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I fear me that if the Prophet Esay were here alive, he would tell us, as he sometimes told the Jews, that from the crown of our head to the sole of our foot, there is no whole or sound part in our body, but that all is full of sores, blains, and blotches. Think we then that such doings shall escape unpunished, or such buildings stand unshaken? Well may we deceive ourselves with so hoping : but God deceiveth not, neither is deceived. The axe is laid to the root of the tree; and the longer that God's vengeance is in coming, the sorer it smiteth when it is come.*
IV. PRAYERS AGAINST ANTICHRISTIAN TYRANNY AND CRUELTY.
Bow the hearts of all Kings and Princes of the earth to the obedience of thy dearly beloved Son Christ Jesus. If otherwise they show by plain effects that they belong not to thy fold, good Lord, make them feel thy hand, and find against whom they set themselves : let the blood of thy saints, which they shed without mercy, make them drunken to perdition. In mean time assist those that thou callest to this trial, that they may feel thy help and comfort amidst all their sufferings, whilst they shall be assured to be blessed when they suffer for righteousness' sake, and to reign with thy Son, when they fulfil his sufferings in their flesh, and carry in their bodies the scars and marks of his wounds. O Lord, sanctify their blood, that it may water thy church, and bring a mighty increase and gain to thyself, and a decrease and loss to the kingdom of Antichrist, and to the Princes of the earth, who are become his slaves and butchers. And herein, good Lord, by special name we beseech thee for the churches of France, Flanders, and of such other places; help them after their long troubles as thou shalt see to be best for them in the advancing of thy glory.*
* Nearly three hundred years have elapsed since these complaints were uttered; and in many respects, allowing for the modifications produced by differences in habits and manners, how much is applicable still! Such evils spring from corrupt human nature, and there is but one cure for them. The light of science shines more distinctly and brightly, social and political institutions are improved, laws adapted more wisely to the real circumstances of man, education widely spread, and even outward Gospel knowledge advanced : but nothing can remove evil fruits but what takes away the roots of bitterness. What are called improvements in society will only render these moral corruptions more decisive and visible, unless there be a corresponding promotion of the work of personal conversion in individuals. It is at this that all patriots and philanthropists ought earnestly and constantly to aim. All short of this is the attempt to wash the Ethiop white.ED. Y. I.
DIALOGUES ON CHEMISTRY. Part II.
DIALOGUE v. Pupil. In resuming our chemical conversations, I should be glad if you would give the substance-a sort of resumé, if you like-of what is to be said upon heat or caloric; embracing a brief reference to your former observations.
Teacher. Caloric, then, supposing it to be material, is a subtle, imponderable, and perfectly invisible fluid. Its particles so repel each other, that they have a constant tendency to fly off; and when communicated to other bodies, produce similar effects in them. It constantly tends to equilibrium. If a heated body is connected with one that is cold, heat is communicated by contact, till both are alike; the one becoming cooler, the other warmer. If one part of a body is hot, and the other cold, heat spreads by conduction, varying in the degree of quickness in different bodies. Where there is a body of heat in one place,-a fire, for instance,—you feel the warmth at a distance; or, some substance being placed before it, becomes warm, or hot; heat is thus communicated by radiation.
P. The word temperature is often used. What does it mean?
T. Sometimes heat is said to be latent, when it is so mixed
• The Protestants in France and the Netherlands were then experiencing the converting methods which Popery employs when it possesses power. The reader will likewise perceive that in those days the Church of England could publicly acknowledge, in solemn and authorized prayer, the church character of these continental Protestants. The petition is, not for individuals in a state of suffering and trial, but for the churches,- and they were not Episcopalian but Presbyterian,-yes, the churches of France and Flanders. We fear that it would be difficult to procure such an open recognition now.
up with the substance, as it were, as not to be at all sensible ; so that its existence can only be ascertained, and its quantity measured, by experiment. At others it is sensible, and free, so as to be readily communicated. The temperature of a body is an expression denoting the quantity, more or less, of sensible, free heat which it contains, and which, in proper circumstances, it can communicate. We thus speak of the temperature of the atmosphere, or of water, and so on.
P. A thermometer is an instrument for measuring the degree of heat, is it not? On what principle does it act?
T. It is. The principle is, the law by which heat causes the minute particles of a body to remove to a greater distance from each other, so that the volume is enlarged. This is usually shown by the use of spirits, in which heat acts more powerfully and quickly. Two or three points are fixed on a scale, marked arbitrarily with a certain number of degrees. Thus, between the points at which water boils, in those commonly used, and from their inventor called Fahrenheit's, and that at which it freezes, 180 degrees are marked, and below the lower, 32 more. The point at which the scale begins is zero, a cipher, nothing. Below zero, for convenience' sake, degrees of the saine scale are measured down ward -1, 2, 3, &c., below zero. Above zero, at 32, water freezes; at 212, water boils. Ordinarily, on our scale, 55 is marked temperate ; 76, summer-heat; (that is, on the average of our climate;) 93, the average heat of the blood; 112, fever-heat.
P. When water boils, or is at 212, and remains on the fire, does it become hotter?
7. Not at all. The vaporifying process goes on more rapidly: the water will soon, as they say, all boil away, but the temperature does not increase.
P. What, then, are the principal effects of heat?
7. In solid bodies, expansion; and at a certain degree of heat, liquefaction, or the conversion of certain solids into fluids; or, as we say, they are melted.
P. Can all bodies be thus liquefied ?
T. Our powers of experimenting are confined within certain limits. But it seems, in the abstract, possible for all bodies to exist ---say, first, as gases, in which, by the connexion
of the particles with heat, they are mutually repelled, and only tend to fly off from each other. Reduce adequately the quantity of heat, and they become fluid ; the particles not flying off, but moving freely among themselves. Let the heat be still further reduced, and this free motion is stopped, and the body becomes solid. According to their relations to heat is our power of causing substances thus to change their form; some more, some less, easily ; while some, in ordinary circumstances, resist all the means. we can employ. Yet, instances can be quoted which serve to justify the supposition that what to us, and practically, is impossible, is yet, had we other means, possible, as within the compass of nature. Thus, oxygen and hydrogen being mixed by the electric spark, become fluid ; in fact, become water; and we know, that by the farther abstraction of heat, water becomes ice, that is, a solid. So also, flint, mixed with certain alkalies, liquefies, melts ; and on cooling, becomes a solid, that is, glass. Thus, gases are seen to be made solids ; and such a solid as flint we can, at all events, by means of heat, liquefy. There is nothing visionary in the supposition that, originally, all bodies might be gaseous; some, by cooling, becoming fluid, while such as were combined with a larger quantity of heat remained gases, only capable of experimental appreciation; by still further reduction, while some remained fluid, others became solid, though with varying relations to heat, as metals and minerals. In fact, it is evident, that heat is one of the most powerful instruments which the all-mighty and all-wise Creator has devised for his own working. Adding heat to solids, they become fluids; adding still nore, there is aërifaction. While, by its abstraction, the contrary effects are produced. And yet, to keep us humble, we know not what it is. Its operations we know; but not its nature. We say that all things must be matter or spirit; and therefore speak of heat in language supplied by our knowledge of matter. But what the matter is which is utterly, not merely in fact, as to us, imponderable, and invisible, but which is so in itself, so that it cannot conceivably be otherwise, who can say ? Talk of mysteries? Here are mysteries. We believe facts that we cannot explain. And yet, let us adore the goodness of the Author of our mental constitution, and of its laws, tendencies, and movements : there are no palpable contradictions. The great law is unbroken, for which our minds are evidently made, that truth is consistent throughout. Mystery is never to be the refuge of falsehood. The difference between what is beyond our understanding, and is therefore mysterious, and what, being within it, contradicts its plainest dictates, counteracts its most natural movements, is never thrown into confusion. Objective nature, not only never contradicts subjective nature, but is always in perfect accordance with it, so far as they can be brought to bear on each other. Where each, respectively, gives forth a sound, our inmost nature at once feels the harmony, and instinctively recognises it to be such. It is worse than an abuse of language, it is a real rebellion against eternal truth, to attempt to excuse contradictions by real mysteries. No man loving the truth will do it if he knows it; and if he is careful to govern every intellectual movement by this supreme regard to truth, he cannot do it. He who confounds mysteries—with which nature is filled with contradictions, which are nowhere found in it, is not thoroughly an honest man.
P. Just let me ask, What appear to be the great opposing powers of nature ?
7. On the one hand, there is that power which tends to bind bodies together,-attraction, as to masses ; cohesion, as to particles. With the latter, heat is in continual antagonism. Drive the particles nearer, as in beating iron, and heat is given out. Add heat, and the increase of volume shows the greater distance of the particles. The one is the consolidating, and, thus far, the conservative power: the other, increasing distance, so far as mass and form are concerned, is the loosening, and thus the destructive power. It is an instrument, the operations of which, by impartation or withdrawment, is overwhelmingly wonderful. Nor are they less connected with utility. Who can estimate the value of fire? How many chemical operations require the employment of heat! And the production of what is somewhat incorrectly called artificial light, depends on certain modifications of combustion.