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as before, suspended. On the deli- of deep regret, that the vile dirt of very of the opium, according to the foreign countries should be received quantities separately verified by each in exchange for the commodities and of the proprietors or merchants re. money of the empire ; and fearing presenting the distant proprietors, lest the practice of smoking opium Captain Elliot delivered to each a should spread among all the people of certificate for the amount to be claimed the inner land, to the waste of their against the Treasury, to the following time and the destruction of their proeffect:
perty;" he prayed a prohibition of “1, Charles Elliot, H. M. Chief Su- the drug, and the punishment of offendperintendent of the trade of British In 1809, and subsequently to subjects in China, hereby acknowledge to 1837, various imperial or provincial have received from
being edicts were issued enforcing the proBritish subjects, trading in Canton, hibition, with much the same formality, chests of opium for her Majesty's in the same general terms, and with Government, in terms of my public notice the same absence of vigorous, and to British subjects, dated 27th March special provisions in aid, as in this 1839, hereunto annexed.
enlightened country proclamations “ The amount of indemnity for the said against vice and immorality are pomp, opium to be held to the order of the said ously and emptily paraded, as part and
parcel of the regalia of a new reign. No. of Chests. Kind of Opium. Ship's Name. The ceremony was occasionally gone
through by the viceroy, of sending a
message, mostly oral, by the Hong * In witness whereof, I have affirmed merchants, to remove the opium ships, to four documents, all of this time and which quietly dropped down to a more date, one of which being made good, the
distant anchorage for a few days, and others to stand void.”
then resumed their former stations unHere, having defined the broad disturbed. As an American merchant facts of the great opium case, we shall wrote to his consignees in 1821,-"As stay our hand for the present from to driving the opium ships from Whamfollowing up the connected series of poa, it is nothing more than what takes minor but accessory acts of violence place almost every year, only later in with which it has been followed up to the season." the present day, purposing to wind up Indeed, in that same year, the Ameriwith them hereafter. For it is fitting cans, now so cringing and consequently now to enquire, whether the opium admitted to favour, were the objects of trade were in reality that traffic vi. most special reprobation, as we learn gorously forbidden by the Chinese Go- from an edict of Yuen, then Viceroy of vernment, or not; what were the Canton, in which it is said_The Ame. stringent means adopted for its extir. rican captains are emboldened to bring pation ; and whether the deleterious opium, because they have no king to rule effects of the drug on health, and there. them.” Without recurring to former fore on its consumption by the people, more distant periods, it is necessary were the one sole, or only a concur- only to consult the more important rent, or not the moving cause at all, documents of the last few years, to be of the various nominal prohibitions satisfied, that humane consideration for launched against it; and of the final the health and lives of the subject has catastrophe by which, as we have seen, been only the ostentatious pretext for the interdict has finally been attempted, imperial denunciations against opium. if not consummated. We have already In 1836, it became a subject of anxious adverted briefly to the history and ori. deliberation in the Emperor's Cabinet, gin of the opium trade. It was not till whether its introduction should not be 1799 that Keikhing, the then gover legalized, and made an object of revenor of Canton, presented a memorial nue. The case was debated in the way to the Imperial Court of Pekin for its usual at Pekin, by memorial and couninterdiction, which was complied with; ter-memorial to the heads of the Sacri. but, among the reasons assigned, we ficial Court. The first whose opinion find none on the score of injury to was thus given is named Hew Naetse, health or morals, in the philanthropic Vice-President of the Sacrificial Court,
His argument is only to this an officer of great dignity. He thus extent:" Regarding it as a subject commences :
“ I would humbly represent, that opium Again, we have the grievance of was originally ranked among medicines ; the export of silver, and the means of its qualities are stimulant; it also checks preventing it, by rendering the trade excessive secretions, and prevents the legitimate. evil effects of noxious vapours. In the
“ Now, to close our ports against [all materia medica of Le Schechin, of the
trade] will not answer; and as the laws Ming dynasty, it is called afоoyung.
issued against opium are quite inoperative, When any one is long habituated to in
the only method left is to resort to the haling it, it becomes necessary to resort
former system, and to permit the barbato it at regular intervals; and the habit of
rian merchants to import opium, paying using it, being inveterate, is destructive
duty thereon as a medicine; and to reof time, injurious to property, and yet quire that, after having passed the cusdear to one even as life. Of those who
tomhouse, it shall be delivered to the use it to great excess, the breath becomes feeble, the body wasted, the face sallow, merchandise, and no money be paid for it.
Hong merchants only in exchange for the teeth black : the individuals them
The barbarians, finding that the amount selves clearly see the evil effects of it, yet
of duties to be paid on it is less than what cannot refrain from it. It is indeed indispensably necessary to enact severe probi- comply therein. Foreign money should
is now spent in bribes, will also gladly bitions, in order to eradicate so vile a prac
be placed on the same footing with sycee tice.”
silver, and the exportation of it should And further
be equally prohibited. Offenders, when “ It will be found, on examination, that caught, should be punished by the entire the smokers of opium are idle, lazy vagrants,
destruction of the opium they may have, having no useful purpose before them, and and the confiscation of the money that are unworthy of regard, or even of contempt. may be found with them." And though there are smokers to be found The remarkable document, from who have overstepped the thresholds of which the foregoing are extracts, was age, yet they do not attain to the long life ordered by the Emperor to be submit. of other men ; but new births are daily in- ted to the opinion of the Hong mer. creasing the population of the empire, and
chants, and of Tang the Governor of there is no cause to apprehend a diminution
Canton. In the laboured reply of the therein ; while, on the other hand, we can.
first, the export of " sycee silver," and not adopt too great or too early precautions the mode of its prevention, is still the against the annual waste which is taking great burden of the argument, as, like place of the resources, the
sagacious men, knowing where the
Imperial shoe really pinched. In But here he shows the real sore upwards of four quarto pages of this place in respect of the import of document, scarcely one word about opium :
the immoral or deleterious effects of “ The number has now increased to opium is to be found, the whole being upwards of 20,000 chests, containing occupied with the discussion of modes each a hundred catties.
• black by which a balance of trade—that is, earth,' which is the best, sells for about of commodities imported and exported 800 dollars, foreign money, per chest ; -might be arranged, so as to prevent the white-skin,' which is next in quality, sycee silver from “oozing out." Their for about 600 dollars; and the last, or opinion was for opening the opium
red-skin,' for about 400 dollars. The trade at fixed rates of duty. So also total quantity sold during the year amounts the report of the Governor and Lieuin value to ten and some odd millions of tenant-Governor. They lay it down dollars; so that, in reckoning the dollar at seven mace standard weight of silver, the lations, it is of the first importance to
as a principle, that in "framing reguannual waste of money somewhat exceeds
suit them to the circumstances of the ten millions of taels. Formerly, the bar
times. barian merchants brought foreign money
If in removing one to China, which, being paid in exchange evil, an evil of greater extent is profor goods, was a source of pecuniary ad- duced, it then becomes the more imvantage to the people of all the sea-board perative to make a speedy change, provinces ; but latterly the barbarian suited to the circumstances of the ocmerchants have clandestinely sold opium casion." The evils of the prohibition for money, which has rendered it neces- of opium are shown in striking colours, sary for them to export foreign silver. such as the increase of the crime of Thus foreign money has been going out of smuggling, the desperation of smugthe country, while none comes into it." glers, and that although the punish
ments of the traffic and use of opium tions of Hew Naetse, the Hong mer-
They recommend, therefore, that the which, and not the demoralizing and
philanthropy is a pure affair of money, Against any relaxation of the law just as much as the levy of revenue we have the counter-memorials of two in this country on the consumption of fellow-ministers of Hew Naetse. Choo gin; only in another form. Convince Tsun, member of the Council and the the Chinese Emperor that a free trade Board of Rites, recapitulating after in opium would at once stay the Hew Naetse the history of the trade, leakage outwards of sycee silver," argues vehemently against the remo. and he too would scruple as little to yal of the prohibitions, and the encou- enrich his exchequer by customs and ragement of home cultivation, which, excise-duties upon the import and he asserts, would fail to stop the ex- consumption of the drug-notwithport of silver. And he concludes with standing the health and morals of the recommending the adoption of the people. But if, argue the political ecomost rigorous measures for putting an
nomists of the Celestial region, sycee end to the contraband traffic in opium silver continued to “ooze
out, with and the drain of money. In the course a free trade and the levy of duties on of eight quarto pages, to which his it, the empire would be drained of memorial to the Emperor reaches, money, and wealth as well as revenue about one page only (two paragraphs) come to an end. When we reflect is devoted to showing the immoral that infanticide, with abominations and deteriorating action of the drug. which cannot be mentioned, are all The corruption and enervation of the but tolerated in China-for the most people, he argues, are the chief ob. horrible practices, as those know who jections against opium; and this, he have been resident there, almost openly insists, is the object of its importers. prevail-this“ humanity.mongering Hew Kew, sub.censor over the mili- of the Government about opium can tary department, next follows on the inspire only feelings of disgust for the same side of the question, but with hypocrisy, or of ridicule for the presomewhat more of moderation. He tence. The learned there, in deference notices the “present scarcity and in- to imperial humour, can dissert as creased value of silver ;” the cause, doggedly and as plausibly about the “its exportation chiefly in payment of effects of opium, as philanthropists in opium ;” the annual loss to the country, this country, real or showy, do about “ten and some odd millions of money. ardent spirits; and assuredly, we shall This is the strain of six and a half not deny, with too much of truth in quarto pages of his memorial; with the both cases. As a clever specimen of exception of half a page of argument the kind, we insert here a Chinese against opium on the ground of mo- document of this sort, not we believe rality and policy, and one page and a commonly known. half on the “ illegalities” and “ vio. lence" of foreigners. We need not - The ten observations made upon Opium state, that the Celestial Emperor pre- by the Scholar Koo KING-SHAN, a naferred the counsel of Hew Kew and tive of the district of Keang-ning, in Choo Tsun to the more sage exposi- the province of Keang.800.
“On the deadly poison Opium. it, delays and loses the opportunity of “ Opium is a poisonous drug, which making money, and all his affairs get in comes from beyond sea. When asked arrear. For losing one's time and for diswhat are the good qualities produced by sipating one's estate, never was there a it, it is answered, “it raises the spirits, so drug so fatal as this ! as to be insensible to weariness ;' therefore “ In the third place, to have his own it is that so many of us Chinese have con- flesh and blood waste away before his stantly fallen into its bewitching snare. eyes! If a robust man smokes it, his beef At first it is begun to be used, merely insensibly falls from him, and his skin from a wish to follow the fashion of the hangs about him like a bag. If a delicate day; afterwards, when its poisonous influ- person smokes it, his face becomes black ences have pervaded the system, continual as charcoal, his bones lean as laths : those renovation is required ; ils unhappy victim who see him know well that he must sleeps like a corpse, and grows lean and speedily take up his abode in the churchmeagre like a ghost; this is the manner yard. in which it insidiously carries on its at- “ In the fourth place, to impoverish tacks against human life! Moreover, it is a himself. If a rich person smokes it, his very expensive article, the price of it is estate must soon be spent. To smoke high, it cannot be obtained except by giv- opium, it is necessary for two persons to ing for it its weight of silver ; at first it lie beside each other on the couch : there dissipates a man's substance; finally it they puff and chat away, and thus their utterly empties his house : of all the cala- enjoyment is at the fu!l. Day by day mities ever visited upon mankind, none they spend several pieces of silver in buyin magnitude can be compared to this ! I ing this bateful drug; they invite friends say that it is ten times more fatal than and halloo to comrades who are birds of a arsenic ! For the wretch who betakes him- feather; their money melts away very self to this poison has commonly lost the fast; and do you, reader, say that this respect of his fellow-men, his affairs can- state of matters can last long ? not be retrieved, he is without resource, “ In the fifth place, to have his appearso he drains the fatal cup and expires ! ance changed to an aspect most hideous But he who takes delight in smoking to behold! He who smokes this drug for opium, receives one calamity on the back a length of time, feels a constant loathing of another in deadly succession. I have and laziness; he cares not for his meals, been asked to give my sentiments on the and finds difficulty in responding to the şubject, for the warning of the people common courtesies of life. When the peagainst its snare, and they are as follows:- riod for renovating his system with a fresh The opium-smoker exposes himself- dose of the poison comes round, he can
“ In the first place, to have his animal not desist from taking hold of his opium spirits quickly and completely destroyed. pipe; rheum and snot flow apace— his whole When he at first commences the smoking frame seems withered and rotten, and the of opium, he feels his spirits wonderfully by-standers, on seeing him look so funny, elevated; but he ought to know that his cannot refrain from shouts of laughter! animal spirits take not their rise externally “ In the sixth place, to have reports but internally, and that he is merely using spread abroad unfavourable to his good unnatural means to raise them above name. If a man has been long in the habit their natural level. I compare it to a of smoking opium, his wife naturally follamp which you are continually trim- ļows the bad example ; if they smoke ming; and reason tells us that if we do so, to excess, the night is turned into day, the oil will soon be burned out, and the and no distinction made between the outlamp speedily extinguished. Thus, then, er and inner apartments ; out of this state young people, who delight in opium, must of matters may spring a great many scandie prematurely; they cannot leave poste- dalous occurrences that we dare do no rity behind them; and their wives, fathers, more than hint at; truly, then, it may be and mothers, must be left exposed to cold said that such a state of things is much to and want. Middle-aged and old peo- be regretted. ple, who smoke opium, must shorten the “ In the seventh place, to have his period of existence that nature would secrets blazed abroad; among opiumotherwise have allotted them a circum- smokers, without distinguishing between stance which truly calls forth our compas- the noble and the base--they all lie upon sion.
the same couch and puff away.
While in “ In the second place, to have his pro- this state (in vino veritas) they talk about fession or lawful calling go to wreck and whatever is uppermost in their minds withruin. He who is in authority and smokes out any reserve. Truly does the proverb opium, cannot have time to attend to his say, if a man speak too much, some of his public business himself, however impor- words must come amiss ; if an honourable tant it may be; the merchant who smokes man hear him it may perhaps be no great matter, but if a mean man hear him, it is child. Afterwards his purse became quite hard to secure that he wont suffer for it
empty through opium-smoking, his vitals afterwards!
were being gnawed for want of renovation, “ In the eighth place, to be involved in he could not get over it at all; so, having no the net of the law. Whether he be buy- other way of satisfying the disease, he took ing it or smoking it, should he meet with his pregnant concubine and sold her for seany base blackguards, these make use of veral tens of taels! When this money was all it as a pretext to squeeze him, or extort spent, he went (like another Judas) and his money.
Should the affair get wind, hanged himself! and is there any thing he will then be brought up before the man- more lamentable than this? darins for trial and punishment, when he “Now, in reference to the ten foregoing who opens a shop for the sale of opium observations made upon the evils resulta will be strangled, and he who smokes it ing from opium, everyone knows diswill be transported. And mayhap you tinctly that they are the consequences to would like to make a trial of the laws in which opium-smoking must inevitably your own persons, would you ?
lead. If the depraved hear me, and “ In the ninth place, to have the poi- still will not awake from their depravity, son enter his very marrow and vitals ! He there is nothing in this that a man may who has been in the habit of smoking it feel astonished or offended at. But I long, has his viscera and glands full of sincerely pity those refined and talented hairy worms or insects; these send up
who have been gradually falling into their poisonous breaths and attack the in- its bewitching snare, which threatens to testines, the stomach and bowels are lead them to poverty, and afterwards an wounded in consequence, and Loo Peen untimely end! If ye 'hear me, and yet himself (the Chinese Esculapius) could do refuse to leave off the evil habit, is not nothing in his behalf! Look now at those this indeed to be pitied ? With a sincere short-sighted people who wish to put an feeling of compassion for those unhappy end to their existence! They mix up a victims who have, under a wrong impreslittle opium in its raw state, and the mo- sion of its qualities, commenced opiumment they swallow it, their bowels burst, smoking, and gone on till they require the blood gushes out from their seven ori. the renovating drug, who repent of their fices, their whole body becomes livid and folly, but who cannot get rid of their putrid, and they die! There is no medi- bane, I, looking up to the goodness of cine known that can cure the effects of Mercy, and feeling anxious like her to this deadly poison. I myself, while tra- do something in behalf of the human velling along the banks of Yang-tsze-keang, race, have taken a secret prescription of saw a fellow who was an opium-smoker. wonderful efficacy in curing the said evil The time of renovation came round, and habit of opium-smoking, and had it enhe was short of the drug ; so, having no graved and printed in order that it be dismeans to satisfy the (horseleech-like) seminated over the whole empire. Hopcraving, he sought a way to destroy him- ing that it may serve as pointing out the self. He caught up by mistake a cup of ford or ferry to the foolish man, I have chainam oil, (imagining it to be poison) had it annexed to this same document.” and drank it off; when he was seized with With all its ingenuity, and even unan unceasing vomiting, and in the end he questionable truths in some degree, spewed up a whole heap of these insects! there is no more here than can beurged Their heads were red and variegated, their against ardent spirits or tobacco taken whole body was covered with hair, they in excess. Accum acquaints us, if he were upwards of an inch in length, and
has not proved to us, that poison lurks when they were spewed upon the ground in every dish, and death in every bowl; they kept wambling about, to the great fear
and the same alarming doctrine was and astonishment of the spectators !! “ In the tenth place, to lose his life, (by still, in the Brunonian philosophy,
patronised once by a higher authority external causes induced by this vice.) The
once so much in vogue on the Contipoor man who smokes it, must soon pawn
nent. If we mistake not, Mr Broevery article he has in his house when he must sit down and cross his hands in therton, the member for Salford, who despair! Being now perfectly out at el
is not a fellow of the " Beefsteak bows, and being unable to get over the
Club," although accustomed to offirenovating period, the infallible conse
ciate at what is vulgarly and derisively quence is, that he will be led to sell or called a beefsteak chapel, teaches that pawn his wife and children!! I, with my
flesh-meat is an abomination to health own eyes, saw this in the case of a person and morals, and vegetable sustenance surnamed Chin--a native of the province the only salvation for both. of Ganhwny. He had no sons, so he bought The poppy, after all, is extensively a concubine, whom he managed to get with cultivated, and opium prepared in