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carbonates of lime; gypsum and alabaster are sulphates of lime; and bone-earth contains phosphate of lime and phosphate of magnesia.

The earths, when absolutely pure, are solid, incombustible, infusible, excepting in the most intense degree of artificial heat that can be commanded; they are insoluble in water, with the exception of lime.

When the earths naturally occur in various states of purity, they have the foregoing characters in a very eminent degree : their natural and artificial compounds with each other, with several metallic oxides, and with the above acids, in the generality of instances are similarly characterized.

A general notion of the manner in which earths, earthy and saline compounds, organic matters, and water, are mingled together to constitute a soil, may be gained from the following statement, which supposes that 1000 parts by weight of a soil have beer submitted to proximate analysis :

1000 Parts of Soil.

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Large loose stones and silicious gravel ..
Fine silicious sand . . . . . . . . .
Aluminous earth . . . . . . . . .
Carbonate of lime . . . . . . . . .
Carbonate of magnesia . . . . . . . .
Sulphate of lime . . . . . . . . . .
Oxide of iron . . . . . . . . . . .
Salts of sodium and potassium ..
Phosphate of lime . . . . . . . . .
Vegetable and animal manure . . . . .
Water ..ne . . . . . . . . . . .


143 572 75 47.5 7.5 5 12.5 10

2.5 72.5 52.5

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The more particular examination of soils, as regards their relative fertility, will be given hereafter ; and it is by a correct knowledge of the nature of the pure earths, and their compounds, and various mixtures with organic and inorganic matters, that the chemist is enabled to afford valuable information to the agriculturist, and thus assist him materially in augmenting the produce of the autumnal harvest.

It is true that every man can cause ground to bear corn, yet it will only grow in abundance, and of the best quality, where sown after rational principles; and the labours of the agriculturist are profitable and useful, in proportion as he is acquainted with the rudiments of chemical science.-Griffiths's Chemistry of the four Seasons.

(To be continued.)

A MISSIONARY PAPER. All our readers, we trust, are regular readers of the Wesleyan monthly, “Missionary Notices.” They are now very common; and here is the danger. Only let us suppose that they were scarce. How they would be sought after! Time was, in our recollection, when the Annual Report contained less interesting matter than one monthly Notice. What hath God wrought! The facts narrated are as instructive as they are encouraging. They illustrate human nature, and its consciousness of the folly of idolatry as soon as it is pointed out, as well as the adaptation of the Gospel to the moral sense of the soul, which, though utterly dormant in the absence of some outward circumstances to suggest and excite, awakes up and speaks, even though not obeyed, when THE TRUTH is presented. Nor is it a point to be passed over, that the Gospel evidently possesses power in its own accustomed way, as applied by the living, ever-present God, and thus instrumentally leads to the personal experience of its blessings. The Minister can give nothing: he can only declare that this is God's provision in his Son, even eternal life, beginning with happiness and holiness on earth, issuing in endless bliss in heaven ; but when the awakened penitent seeks this, the declaration is verified by the absolute gift, so that “he that believeth hath the witness in himself.And among the poor savages in New Zealand this gift of grace, this truly supernatural bestowment, is as surely realized as among the evangelically instructed in Great Britain.

We quote a few statements from the “ Notice" for last March :

WESTERN AFRICA. From the Journal of the Rev. John Martin, Badagry; from

March to September, 1846. “ The King of Appa, a country a few miles west of Badagry, and the King of Ajido, a town lying east of this place, called with their people to welcome me. They have shown themselves friendly to the Mission, and have each placed a son in the school.

“I passed a short time in the school with the children. I admitted two persons on trial, formerly members of our society in Sierra-Leone.

“I commenced on Sunday, the 29th of March, at six o'clock, to meet the members for the renewal of their tickets. At half-past ten I preached from Acts xix. 2, which was translated into Yuruba. The Chief of Appa attended, with three of his Captains, and listened with apparent interest to what was said. After the service, I spent another hour with the members, renewing their tickets. I had the satisfaction of admitting two persons on trial, and of allowing another to meet in class. The afternoon service was but thinly attended; in consequence of which my sermon was interpreted into the Fanti language.”

The “poor Africans,” once hardly allowed to be men, and only fit to be stolen, sold, and used as beasts of burden, recognised as our fellows, and blessed with freedom, show themselves to be capable of being and doing as Englishmen in similar circumstances would do. Slavery would embrute an Englishman to stupidity : liberty raises the African to intelligence and industry, when with it he has the light of Christianity.

“ The brig “Wonderful' left for Sierra-Leone, laden with palm-oil. She is owned and commanded by a man who was some years since sold from this coast as a slave."

Send juvenile education and the ministry of the word among Africans and their children.

“ On Sunday, the 5th of April, we commenced a Sabbathschool for adults : twenty-nine attended ; six of whom could read a little in the Scriptures, and seven or eight others could form letters into syllables ; the remainder commenced with the alphabet. I hope it will be the means of doing good. At half-past ten we went into the town, and took up our stand under the shade of a large banyan, near an idol. Our singing gathered a congregation; and many listened attentively while I spoke on the omnipresence of God, from Jer. xxiii. 24. At the conclusion of the service I approached the idol, (a lump of clay, fashioned like the bust of a man,) and ridiculed it. The Heathens laughed, and looked ashamed. Yet they are enslaved. It once, I was told, had a cowry in each of its eyes; but some person was so sacrilegious as to steal them.

"On the 8th I received a visit from the ex-King of Lagos, Akitoe, and Wawu, the English Chief. The King wore an European hat; his cloth was fine blue silk-velvet; a large gold-handled sword, of Portuguese manufacture, was carried before him; and a red silk umbrella was carried over his head. He sat while Wawu and Posu, the Field-Marshals, stood, not daring to sit in the presence of the King. The respect paid to sovereignty in this country is equal to anything of the kind in the East. Every one that approaches the royal presence prostrates himself, touching with the forehead the earth.

“I preached twice. Three of the Chiefs were present in the morning. Four persons attended the class-meetings this morning for the first time, and expressed a desire to become the servants of the true God. One of them came to me, and, with much simplicity and feeling, said, he was weary of sin, and wanted to find rest in Jesus Christ. Blessed Jesus, thou hast promised rest to such! O give many to feel that they are heavy-laden : then ease them of their load!

« On the following morning I rode out on the extensive and lovely plain east of the town. The rising sun was flinging his glory across the earth, calling forth praise from all nature, animate and inanimate, around; the birds were warbling on the trees, or swimming the air, pouring forth

their notes of wild gladness; the towering, feathery palm seemed to wave praise to the great Author of good; while the beautiful lake bordering the plain, seemed to drink in the splendour of the opening day. The peacefulness of the whole scene lulled my mind into a calm and thoughtful mood. The hum of the idolatrous revellings in the town, the fearful amount of iniquity and woe in that place, fell on my ears, and presented themselves to my mind, in striking and painful contrast. I thought, with a weeping heart, of Heber's lines. What

* Though every prospect pleases,

And only man is vile ?
What though with lavish kindness

The gifts of God are strown?
The Heathen in his blindness

Bows down to wood and stone.'

On my return, I found that the serpent (boa-constrictor) which is worshipped in a house immediately behind our premises, had been in the yard, and killed a turkey and a fowl. The event was speedily noised abroad in the town : in a short time the Priest arrived with a basket to take him, which he succeeded in doing, after an hour or two had elapsed. The fear which he displayed when the serpent moved, brought on him the ridicule of some of our people who were standing by.”

(To be continued.)

(Continued from page 224.)

CHINESE NAMES. A child's first name is given when about a month old. This is called the milk-name; and is usually some trifling epithet, as the name of a flower for girls, and of some distinguished virtue for boys. This name is dropped when the child grows up.

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