.

then not be in vain. He took off his hat and wiped his fore- “Did it ever occur to you, Doctor," she head. “It's growing quite warm,” he said. said abruptly, “how much harder the con

“But on the whole, Doctor, you had a ditions of life are upon young married successful life?” she persisted, smiling up people now than they were on you? Your at him.

sons, for example. Their incomes, I im“Certainly, Madam, certainly. My boys agine, are not much larger than yours was grew up healthy men. One, as you know, at their age, while the rates of living have is now an instructor in the college, and the trebled and quadrupled, and there are a other a physician. We all nest together hundred demands on them every year for yonder in the old house, and I am sure they outlays of which you never heard.” love it as much as I do. I don't believe “I have not heard them complain," anything would induce them to alter it or the old Professor said calmly. to live anywhere else."

“No, of course not. You would be the "I can't understand how anybody can last one to whom they would talk of the spend affection on a house!” interrupted load which they are struggling to carry.” Mrs. Cross testily. “I require that my There was a short silence. The old man

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was frowning and glancing around him un- that evening, touched but lightly on this certainly.

matter. James was a dull man of business "In my part of the country," said Mrs. and did not always sympathize fully in her Cross resolutely, “a large number of old benevolent enthusiasms. people of small means go into Homes. It “I feel that I have finished my stint in is the just, reasonable course. Their work Oakford," she wrote, “and shall be quite is done. They are a heavy weight upon ready to go back to our routine work at their children. In the Homes they are home. Nothing short of a cataclysm would comfortable, properly fed, according to the waken these people to any mental or spiritbest hygienic rules; in case of sickness are ual effort. The Home, however, promises furnished with drugs and medical aid, and to be a partial success. Dr. Paull, who bewhen they die, if necessary, are buried longs to one of the most prominent families respectably without cost to their families. here, will go into it to-morrow, and I have In the meantime the young folk are set free no doubt that his example soon will be to work for themselves and the world. followed by the other useless old men and That is just. Why, in their strongest and women who are now dead-weights on their most useful years should their houses and families. At least in that effort to uplift this their lives be cluttered with a lot of helpless community, I shall not have worked in vain." old men and women waiting to be nursed S he closed and directed the letter with a through their dotage? It's a shame! An complacent smile, remembering that in outrage!”

dealing with the old man she had used a The old man stopped short and looked at little skilful trickery. His sons, it hapher. The blood had slowly ebbed out of pened, were both absent from town to-day. his face, his chin quivered.

When they returned he would be snugly “You mean-?” he said.

settled in the Home. They probably would ** Yes, yes. Don't be worried, my dear protest a little for form's sake, but no doubt sir! It isn't so tragic a thing. Quite an at heart would thank her for relieving them every-dav matter with us. Come back here of their burden. to this bench. I'll explain it to you." "With a people so sluggish, one must use

The explanation was long; the old col- decision-not reason,” she thought, nodlege clock struck six before they came out ding her head with an air of finality, and again from the shadow of the trees. Mrs. honestly feeling herself to be a sort of archCross, in the light, looked anxiously into angel sent out to deal with the souls of men. the old man's face and then began to tug excitedly at her gloves. The Doctor had Old Doctor Paull just then had shut himmade no answer to her arguments. He had self into his own room and locked the door. listened in absolute silence. When she He sat motionless in the dark corner a turned to go up the street, he followed her. while. He knew that he was there to make

"No, no! I beg of you, Doctor. I need a great decision about something that conno escort. One could run all over Oakiord cerned his whole life. But that queer blur at midnight with perfect safety:"

had come into his head that bothered him “Probably. But you must allow me to sometimes lately-a strange torpor comattend you, Madam. It grows too dark, I ing from outside foreign to himself. He think, for a lady to be abroad alone." could not remember just what the question

He walked beside her in silence for a waswhile. And then spoke of nothing but of Both of his sons had gone on business a flurry of snow which had fallen in the to the county-seat, and would not be back morning.

until the next evening. Frederica, his son “Good-night," she said briskly, when Tom's wife, was at some quilting or other they reached her door. "You will send me woman's party. She was a gay, cordial your decision to-morrow, sir? And you will little woman and loved fun. C'sually, when keep in mind my offer about the mahogany?" he and the children were thus left alone to

The Doctor bowed, looking at her as gether, they made a regular frolic of the through a mist, and then turned to go down evening, called the supper a party, told the street again

stories and played games in which they Mrs. Cross, in writing to her husband always made Grandpa “ It.” That might

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