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streets are paved with flags, and the city is enclosed by a wall and gates, as is the case, I believe, with all Chinese towns. There is a fine joss-house, or temple, in the city, adorned with a great number of gods and goddesses. One goddess, of huge proportions, has a small puppet in its arms. The whole building had a Roman Catholic appearance. The gods and goddesses were much carved, and were inlaid as if all the colours of the rainbow had been taxed, and some more. The best statues were simply carved, (out of wood, I suppose,) and richly gilt. Some of these were really well done. We supposed they represented the sages of China. They had Chinese countenances; and many of them appeared to be expounding, like actors. Of the gods, I can call to mind two monsters sitting; one with a lyre, and one with a huge drawn gword, in his hand. Our friend with the lyre was anything but an Apollo in appearance; and though he smiled, it was in such sort as to disgust rather than to please. The swordsman had huge round eyes, and looked very savage indeed.”
Ningpo. (On the continent, opposite Chusan.) One or two observations on character.—“They appear to be a patient, laborious, good-natured people, without genius or originality, ambitious to equal, but without the wish to surpass, their ancestors." From a conversation between, “]," the author, and “He," a Chinaman. “1.—Englishman no want hurt Chinaman, except Chinaman attack Englishman. He. I know. 'Spose Chinaman wounded, hurt, English doctor he cure him. China soldier cut wounded man throat: that very bad.” The poor man discerned at once between right and wrong. Most important it is that they should be favourably impressed by the character and behaviour of the British.
Ibid. (A Chinese landscape.)—“Went to see an inland lake, about eleven miles from Ningpo. It is well worth seeing; though it is in part artificially made by a bund, (or mound, which separates it from the canal that leads to it. It is also disfigured by a causeway dividing its breadth in the middle. From the top of the hill, close to the bund, the view is very fine. The lake below us, surrounded by hills and mountains, appeared some four or five miles in length. The lofty pagoda of Ningpo, the landmark of the country, lay nearly W.N.W. of us. Chusan, with the sea between, was also visible to the eastward. But the most curious sight, from the top of the hill, was the immense tract of perfectly flat country, intersected by rivers and countless canals, and bounded only by distant mountains. Blue-tiled villages dotted the whole expanse so thickly, that it appeared almost as if you might go on, all the way, throwing a stone from one village to another. No solitary houses were visible. They were nestled together as in fear; and with reason, for robbers in China are “as plenty as blackberries' in England. The main pathways along the canals are flagged with large stones, and each paddy-field separated from its neighbour by a ridge of earth. All were very damp, it being the season of irrigation."
OCCASIONAL SPECIMENS OF ELOQUENCE.
No. I. [Flechier, Bishop of Nismes, lived towards the close of the seventeenth century. Thus one of his funeral orations was pronounced (as the French term their delivery) A.D. 1686. His “ Funeral Orations” are distinguished for the clear and impressive elegance of their style, and the eloquence of their entire construction. They are characterized, as the instances we shall select will show, not so much by the impressive statements of particular sentences, as by the collection of distinct facts and aspects, each one like some“ bright, particular star,'' and forming a complete and splendid constellation. Of course, as in other cases, there is much beauty which disappears in the course of the translation. Even though this be literal, yet neither have the corresponding terms the same associations to which they often in the original owe so much of their force and lustre, nor can they be always made to bear the same relation to the structure of the sentence, verbally considered, so as to give the whole that connexion and flow which constitute the delightful rhythm of the collocated words as first uttered. Still, enough remains to make them subservient to the purpose for which they are given, that of furnishing the reader with pleasing examples of true eloquence. Should he be called to speak in public, or to write for the public, he will do well always to remember that there is no eloquence where the speaker or writer is not natural. Forced imitations are always unpleasant. We benefit by such examples, not by copying them, but by imbibing their spirit. We are to aim, not at precise identity, but at analogy, at a sort rule-of-three result, laying down a formula in a manner answering to this : As is the author, to the cited example ; so must be the student, to his own production. Occasionally, there may be references to doctrine, opinions, historical facts, &c., in these specimens. When it seems necessary, we shall subjoin a remark or two upon them, that the whole may the more effectually contribute to the reader's instruction.- Ed. Y. I.]
From Flechier's Oraison Funébre de Mad. de Montansier.
But alas! these pious duties that we render to her memory, these prayers, these expiations, this sacrifice, these mournful chants which strike our ears, and carry sadness into the very depths of our soul; this solemn apparel of sacred mysteries, these religious marks of grief that are printed on our countenances by charity; all make you remember what you have lost. All the glory of her fortune is reduced to the celebration of funeral pomp! Of all that she was, nothing remains but the sorrowful thought, that she is no more! That very affection, that name of sister which flesh and blood rendered so dear, have all returned to their principle, and are lost in the bosom of the divine charity. There remains to you only the pain of her loss, and the memory of her virtues; and all that you can do is to repeat henceforth the words of my text, “A virtuous woman, who can find ?”
But when I consider that Christians are not dead, that they have only changed their life; that the Apostle exhorts us not to sorrow for those who repose in the slumber of peace, as if we had no hope; that faith teaches us that the church in heaven and upon earth forms but one body; that we all belong to the Lord, whether living or dead, because he has acquired by his resurrection and new life a sovereign dominion over the dead and the living: when I consider, I say, that she whose death we deplore is now living with God, can I believe that we have lost her ? No, no! We have sufficiently wept her removal from ourselves, and it is time to think on her own felicity. Sorrow must give place to faith, and our natural grief yield to Christian consolation.
[Some of the earlier expressions, such as expiation, &c., belong to the ruinous as well as the false doctrine of Popery, that “in the mass there is a propitiatory sacrifice offered for the living and the dead." But the Scripture does not speak the language of the Council of Trent:-“By one offering, once offered, he hath perfected for ever them that are sanctified.” And, “ Where remission for these is, there is no more offering for sin.” The great doctrine of the New Testament is, the unceasing prevalence of the one offering once offered. It is applied inwardly, in its fulness of merit and power, by the Holy Ghost, and received by a true, that is a spiritual, faith. - Ed. Y. I.]
BRIEF MISCELLANEOUS NOTICES BY SEA
AND LAND. WINTER IN NORTH AMERICA, (IN NEW-BRUNSWICK,) SNOW-shoes,
HUNTING, AND A NIGHT BIVOUAC IN THE WOODS THERE.
The operation of walking upon snow-shoes is a knack in which those only succeed who have a liking for it. These snow-shoes, upwards of four feet in length, are of an oval shape : the light bow or framework is made of tough ash, in the manner of a racket; and a fine network of the sinews of the caraboo threaded across it. They are attached to the feet by thick thongs made from the skin of the same animal; these are crossed over the toes; by which the snow-shoes are dragged or rather jerked forward. There is so much spring in them when well constructed, that when the snow is in good order, and the walker in good practice, thirty miles a day may be accomplished with comparative ease. It is necessary to
wear three or four pairs of thick woollen socks under the mocassin, to prevent the toes from being lacerated : the Indians substitute a piece of flannel doubled, and which perhaps is preferable. On coming to a descent when on snow-shoes, by sitting down upon them, and holding the heels fast to guide them, one slides down in the manner of a montagne Russe.
The produce of the chase is dragged out of the woods upon thin boards of eight or nine feet in length, called “tabaugans," turned up at one end to prevent their hitching in the snow. The venison is packed upon them, and covered over with a blanket. With the exception of going up hill, the labour of hauling them is not great, as they slide over the snow: when descending, they are slid in front, and restrained by the tow-line.
A dress made of white blanket, which from its texture throws off the snow, and from its colour is not observable in the woods, is best suited for winter hunting, The coat should be made as a hunting-shirt, or double-breasted. The waist is confined by a broad leather belt, from which hangs a scabbard to hold the hunting-knife; and through it is thrust a smal) one, or tomahawk.
A certain degree of tact is required in selecting the spot best adapted for camping for the night, and two hours at least before sundown is necessary to begin the operation. Firewood, water, and shelter are indispensably necessary. Numbers of white pine are to be found, of an enormous growth, which, having died from old age, stand bleached and scathed among the living mass. One of these, when cut down, will, as it falls, splinter into a thousand pieces. The largest slabs serve to cover in the back of the camp, and the remainder piled close to the fire,—this burns like tinder. A live tree must likewise be cut, and hewn into lengths for backlogs, which, from being green, burn but slowly.
The fire made, the snow is shovelled out with the snowshoes to the required size, and until the frozen earth is quite cleared ; over which is then laid a thick covering of the ends of the branches of the silver fir, broken off short by the hand, and layer placed over layer, in the manner of a tile-roof, slanting towards the fire. Two upright forked sticks are driven into