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intercepting, and exterminating, these murderers, so that the surtiring people could feel themselves in peace.

'SITERSAL PEACE THE CorsERTENCE OF THE UNIVERSAL TEICMPH OF CHRISTIANITY.–Now we would give their due to a) zs of such an order. (Cirilization, &c.) They will be inclused, certail.!r, in whaterer process can and shall reduce the world at length to peace: they will be taken as accessaries to the master-power in the operation. But whoever would reckon on such things alone, should be sharply mortified, one thinks, in adrerting to many facts of old and recent history. What, for example, is be to do with the history of Greece? or of the Italian Republic? Or nearer home; Britain and France account themselres the most enlightened, improved, civilized states in the world. And have they not been, with all their might, fighting and slaying each other, and neighbouring nations, for centuries, almost without intermission, down to this time? In the French revolutionary Government, which, after a time, became essentially warlike, there were more philosophers, speculative, literary men, than ever in any other. In our own country, through the last half century, the enlightened and civilized people (often so described and lauded at least) have needed but a little excitement, at any time, to rush out into war. Our institutions of learning, and even theology, have constantly abetted this spirit. We have had both poets and Divines actually sending the most immoral heroes to heaven, on the mere strength of their falling in patriotic combat. All this tells but ill for the efficacy of civilization, literature, refinement, and the instruction of experience, to promote the spirit of peace, without the predominance of some mightier cause. And how obvious it is, that all these, regarded as principal causes, must be inefficacious! For all causes must be so, that do not include, as the chief principle, the fear of God. In the very nature of things, it cannot be, that any race of intelligent creatures within the divine dominion can be ordered right, without regard to Him as the Governor. Without this, there can be no peremptory authority to enforce the rules of righteousness, of equity, on men's minds. Without this, the maxims of a corrupt policy, the fashion of the age, the seduction of

brilliant example, will be sure to have the sway. Men will never generally be just to one another, but under the sense of the presence of the God of justice. Nor will anything operate efficaciously to this grand effect, that does not go deep into the constitution of men's souls, and change their temper; so as to quell internally those fatal passions which have perpetrated external war. And that is what cannot be done by civilization, national refinement, science, or even an enlightened theoretical policy. All these may be like fair structures and gardens, extended over a ground where volcanic fires are in a temporary slumber below. All these may be shattered and exploded by some mighty impulse of ambition, or some blast of revengeful anger. These exterior improvements may leave those passions in full existence then; and if they be existing, they will prove that it is not for nothing. No polish, cultivation, or intelligence in a nation would be any security against its being possessed by a spirit of haughty and imperious pride, which would impel it to resent and revenge some insult, at whatever cost of blood and destruction; or any security against ambition, when tempted by some opportune juncture for making a splendid conquest; or against a nation's running mad for martial glory, at the will, and under the direction, of some great national champion; or against the pernicious delusion of an extravagant patriotism. No; there must be a greater, nobler, power brought into prevalence among mankind; and that is, Christianity. It is in no other way, assuredly, that prophecy gives the pledge for the realization of our hope on this subject. · And on any other ground, we should agree with those speculators who scorn the notion of mankind being ever estranged from war. Nothing springing merely from the action of the human mind can suffice. It must be something coming from heaven. And this is the appointed and the qualified agent.

[Had Mr. Foster lived now, what would he have said ? With all England's faults, it is the country where, on the whole, genuine Christianity enters most largely into public opinion, and thus bears most powerfully on government. And we are persuaded, that, for this reason, the British

Government is, on principle, disinclined from war. Who can look at America without grief? And as to France, eminent as she is in science, and powerful in literature, with the madness for martial glory, with a bitter and revengeful feeling against England, (and for what cause ? ) they are as the not-slumbering but only restrained volcano, to which Mr. Foster so impressively refers. It smokes, and every now and then jets out flame; and, much as an eruption would grieve the thoughtful British Christian, he would scarcely be surprised. No. It is when men say, “He shall teach us of his ways, and we will walk in his paths," that “wars shall cease to the ends of the earth.”—Ed. Y. 1.7


WHEN AGAINST THEM. Popery, as far as possible, prevents her votaries from reading works that might enlighten their mind, and excite the suspicion that all things are not as they are told and required to believe. How often, in modern times, have the Priests taken away Bibles from their flocks, and committed them to the flames! With the works of the learned, which the learned are likely to read, they deal after another fashion. Some are prohibited altogether, and their titles entered in an Index Librorum Prohibitorum,—"Index of Prohibited Books." Others are to be expurgated : hence the Index Expurgatorius; that is, certain portions are to be expunged, and thus the work is purified.

Two curious and very illustrative instances of this mode of proceeding are given in a volume by Dr. James Calfhill, A.D. 1565, lately republished by the “ Parker Society.” We give them to show our readers the love of Popery for literature and liberty !!!

1. Petrus Crinitus thus writes :-“Valens and Theodosius, Emperors, wrote on this sort to their Lieutenant :- Whereas, in all things we have a diligent care to maintain the religion of God above; we grant liberty to none to counterfeit, engrave, or paint the sign of our Saviour Christ, in colours, stone, or any other matter; but wheresoever any such be found, we command it to be taken away; most grievously punishing

such as shall attempt anything contrary to these our desires and commandments.'”

The learned Editor of this edition of Calfhill gives the following note at the foot of the page on which the quotation occurs. (The passage is quoted from a work with this title, De Honesta Disciplina.) The Editor thus writes :

“Crinitus has been obliged to submit to anything but honest discipline, in consequence of his having been so communicative: for, in Cardinal Quiroga’s Expurgatory Index, it is commanded that the entire chapter, (where this passage is to be found,) with the exception of fifteen lines, should be exterminated.”—Calfhill, p. 190.

2. Calfhill, after quoting a passage from Athanasius, and reasoning upon it, adds,—“Whereupon he concludeth, “It appertaineth only to the Godhead to be adored.'” The Editor gives this note :—“Calfhill seems to have used the Latin edition of the works of St. Athanasius, published at Basil, apud Froben, 1564. In Cardinal Zapata's review of this edition, in his Expurgatory Index, Hispali, 1632, p. 50, we find the following proscription of a reference to the passage in the text, — In Indice dele sequentia adorari solius Dei esse.'” (In the Index, expunge the following, &c.) “Here then is no slight intimation conveyed of the danger apprehended by Romanists from an honest perusal of the writings of the Fathers : and a simple proof of their having a guilty conscience, with regard to the absolute worship of the cross, may be derived from a censure passed by the Belgic Index Expurgatorius upon the Christiani Poeta, edited by George Fabricius; which is this:- D. col. 4, dele illud, Crucem ligneam adorare, aperta idolatria.'(At D, column 4, expunge that passage, “ The wooden cross to worship, is plain idolatry.”) (“P. 11, Antwerp, 1571.")—Calfhill, p. 376.

EARTHQUAKE IN ENGLAND IN 1580. [After the earthquake, a Form of Prayer, “For the estate of Christ's Church, to be used on Sundays," was set forth by authority. The tract consisted of three parts : 1. The Report of the Earthquake; 2. A Godly Exhortation for the time present; and, 3. The Prayer. We copy the “Report” entire, and quote a few sentences from the other two. It is reprinted in “Liturgical Services in the Reign of Queen Elizabeth,” just published by the Parker Society.]

I. REPORT OF THE EARTHQUAKE. On Easter Wednesday, being the sixth of April, 1580, somewhat before six o'clock in the afternoon, happened this great earthquake, whereof this discourse treateth: I mean not great in respect of long continuance of time, for (God be thanked) it continued little above a minute of an hour, rather shaking God's rod at us, than smiting us according to our deserts. Nor yet in respect of any great hurt done by it within this realm. For although it shook all houses, castles, churches, and buildings, everywhere as it went, and put them in danger of utter ruin ; yet within this realm (praised be our Saviour Christ Jesus for it) it overthrew few or none that I have yet heard of, saving certain stones, chimneys, walls, and pinnacles of high buildings, both in this city, and in divers other places. Neither do I hear of any Christian people that received bodily hurt by it, saving two children in London, a boy and a girl: the boy, named Thomas Gray, was slain out of hand, with the fall of a stone shaken down, from the roof of a church ;* and the girl, (whose name was Mabel Everite,) being sore hurt there at the same present by like casualty, died within few days after. But I term it great in respect of the universalness thereof at one instant, not only within this realm, but also without, where it was much more violent, and did far more harm; and in respect of the great terror which it then strake into all men's hearts where it came, and yet still striketh into such as duly consider how justly God may be offended with all men for sin, and specially with this realm of England, which hath most abundantly tasted of God's mercy, and most unthankfully neglected his goodness, which yet still warneth us by this terrible wonder, what far more terrible punishments are like to light upon us ere long, unless we amend our sinful conversation betimes.

* Christ's Church, near Newgate, where they were hearing a sermon.

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