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place, and of course I can give you no a letter to David Dudley Field on June information. I try to administer my De- 30, 1863. “The President consults only partment as well as I can, but feel that I am Stanton and Halleck in the management of of little use outside of it, and that to be con- the war. I look on from the outside and sidered as a responsible member of an ad- as well as I can furnish the means. In my ministration is as unjust as it is natural [?]. own Department I live by work—in the
If my service here is useful I shall thank others by faith only. But I exercise faith, God, who enables me to be useful: but it not forgetting hope and charity.” is far from agreeable or in my judgment creditable to be the head of a Department After Lee was allowed to recross the under existing circumstances.
Potomac on the retreat from the battle“My notion of an administration is a field of Gettysburg, Mr. Chase, on July 15, President supreme under the Constitution 1863, wrote to Senator William Sprague of and Laws; Heads of Departments capable Rhode Island, now affianced to his daughand faithful in their several administra- ter Kate: tions and fit to be counsellors of the “We were all terribly disappointed by Chief Magistrate; measures gravely and the news yesterday that Lee had escaped fully considered by all and determined on with the whole remainder of his army and after such consideration by the Head and all his artillery and baggage. The Presithen vigorously executed by concert of all. dent came into my room and told me of it, Light and heat focalized.”.
about two yesterday afternoon. He was
more grieved and indignant than I have In reply to a letter of E. D. Mansfield, ever seen him. Ever since the battle of Mr. Chase wrote on October 27, 1863: Gettysburg he had been urging on Halleck
“... And why do you talk about a the importance of promptitude and vigilCabinet? Blair is Postmaster-General, ance, and of activity. His sole fear has but not a member of the Cabinet, for there been lest Lee's army should get away. He is no Cabinet to be a member of. You have was annoyed by the tone of Meade's adbeen in Washington and know that each dress to his troops, which insisted [?] that Head of a Department is expected to 'run the main object conceived by him was the his own machine,'as Mr. Lincoln expresses repulse of the enemy's invasion. He saw it. And each runs his machine without the same idea in Meade's despatches and any help of the others pretty much as he did all he could (except take the responsipleases; and no one knows except as a bility) to make him understand that it was matter of news what either of the others the rout of Lee's army, not its mere exis doing.”
pulsion from Pennsylvania, which was deIn a letter to Horace Greeley about the sired. And now his worst fears were realsame time (October 9) Chase wrote: ized. Lee's army gone and no blow struck.
“There is no such thing in Washington I reminded him that the last time he as an administration in the accepted sense came to my room it was very much in the of that word. There is a Heptarchy or same frame of mind, when he had just seven administrations—State, Treasury, received despatches from Hurlbut* that War, Navy, Interior, Post Office, Law. All Grant had been defeated and his army except the third are left almost absolutely captured at Jackson; and that I then told to their several Heads, each of whom is him that daylight always came before expected to 'run his machine' as well as darkness, and that all we had to do was to he can. The war comes under a divided gather new forces and persevere. He jurisdiction. The President, Mr. Stanton thought the cases not exactly similar and and General Halleck each take part in the I agreed, but insisted that the difference conduct of military operations, as well as was on our side, for had Grant been in in the organization and administration of fact defeated the case would have been the army. Nobody else has more than an much worse with us than now. incidental and casual influence.”
“Since this interview with the President
I have learned that Meade called a council "How idle it seems for me to speculate * Major-General Stephen A. Hurlbut. Manifestly one of on military affairs," Mr. Chase concluded a
many false reports inevitable in such a time of civil disturbance.
of his corps commanders on Saturday or for my part I yet put most faith in Sunday evening—that Slocum, Sedgwick, Hooker." French and one or two more opposed a Mr. Chase's disappointment was as battle, while Howard, Wadsworth and great as Lincoln's and he expressed it in Pleasanton decidedly favored it—that the letters to his friends in vivid words. He debate was warm and earnest—that wrote to George Wilkes on July 23d: Meade's judgment was with the minority, “In your general views as to the cambut his desire with the majority—that the paign which resulted in the passages0 army consequently lay idle all day Sunday glorious to us—of the Potomac by Lee's when Lee was crossing the river some six or army I quite concur. When he advanced eight miles off, Meade knowing nothing of into Maryland I wrote to several, and said it—and that Monday morning they found to more, ‘God has delivered him into our all gone and clear across.
hands.' And so he had; but Man did “Meade's laurels are badly stained; not take the gift.”
aite con wrote to seld him into did
THE MAN WHO CAME*
By Edwin Arlington Robinson
A FLYING word from here and there
He came when days were perilous
He knew that undeceiving fate
We gave a glamour to the task
The face that in our vision feels
For he, to whom we had applied
The love, the grandeur, and the fame
For we were not as other men:
By Newman Smyth
ONE key-note runs through dom by violence; and when in 1870 the
many variations of modern- later growth of papal absolutism culmiism; it is a clear call for the nated in the Vatican decree of infallibility, rejuvenation of Roman the German scholarship which had arrayed
Catholicism. The modern- in vain early Church history against it, was DET
B i sts, or Neo-Catholics, as forced to break forthwith from Rome, or they are beginning to call themselves, be- to deny itself. It was an ecclesiastical lieve that the Church can harmonize its duel within circumscribed limits. Can teachings with the thought of this age. The these modernists do otherwise ? Can they most ancient Church can survive by be- escape the same logic of events that comcoming the most modern. The living pelled Professor Döllinger, the great scholar Church is forever young. The modernists and leader of the Old Catholics, reluctantly remember that scholasticism, which the to see his own protest issue in the Old Vatican now would enforce, was a new Catholic schism ? Time will show. theology in its day-a philosophy fitted to There are two considerations which are its time. But for the hierarchy to bind enough to justify the present determination mediævalism on Christian faith would be of the Neo-Catholics to labor and to wait to wrap it in a cerement; the modernists for the renewal of the Roman Church. One would arm it “with the weapons of the is the fact that the religious conditions of time."
this century are not those of any preceding To rejuvenate Catholicism—this in one age. Evolution is the order of our times word is the battle cry of the New Catholics. alike in political, economic, social and For this cause Fogazzaro's Saint went to religious life. It is one of the striking and Rome. In this hope a group of Italian reassuring signs of our times that the underpriests—scholars, historians, young men— lying will of the people is to reform but not wrote their noble appeal to the Pope, to destroy their whole inheritance from the “What we want.” For this end, when past. Pius X refused to heed their cry, they flung The other consideration-and it is of to the whole world their reply, “The distinctive significance—is that modernProgramme of the Modernists." This ideal ism is not compelled, like the Old Cathoof a renewed Catholicism it is that holds lic Church, to split off from Rome at a them steadfast as reformers within the single divisive point of doctrine. NeoChurch even while its hierarchy would Catholicism was not at first a dogmatic cast them out as apostates. In this faith, challenge; rather it was an excursion of when threatened with excommunication, investigating minds out into the open they confess, “We are ready to suffer.” In country. The modernists would seek until this abiding sense of their fellowship with they find the vitalizing truth at the source the Church of yesterday and of to-morrow of all the rites and dogmas of the Church. they refuse to withdraw themselves from They would come not to destroy but to the Church of to-day. Hence it is that fulfil the law and the prophets of the from many different quarters is heard the Roman Church. “We are not rebels," common rallying call-Reform within the those Italian priests say to the Pope. In Roman Church.
France the Abbé Loisy declares, “I have This note distinguishes this movement always regarded it as a duty to remain in not only from the Protestant Reformation, the Church.” Tyrrell in England says but also from the Old Catholic secession of that he abhors "runaway solutions.” our times. In the sixteenth century the When charged with inconsistency and world was ready for revolution, but not weakness in not tearing themselves at once ripe for quiet religious evolution. Protes- free from Rome, they remind us that the tantism must needs come and take its king- Apostolic community continued to frequent the Hebrew temple, and to mingle their the early springs of this movement; its prayers with those of the people faithful present increasing volume is the confluence to Moses, although their new faith was of many tendencies from the past, the fuldifferent from that of the circumcision. ness of influences that are now flowing “We follow at all times,” these Italian together from widely distant sources. modernists say, "the practice of the Cath- It would be equally a mistake to presume olic worship together with the people; we that modernism is but a reflection of celebrate the rites, we live in the midst of Protestant thought among Roman Cathothe same religious life, although our belief lics. On the contrary, Catholic scholars is different, our ideality changed.” They have beaten from their own laborious can allow no papal ban to separate them studies the oil for its lamp. Protestant and from their spiritual fellowship in the Catholic scholars, it is true, have toiled of Church of their devotion and hope. Some late years in friendly intercourse, especially of them possibly may be driven by persecu- in the fields of early Christian history and tions into hopeless renunciation of it; but Biblical criticism. They have drawn tothe Abbé Loisy spoke for their common gether from common sources of modern spirit and predominant purpose when he philosophy and science. In some German declared himself to be a Catholic still; universities a promising fraternity between although when an absolute surrender of Protestant and Catholic faculties has been the conclusions of his lifelong studies of the springing up, which now the blow of Scriptures was demanded of him by Cardi- ultramontane authority would cut down. nal Merry del Val, he answered with a cour- But while mutual appreciation and symageous sincerity: “My spirit is as incapable pathy are growing between liberal Catholiof living in the intellectual atmosphere of cism and progressive Protestantism, it is the Encyclical as my lungs are of breath- also true that Neo-Catholicism has struck ing at the bottom of the sea.” The Neo- its roots down deeply into its own soil, and Catholics conceive their mission to be not its natural fruitage is not another Protesthat of the Baptist to lay the axe at the tantism. These modernists, indeed, in root of the tree; they find their providential their house of bondage, are not slow to call interpreted in the Gospel parable of recognize the splendid service of Protestantthe leaven, and they believe that modern- ism to intellectual liberty. But to them ism is the ferment which in due time shall Protestantism has presented Christianity as make of the whole lump of Romanism an individual religious experience, while fresh bread of life for the people.
they regard it as essentially a social fact. In this abiding loyalty of spirit to the Protestantism, they say, is individualistic; Catholic Church lies the strength of the Catholicism is universalistic. Protestantmodernists. Their position may be re- ism affirms the absolute right of private garded as exposed and precarious; but so judgment; they would not deny its final long as they can hold it, there can be no authority for the individual; but for the question of its strategic importance. If Church the directive authority lies ultidriven from it, they might become another mately in the collective conscience of the sect soon to be brought to a standstill, like whole body of believers. Extremes meet; the present Old Catholic Church; refus- and they protest against the present claim ing to surrender this position, they remain of the sole authority of a single man, the a reformatory power confronting the very Pope, as in itself an extreme of Protestant citadel of pontifical sovereignty
individualism, un-Scriptural, unhistorical, This outbreak of modernism within the and un-Catholic. They look for a truer Roman pale has taken the Protestant world Catholicism, in which there shall be secured generally by surprise. It would be a mis- to the individual mind full working freedom take, however, to regard it as an affair of while in the growth and welfare of the one to-day, having but yesterday its origin. It body of believers, the Church, spiritual has long been growing in quiet places. authority shall be realized in the organic Without observation the seeds of it have control of the whole over the parts. This been scattered far and wide. Indeed we is not a new Protestantism, although it may have to go back to the first half of the last have in store for all Protestant bodies a century to find in Roman Catholic writings much-needed contribution.