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debased, cast down, and trodden under foot as the marched onward to success and victory. To the mere willing instruments of power, are beginning Reformation then, is Europe mainly indebted for to feel and know their rights and their strength, whatever of liberty and free principles she may and to throw around themselves the bulwarks of now possess. protection. The precious privileges of freedom of But we turn to a far lovelier and brighter scene thought, of speech, and of action, are theirs ; while in the high career of Civil Liberty. Far off from the doctrines of passive obedience, and of the ab- the vices and corruptions of the Old World, to a solute and divine right of Kings, are exploded as fairer clime and a better country, whose atmosthe dogmas of an age of ignorance and barbarism. phere was pure, and whose soil uncontaminated by

The inquiry naturally arises ; what are the causes the footprints of despotism, Liberty fled an exile. which have wrought changes so surprising in so- Here, houseless and friendless, she took up her ciety, and which especially have so contributed to abode. Upon Plymouth rock, the advancement of Civil Liberty during the last

that holiest spot, four hundred years ? Every mind instantly recurs

The high place of freedom's birth," to the Reformation, as the first and the greatest. she laid the corner-stone of what has already beThe high purposes for which Christianity was in- come a great Republican Edifice,-an edifice destroduced into the world had long been, in a great tined, we believe, to be more enduring than the measure, defeated by the perversions to which it Parthenon or the Pyramid, -sublime, though simhad been exposed. Its simplicity was concealed ple in its proportions ; more beautiful than the palaunder innumerable forms and ceremonies. Its ces of kings, or the temples of Roman pontiffs ; great truths, designed to correct and purify man's upon whose portals are inscribed Justice and Mercy; inner being, his immortal part, and raise him from whose pillars rise in the simple majesty of Truth; his low condition, making him free indeed, were so and from whose majestic dome waves the broad perverted as to administer only to the avarice and flag of Freedom and Equality. Into this temple, passions of an artful few. In a word, it had lost she invited the injured and the disfranchised of all its saving power, and was no longer Christianity. nations, to take refuge and worship. And gladly But, at the Reformation, it was stripped of its cor- did they obey her invitation. Hither fled many of ruptions; the dead calm of the waters was broken the choicest spirits of the age-the high-roinded up; and though lashed into tempest by the fury of and the bold, the conscientious and the meek, the storm, and for awhile man's fondest helps and men prominent for intelligence and influence, who hopes seemed about to be engulphed in irretrievable could no longer brook the scoffs and insults of ruin; yet when the tumult subsided, and the ele- tyrants,—as well as the devout and humble follower ments had ceased from their commotion, Truth, of Jesus, who had too long suffered persecution like the goddess of beauty, reared her angel-form for righteousness sake. Here, once more, Civil from the bosom of the angry deep. A spirit of and Religious Freedom walked hand in hand ; muactive inquiry, and of vigilance untiring, was thus tually animated and sustained each other; bowed awakened and called forth, which fiom that day to at the same shirine ; encountered the same perils, the present has never slumbered ;-a spirit which and grappled with the same foes. Side by side, is now passing round the globe, arousing the mind amid the solitudes of the wilderness, sprang up at from its deep lethargy, reforming Religion and once, sanctuaries of justice and solemn temples. Politics, and restoring to man his long lost moral Religion was the handmaid of Politics, and Virtue and civil power.

The enfranchisement of the of both. No one feature perhaps, was more chamind from religious despotism, led directly to in-racteristic of their lives and their actions, than this quiries into the nature of Civil Government. As their love of justice and their devotional spirit. the people had suffered deception, tyranny, and a “ We could not live without the worship of God," privation of their rights in Religion, so had they in exclaim our Pilgrim Fathers, in one of their adPolitics. They began immediately to investigate dresses to the King. And it was upon sentiments the nature of government,-for whose benefit it and principles such as these, that arose a system was established; whether for the many or the few,- of society and morals, freer and purer than any at whether for a single individual upon whose head that time existing ;-a system, which though stainaccident had placed a crown of power, or for the ed, 'tis true, with many of the errors and impermillion whom the same accident had separated from fections of the age, was gradually ripening and the throne. It was from inquiries of this nature approximating to the fulness of maturity. But that resulted the memorable revolution of 1649,-Liberty's eternal foes, ever active and vigilant, pura revolution which gave Kings to the block, and sued her even into her asylum in the Western wilds. liberty to England. Actuated by a common sen- Their day of triumph however was past. She met timent; urged on by a common cause, men gathered them upon the threshold; and by that struggle,into one great phalanx--strong, fearless, irresistible; the struggle of our Revolution,—was forever put and guided by the same principle of free thought and to rest the question which all time had been agiinquiry, widely and more widely disseminated, they'tated, -WHETHER MAN SHOULD BE FREE. This was

Vol. VII-107





the place, and this the time, when the doctrines of

THE PARTING SPIRIT. Popular Rights and Civil Liberty, were permanently settled and established; and, to use the

“ Solve the scarce defin'd words of one of our first historians, " within the

And mystic questions, of the parting mind! short space of two centuries, have they infused

When, freed from mortal films, what viewless world, themselves into the lifeblood of every rising state, Shall first receive her wing, but half unfurled ?" from Labrador to Chili; have erected outposts on the Oregon, and in Liberia ; and, making a prose

Whither; O whither, wilt thou shape thy courselyte of enlightened France, have disturbed all the

O'er the wide waters of that shoreless sea? ancient governments of Europe, by awakening the

To what far port, unaided by human force,

Shall the bark steer, that is to carry thee? mind to resistless action, from the shores of Por

Hear'st thou no voice upon that solemn river, tugal to the palaces of the Czars."

Telling thee where the soul shall dwell forever? Such is a brief sketch of the progress of Civil Now, while thy thoughts sweep on to EtemityLiberty, in the modern world. True, it has not Spirit; O parting spirit, answer me ! yet completely delivered the mind from the thraldom which has so long bound it. True, many a

In whal strange region of the vast unknown,

Shalt thou commence thy new, untried career ? helpless victim yet groans beneath the rod of power;

What shall await thee there, when thou hast thrown many a nation is yet under a worse than Egyptian

Off the stained mantle, that enwraps thee here! bondage; and many a dark spot, yet disfigures the Wilt thou bear with thee to that realm, 0 spint! moral and political world. Even in our own land;| Aught of that love thou didst for me inherit? acknowledged the freest, the fairest, the noblest on

Shall I o'erstep the grave to meet with thee? the face of the globe ; there are social and political

Spirit; O Parting Spirit, answer me ! imperfections, which neither Patriotism, nor Phi

Wilt thou be roaming through the viewless air,lanthropy, nor Religion, nor the noon-tide blaze of

Or 'mid those very stars I cow survey ? the Sun of Liberty, has yet been able to conceal A part of all the glorious splendor there, or eradicate. But we trust it will not always be so. A new link, in a new, unending day? “There walks a spirit o'er the peopled earth,"

Or breathing 'mid the elements of Heaven,

Shall its bright attributes to thee be given ? a spirit mysterious in his operations, but all-perva- Shalt thou redeemid, regenerate, Godlike be ?ding and all-powerful, who hears the sighs of the Spirit; O Parting Spirit, answer me! injured, the innocent and the helpless; whose march is from nation to nation, dispensing joy, and life,

Speak-1 adjure thee! for I fain would know, and love, and setting the prisoner and the captive

Ere the dim shadows close my failing eye,

Ere the cold seal is stamp'd upon my brow, free. Already has he freed our Holy Religion from

Point thou the pathway where thy home doch lie! its century-grown corruptions ;-already has he

Is not thy Future opening now before thee? started into being a principle which is yet doing Is not the Eternal Secret hovering o'er thee? its work in Europe ;-already has he erected a Past, past the reach of mortal inquiry, glorious monument of Freedom, in a New World of O Parting Spírit! thou canst not answer me! promise. And will he not triumph ? Will not the

Eames' Place, 1841. day come, in the progress of pure sentiments and of Civil Liberty, when the debased and sunken millions of Asia; the long oppressed populace of Europe ; and the African, plundered and down- RIDE TO THE PEAKS OF OTTER, trodden by every nation under Heaven, shall all

IN BEDFORD COUNTY, VA. arise in the majesty of Freemen; take their fit places among men,“ a little lower than the angels,"

About the first of last September, mounted on a and breathe the mild air of freedom ;-when the long-tailed bay colt, I left the gate of Dr. M., in Tree of Liberty, planted by our fathers on American Bedford county, in company with another Doctor, soil, and watered with blood, shall be pruned and for the Peaks of Otter, about ten or twelve miles stripped of its blemishes and defects; and taking

distant. An arrangement was made the day predeeper root, shall rise, and spread, and flourish, vious with Messrs. M. and B. of Liberty, who until it embrace under its protecting shadow the

had kindly offered to go with us, that we should nations of the whole earth ?

C. J.

meet them about five miles distant, on the main road, from the village. Dr. M. had given us :

chart of the way to that point ; it was a perfect Origin of Trades and Professions.--Most of the both knew from having been lost there in days

labyrinth through woods and plantations, as we trades, professions, and ways of living among mankind, that were past. After trotting over hills, and take their original either from the love of pleasure, or the fear of want. The former, when it becomes too violent

, through creeks, and around fences, and facing degenerates into luxury, and the latter in avarice. every point of the compass for the space of an

Addison. hour, wo at length came to the main road, and saw


our friend Mr. M. just then arriving, with a spy-/ter. I know not how that may be—but according glass under his arm, and mounted on a pair of sad to all my knowledge of springs, it is the finest in dle-bags. He was alone however; Mr. B. having the world. One of our friends had told us the day sent a note of apology for not coming according to before, that springs were supplied by the rain from appointment. The spy-glass was of course very the surface of the earth; but I believe we all conacceptable ; and if the reader had ridden, and cluded it would have to rain about every third day, walked where we did, and had fasted as long, he and require all the water both Peaks could furnish would have been very glad before the close of the to keep this particular one in operation. The docday, also to see the contents of the saddle-bags, and tor was a farmer too, and had been trying an exto ascertain what the ladies had put in the pockets periment recommended in the “Cultivator” for of an old Summer coat, which I had on, before we making springs, by digging a hole, no matter started.

where, putting in a barrel, and then filling in with We very soon passed “ Fancy Farm;" a planta- stones, after which the water was to commence tion of some 1500 acres, with an old gloomy look- running. In the doctor's case it did not commence ing brick residence, built many years ago by a however, and I believe he concluded that he and Scotch gentleman, and one of the most antiquated the “Cultivator” together could not manufacture buildings in appearance in the Old Dominion. I any such spring as that. Unfortunately there was always had the impression that there were ghosts no drinking utensil whatever, and we were obliged about that habitation, when I used to pass it in my to lie down and take it by “word of mouth.” Mr. M. boyhood,—and to this day I am not certain that I said I was not “au faitat such business, because could command the courage to stay there alone I was a city gentleman. in a boisterous wintry night, with the winds play- We remounted, left the road, and turned up a ing their gambols along the old halls, and through steep bridle-path leading to the top of the Peak, the frowning windows of that ancient dwell- and just then met three gentlemen, escorting as ing. However, we passed it without meeting many ladies—one of whom, in a light-colored dress, any other dangers than the reluctance of my colt was the object that had attracted our attention to pass the “mill,” and his apparent determination as we first ascended the mountain. The descent to lie down with me in the stream which crossed at that point was really dangerous. One of the the road.

ladies stopped, and seemed for a moment to About a mile further on, we began to ascend, hesitate about riding down; but she soon startwhat Mr. M. said he considered the commence-ed her steed, followed by the others, with the ment of the mountain. The road was rough, self-possession of ladies accustomed to the mounbeing sometimes covered with large rocks; and it tain roads. After riding about a mile and a quarwas becoming excessively warm, although most of ter, we came to the point beyond which horses the way was well shaded. After ascending for cannot be taken, dismounted, tied our steeds, took some distance, we got a view of the summit of the off the saddles, and commenced ascending on foot. Western Peak through the trees, which almost The way was very steep, and the day so warm embosomed us, and saw a white object moving on that we had to halt very often to take breath. As the rocks, which we determined to be the dress of we approached the summit, the trees were all of a some lady then on the top. As we advanced, the dwarfish growth, and twisted and gnarled by the road became still more rough and very steep, and winds and storms of that high region. There were the horses seemed to suffer greatly from the heat. also a few blackberry-bushes bearing their fruit, long The doctor proposed dismounting to walk-but Mr. after the season had passed below. A few minutes M. said he was principled against walking when longer brought us to where the trees ceased to he could ride ; and we continued on to near grow : but a huge mass of rocks piled wildly on “Wood's,” where the road on which we were, top of each other, finished the termination of the crosses to the Valley of Virginia : and from which Peak. Our path lay for some distance round the point the two Peaks rise, one on each side, as sepa- base of it, and under the overhanging battlements; rate and distinct mountains.

and rather descending for a while, until it led to a It may be necessary to inform the reader, as part of the pile, which could, with some effort, be just intimated, that there are two “ Peaks of Ot- scaled. There was no ladder, nor any artificial ter," standing side by side, almost isolated and un- steps—and the only means of ascent was by climbconnected with other ranges of mountains either ing over the successive rocks, very much to the way. One of them, the Eastern, is rounded at the discomfiture of all light-headed people. Mr. M. top; the other, terminates almost in a point, and is however was a skilful pioneer; and—the doctor's the one almost exclusively visited. We turned our head to the contrary notwithstanding—we soon horses a little out of the road to what is called the “Big stood upon the wild platform of one of nature's Spring"-clear, cool, and bubbling from the ground, most magnificent observatories, isolated, and appaand sending forth a stream which some one present rently above all things else terrestrial, and looking said might supply the city of New York with wa-'down upon and over a beautiful, variegated, and at the same time grand, wild, wonderful, and almost ting near, looking in the same direction with myboundless panorama. Indeed, it was literally bound-self, but not quite so sentimental; as I believe he less; for there was a considerable haze resting had the spy-glass trying to find a plantation he upon some parts of “ the world below;" so that, in owned somewhere in the region of the aforesaid the distant horizon, the earth and sky seemed in- mountains. Further on down the Valley, and at a sensibly to mingle with each other.

great distance, was the top of a large mountain, I had been there before. I remember when a which Mr. M. thought to be the great North Mounboy of little more than ten years old, to have been tain away down in Shenandoah county-I am taken to that spot, and how my unpractised nerves afraid to say how far off. Intermediate between forsook me at the awful sublimity of the scene, and these mountains, and extending opposite and far I cried for my friend to come down, unwilling “to above us, was the Valley of Virginia, with its nareign in that horrible place.” Years afterwards, merous and highly cultivated farms. Across this I had gone there during a college vacation with Valley, and in the distance, lay the remotest ransome portions of a bridal party; amongst whom ges of the Alleghany and the mountains about; and were a lady from Kentucky, another who is now a I suppose beyond the White Sulphur Springs. missionary in Greece, and a gentleman who bears Nearer us, and separating Eastern and Western Virone of Virginia's distinguished names. But on this ginia, was the Blue Ridge, more than ever showday it was as new as ever; as wild, wonderful and ing the propriety of its cognomen of the " backsublime, as if I had never before looked from those bone;" and on which we could distinctly see two isolated rocks, or stood on that lofty summit. zigzag turnpikes, the one leading to Fincastle, and

On one side, towards Eastern Virginia, lay a the other to Buchanan; and over which latter we comparatively level country, in the distance, bear-had- travelled a few days before. With the spy. ing a strong resemblance to the ocean; on the glass we could distinguish the houses in the village other hand, were ranges of mountains, interspersed of Fincastle, some twenty-five or thirty miles off, with cultivated spots, and then terminating in and the road leading to the town. piles of mountains, following in successive ranges, Turning towards the direction of our morning's until they were lost also in the haze. Above and ride, we had beneath us Bedford county, with its below, the Blue Ridge and Alleghanies ran off in smaller mountains, farms and farm-houses—tbe long lines ; sometimes relieved by knolls and peaks, beautiful village of Liberty, the county roads, and and in one place above us making a graceful curve, occasionally a mill-pond, reflecting the sun like a and then again running off in a different line of di- sheet of polished silver. The houses on the hill at rection. Very near us stood the rounded top of Lynchburg, twenty-five or thirty miles distant, are the other Peak, looking like a sullen sentinel for distinctly visible on a clear day, and also Willis' its neighbor. We paused in silence for a time. Mountain, away down in Buckingham county. We were there almost cut off from the world be- I had often visited Bedford, and had been more low, standing where it was fearful even to look or less familiar with it from childhood; bot at our down. It was more hazy than at the time of my elevation, distances were so annihilated, and aplast visit, but not too much so to destroy the in-pearances so changed, that we could scarcely reterest of the scene.

cognize the most familiar objects. After some difMr. M. hallooed, and was some time after, an- ficulty we at length made out the residence of Dr. swered by what at first we thought the echo, but M. we had that morning left, and at that moment found to be a man at work in a tobacco-field on the rendered more than usually interesting, by containbase of the mountain, and whom we could just dis- ing, in addition to other very dear relatives, two tinguish. There was almost a sense of pain at the certain ladies, who sustained a very interesting stillness which seemed to reign. We could hear connexion with the doctor and myself; and one of the flapping of the wings of the hawks and buz- whom had scarcely laid aside the blushes of her zards, as they seemed to be gathering a new impe-bridal hour. tus after sailing through one of their circles in the A little beyond this, I recognized the former reair below us.

sidence of a beloved sister, now living in a distant North of us, and on the other side of the Valley Southern State. It was the same steep hill asof Virginia, were the mountains near Lexington, cending to the gate, the same grove around the just as seen from that beautiful village-the Jump, house, as when she lived there, and the same as North, and House Mountains succeeding each when I played there in my boyhood. And it was other;—they were familiar with a thousand asso- the first time I had seen it since the change of ciations of our childhood, seeming, mysteriously, owners. I then saw it from the Peaks of Otter: when away from the spot, to bring my early home but it touched a thousand tender chords; and I al. before menot in imagination, such as had often most wept, when I thought, that those I once there haunted me when first I left it to find another in loved were far away, and that the scenes of my the world, but in substantial reality. Mr. M. had youthful days could not return. gone off on another rock, and the doctor was sit. The doctor, Mr. M. and myself, had, some time

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before, gotten on different rocks, that we might him. He said his head was swimming, and that
not interrupt each other in our contemplations. I he could not get down. I went to his relief, took
could not refrain, however, from saying to one of the spy-glass he was holding, and turning his back
them, “what little things we are; how factitious to the danger, and clinging to the rocks, I directed
our ideas of what is extensive in territory and dis- his feet, and he was at length rescued from his un-
tance." A splendid estate was about the size I pleasant dilemma. We returned more rapidly than
could step over; and I could stand and look at the we had ascended, to our horses, and rode most of
very house, whence I used often to start in days the way down, to the great peril sometimes of Mr.
gone by, and follow with my eye my day's journey M., whose “principles against walking” led him
to the spot where, wearied and worn down, I dis- to ride, when his Spanish saddle, which could not
mounted with the setting sun. Yet I could look be girted tight, was sometimes on the neck of his
over what seemed so great a space, with a single fiery steed.
glance. I could also look away down the Valley There was a cabin at the junction of the path-
of Virginia, and trace the country, and, in imagina- way with the road, where we borrowed a gourd;
tion, the stage-coach as it slowly wound its way, and having unloaded the saddle-bags and my pocket,
day and night for successive days, to reach the ter- gave ample evidence that we had a taste for more
mination of what I could throw my eye over in a mo- than one sort of interesting objects. It might have
ment. I was impressively reminded of the extreme been a questionable point at that moment, which
littleness with which these things of earth would was the most interesting view, that we had just
all appear, when the tie of life which binds us here seen from the Peaks, or that from the logs on
is broken, and we shall be able to look back and which we were sitting, near the spring.
down upon them from another world. The scene On our way home we stopped at “Fancy Farm,"
and place are well calculated to excite such (don't be alarmed gentle reader, although we had

been to the “ Peaks of Otter,'') to look at some
It is said that John Randolph once spent the sort of new-fashioned pigs—"no bone,” I believe.
night on these elevated rocks, attended by no one The kind family there, were from home : but we
but his servant; and that, when in the morning, he sat down on the grass in the yard, and disposed of
had witnessed the sun rising over the majestic the greater part of two watermelons furnished by a
scene, he turned to his servant, having no other to friend, and the remaining half of one of which, Mr.
whom he could express his thoughts, and charged M. showed strong symptoms of wishing to put in
him “never from that time to believe any one who his saddle-bags.
told him there was no God."

The evening was waning, and we soon hastened
I confess also, that my mind was most forcibly onwards--shook hands with Mr. M. at the fork of
carried to the Judgment-Day; and I could but call the roadgreatly obliged for his kindness,-and
the attention of my companions to what would pro- about dusk reached the comfortable domicil we had
bably then be the sublime terror of the scene we in the morning left, with great satisfaction to the
now beheld, when the mountains we saw and stood doctor, who had never visited the Peaks before,
upon, should all be melted down like wax; when and with considerable fatigue to the gentleman
the Aames should be driving over the immense ex- who rode the colt.
panse before us; when the heavens over us should
be “passing away with a great noise;" and when
the air beneath and around us should be filled with
the very inhabitants now dwelling and busied in
that world beneath us.

We had each been lying for some time sepa-
rately upon the rocks, and for the most part si-
lently. We now drew nearer together, and as

God of my Spirit ! Lo,
there were some good voices in the trio, we sang In utter loneliness of heart I bow,
together on that elevated spot, which seldom hears

Prostrate before thee now! any other music but that of the howlings of the an

O Father, hear my prayer!

O, shield me with thy kind protecting care ; gry storm beneath. Just as we were preparing to

And give me strength to bear
come down, we saw away off in the direction of

Meekly the sorrows of my lonely lot,
Wythe county, what seemed to be almost a speck

Knowing that thou wilt not
glittering through the haze with great brilliancy. Reject the meanest child of dust,
We supposed it was the tin roof on the residence

That putteth in thee its trust.
of some wealthy gentleman in that region.
After Mr. M. and myself had left the rocks, we

God of my Spirit! hear

The humble prayer that on the wings of fear heard the doctor make a signal of distress ; look

Riseth to meet thine ear.
ing back, we saw him seated on the highest pinna-

Thou wilt not, Lord, despise
cle, with a large chasm in the rocks just below A broken heart The trembling sacrifice



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