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In the article on “ Northern and Southern Sla

THE SPARROW'S LESSON, very” in the April Messenger, it is stated, that the wife of the poor white man at the North, brings

[The muses may be as successfully wooed from the cot, her wood from the forest.

as from the palace. Some of the richest and the sweetest Our Southern slaves have too much gallamtry strains of poesy, have been tuned and sung in the humble to require their wives to get wood. The men and dwellings of the poor. Burns strung his barp in poverty, boys uniformly supply the fuel, and only require and in the midst of want, poured forth the richest strains of their wives and sisters to wash and mend their minstresly. So too with Lydia Jane. The beautiful notes clothes, and perform those duties which pertain of her lyre proceed from the home of the poor and needy. more especially to female management. The cook- With a 'scanty store' and . sad heart' pressing her down, ing is done twice a day by a female, for all the still she sings her touching lays in measures that fall upon field laborers—but at night every one likes to the soul, like the sound of sost low music upon the ear. prepare a mess for himself, that he may luxuriate There is an air of simplicity, a touch of true poetry, and a between nodding and eating, (a negro never eats moral in the following beautiful lines, (and we have others hastily,) an hour or two before he settles himself in store from the same pen, not a whit their inferior,) which for the night.

induce us to commend them to the particular attention of Perhaps it may not be amiss—although not our readers. We should be most happy to see this lady within the scope of my subject—to say, that very receive the encouragement which ber talents deserve.)-E4 exaggerated accounts of the profils of the cotton Sou. Lit. Mess. planter have been promulgated. The expenses of a cotton plantation are very great. The average THE SPARROW'S LESSON. product for each laborer is about two thousand

Weary, and wrung with grief and cate, pounds nett cotton in the best cotton countries, I sat me down and wept; and fifteen hundred pounds on older lands, or in I heard the footsteps of despair, more unfavorable regions; and when all the ex

For hope was saint and slept. penses are estimated, but a fair living profit is left

Cold winds were wbispering in mine ear, to the planter-say from eight to twenty per cent

• Winter is at the door!' depending on the soil, climate, management, and And my sad heart, with thoughts of fear,

Dwelt on my scanty store. seasons.

That humanity, custom and law require our slaves But as I wept, a little bird to be well provided for under all circumstances, Alighted at my feet, certainly relieves them from much of the mental

Looked meekly up—'twas then I heard

Its carol loud and sweet. anxiety so harassing to the poor freeman ; and if the condition of the wives and children of the free This lesson, me, that warbler read: laborers at the north be as bad as represented by the

· Praise for the ceaseless care,

• Which Jesus, Lord of all, has said writer alluded to above, I should say that the animal

• The little sparrows share. condition of the slave here, is preferable to that of the wife or child of the poor laborer in the Northern

"Since, first upon the breast of Spring,

•Close sheltered from the day, states. (How much better than the poor laborer in

•With feeble forın and callow wing, England !) But as an American citizen, I cannot but "I look my devious way, hope, that that picture is too highly colored. I must

• Thou, God, last given daily food, think better of my countrymen, whether in the

*And sheltered me from ill; North or South. Surely those who feel so deeply • And, when the whirlwind rent the wood, the necessary evils of domestic slavery in other * Thy care preserved me still. states, cannot impose on their own neighbors, a ser- "With gladsome heart, I sung thy praise vitude more insupportable than that of the slave, 'Amongst the summer flowers; of a different and inferior race.

* And still arose my grateful lays With regard to religious duties—I would say one

• Amid th' autumnal showers. word. I should be greatly pleased to see the cus- “Now, fitful winds and pale decay tom become general of reading a portion of the

• Have warned me from the grore; Scriptures judiciously selected, to all the slaves

• But with a hymn, I'll take my way

* To Southern lands of love. on a plantation, every Sabbath day. It would serve to temper their wild enthusiasm, improve

Praise to the Lord, who cares for all! their morals, and make them better and happier.

• He heeds the raven's cry; They are generally a light-hearted race, and no

* And not a sparrow e'er shall fall

• Unnoticed by his eye.' one would suspect they were slaves, unless he saw them at labor in the fields—but such a course as I

Thus sang the bird; and as it flew, recommend, would give them more rational and

A voice was in mine ears, substantial happiness than they now enjoy.

"Shall He not also care for you!

Go, dry your faithless tears.' Perry, So. Ala. May 1841.




for here the distinctive marks are very few and lit“ Wondrous truths, and manifold as wondrous,

tle obvious. The discovery of the class and order God hath written in those stars above;

is in general attended with little difficulty ; though But not less in the bright flowrets under us there are some exceptions; as, for instance, with

Stands the revelation of His love."--Longfellow. reference to the artificial mode of classifying the The purpose of the following cursory sketch, is, Asclepiadeæ ; with reference to the natural, Itea. an endeavor to point out the advantages accruing, In some cases, besides the species, we have to in my estimation, to members of the medical pro- find moreover a variety. From what has been fession, from the study of Botany. The advanta- said, I think that we can scarcely fail to perceive, ges which we derive from the study of any science, that in this science, a very nice, constant, and full may be divided into two sorts : first, the improve- exercise of the discriminative faculty is absolutely ment which results to particular faculties of the necessary. mind; and secondly, the advantages flowing from Now if there be any faculty of the mind whose the knowledge so acquired. As to the first class, full exercise is particularly demanded in the pracI shall only mention those strengthened by the tice of medicine, it is this of discrimination. When study of botany, whose improvement is peculiarly a physician is called upon to visit a patient, the advantageous to the physician: with respect to first and great object is of course to discover under these, I have followed common classification rather what disease he is laboring; and to accomplish than the analyses of Browne and Mill; because this he must attend to the symptoms. But many the former way appears to me a more practical symptoms are common to several diseases; many mode of viewing the subject. As to the second diseases indeed can scarcely be distinguished from class, I shall only mention those advantages which each other until several stages have been passed are in some measure peculiar to medical men; and through. In order then to distinguish a disease not those which they have in coinmon with per- from those with which it is liable to be confounsons belonging to other professions or pursuits. ded, the physician must have regard both to the

1. The faculty of discrimination is particularly ex- symptoms which they have in common, and to ercised by the study of botany. That portion, which those in which they differ. This, necessarily vais most generally studied, is systematic botany ; rying according to the nature of the disease in and the chief faculty of the mind here employed, is point, requires, on the whole, much discrimination. that of discrimination. For instance : on finding an The same remarks are applicable, whether a phyunknown plant, there are two, three, or four steps sician endeavor to find out the name of the disto be taken. We have first to find the class to ease, and then treat it according to rules laid down which it belongs, next the order, next the genus, in books for the particular disease; or whether he and lastly the species. Now, each of these steps, pursue a more philosophical plan, not seeking a derequires some degree of discrimination ; varying scription of the disease by name, but endeavoring in the relative and absolute amount in different to discover by the symptoms the organ diseased, families of plants; and also according to our know- and then apply remedies accordingly; indeed if ledge of allied genera or species, and by reason of any thing, in the latter event, discrimination would some other circumstances. But there is always be more requisite. In forming a final decision, in some difficulty in finding the name of a plant, either order to arrive at a correct diagnosis, three things at one step or another: and perhaps, there is no are to be considered: first, the present symptoms ; science taken generally, in which the faculty of dis- secondly, his own experience; and lastly, the dicta crimination is more constantly required and exer- of books. With respect to the symptoms, he has cised, than in botany. In almost every genus we also to attend particularly to the consideration, have several species; and of many of them, in this whether they are the result of the disease in point, country, from twenty-five to fifty species; in some or of some other under which the patient may be from fifty to a hundred—as for instance, Solidago, laboring at the same time; and moreover how far Aster, Ranunculus. And in searching for the they are idiophatic. And this leads me to the name of a plant which we have discovered to be cause : with respect to this, we have first to discolong to such a genus, we have to examine each ver the right one, amongst many other things one of these, more or less minutely. The distinc equally ostensible as such ; secondly, we have to tions between one species and another, depend too, pay due regard to the questions asked the patient for the most part, upon differences which an ordi- concerning it. We have to consider what quesnary observer would not notice at all ; such for in- tions it is proper for us to ask the patient, as to stance, as whether a leaf be sessile or not, whether the disease and symptoms generally. To ascerthe flowers be in a cyme or corymb, whether they tain the disease with any degree of certainty, these are axillary or lateral. Similar difficulties occur and similar circumstances must be taken into conin tracing out a genus. This is particularly the sideration; and hence to form a correct diagnosis case with respect to genera belonging to very natu- much discrimination is requisite. Similar remarks ral families; as Gramineæ, Cruciferæ, Umbelliferæ ;'apply to the treatment. With regard to the ad


ministration of medicines, great care is necessary with respect to its advantages here, we become acin selecting out of a whole class of medicines, that quainted through our botanical studies with many particular one which will be exactly suitable to the of the plants used in medicine; and hence we have case in point: the science of combination depends less difficulty in the study and recollection of these. also upon this principle ; and the vast difference In the second place so far as vegetable medicines between the present simple, efficient, and philo- are concerned, we see order and harmony, where sophical combinations, and the multitudinous farra- before all was chaos. We see in general that cergines of the past, is due to the same. Still greater tain families of plants possess certain properties ; care is necessary in selecting a particular medicine thus the narcotics belong generally to the natural from a whole class, or in the combination of several, orders Solanes and Umbelliferæ : by seeing this so as to meet every indication, when the patient order we recollect them better ; for even the eris suffering under a complication of disease. Here ceptions are remembered the better merely by also the physician has to compare his own experience being exceptions. It is on account of this pewith the indications of the present symptoms, and culiar connection with medicine, that the study of with what he has read. Frequently great care is botany should be preferred to that of any other necessary in distinguishing between different stages natural science; for it may be said that the same of a disease; for a medicine may be very suitable mental advantages might be obtained by means of in one stage and directly the reverse in another. the latter ; though this seems not exactly a fact; for And regarding this point, there exists a great error it appears to me that botany excels them all in the amongst the multitude; they think that because a circumstances to which I have alluded. One rea. medicine has cured a disease in one person, that it son why a country practitioner should pursue this must be suitable in all other cases, without taking science is, that he has so excellent an opportunity into consideration the state of the patient's system, of studying it: for he has its objects erery day and or the stage of the disease; hence too the common every where before him. I should think that it supposition that every disease has its particular might prove a great source of pleasure to him in remedy. With regard to all these things much many a lonely ride. discrimination is absolutely necessary. And indeed But these remarks may, it appears to me, be erwe may almost say that the whole ars medendi de- tended even farther than this. There seems to pends on this very faculty. And that he is the best exist a need of something, to create in practitioners physician who possesses it in the highest degree. an interest in their profession. Most physicians a Hence, as botany peculiarly exercises the faculty short time after they leave college, forget the inaof discrimination; and as all the powers of the jor part of what they have learnt there, only remind are improved and strengthened by exercise ; taining a general knowledge; some indeed scarcely and since this faculty is particularly required by the ever open a medical work afterwards. They atphysician; the study of botany is therefore particu- tend to the labors of their profession only as dalarly advantageous in this respect to the physician. ties; not taking any interest in them, but so far 36

Closely allied, and indeed almost antecedent to a they contribute pecuniary recompense. On this correct discrimination, is the habit of observation. account they lose much of the pleasure which : And as we arrive at the former by the study of love of the subject would give them; and they fail botany, so we moreover acquire the latter. For in doing much good to the science, which they the whole study is but a continuous train of obser- might otherwise do. Look upon the far-reaching vations; and not only of evident, but also of small past ! see the great lights arising in succession and obscure things; and this latter kind is fre- throughout its dim vista-appearing dimmer in the quently of great importance in medicine; for many distance, but in truth as bright and glorious as those diseases have the important symptoms alike, and more near. Among all the great and wise whom are only to be distinguished by attention to the you will there find, there is scarcely one in any art small and almost imperceptible ones. If discrimi- or science, who was not deeply imbued with a love nation be necessary then in medicine, so too is the for the particular subject, for which he has been habit of observation. And hence we receive bene- distinguished. The study of botany, I think, has fit with regard to this quality also.

a tendency to create this love for medicine as a 2. By the study of botany, our knowledge of science-a love, the evil consequences of whose certain branches of medicine is enlarged, facili- absence are every day and every where evident; tated, and improved. Thus in physiology, we have the advantage of whose presence is to be seen, the rudiments as it were, of the same organs in merely by looking upon the words and deeds of the animals, our view becomes more general; we have great and wise. I think that an interest in botany the whole circle, whereas before we had only a if not inherent, could be more easily acquired by a part. In Materia Medica also we derive great physician than by a member of any other profesbenefit ; and I think that it may be asserted, that sion. For, first, the new light which it casts ofer to a thorough knowledge of this, botany forms al- much of his science would make it somewhat inmost an essential condition. In the first place, 'teresting ; secondly, the country practitioner has


so excellent an opportunity; he meets daily with ever we might perhaps in some cases substitute so many plants that, if he once acquired the rudi- with advantage native vegetable medicines. I will ments of the science, they would prove a continual here give a list of the plants considered officinal by attraction; and thirdly, what would lead him to the United States Pharmacopeia, which I have study this in preference to all other branches of found growing within three or four miles of Wilmedicine would be its being voluntary; for we do liamsburg. I have no room here for particularizing not in general relish the performance of that which their properties, nor for the same reason, shall I is even in a measure compulsory. An interest make a set comparison of them with foreign ones : being taken in botany, by its connection with other Hepatica americana, Ranunculus bulbosus; Delbranches, this would tend to make them more in- phinium consolida; Aletris farinosa ; Althæ offiteresting than before; for I need scarcely mention cinalis; Apocynum cannabinum ; Aralia spinosa ; that when we become attached to any subject, we Arctium lappa ; Arum triphydilum; Asarum canaare interested in a greater or less degree in every dense; Asclepias tuberosa, incarnata ; Dancus cathing connected with it.

rota; Cassia marylandica ; Castanea pumila; Che3. Our medicines by means of the study of botany nopodium anthelminticum ; Chimaphila umbellata ; may be procured in a purer state. This is evident Cimicifuga racemosa; Cornus florida, sericea; Anso far as concerns those medicinal plants which themis cotula, Diospyros virginiana; Symplocarpus are natives of this country ; inasmuch as we be- foetidus; Erigeron heterophyllum, canadense; Eucome acquainted with them by means of the science patorum perfoliatum ; Anethum foeniculum (natuof botany, and can therefore gather them ourselves, ralized); Gentiana catesbaei ; Gillenia tripfoliata ; instead of procuring them from the apothecary Hedeoma pulegioides; Henchera americana ; Iris where they would be liable to adulteration. This versicolor; Juglans cinerea; Junniperus virginiana; would certainly be advantageous then, with respect Lactuca elongata ; Liriodendron tulipifera ; Lobeto those medicines found in this country, which are lia inflata; Lycopus virginicus; (Lythrum salicaria, in general use, such as Serpentaria, Stramonium, Dublin); Magnolia glauca, tripetala, Mentha pipe

But moreover might we not often substitute rita, viridis : Monarda punctata ; Phytolacca dewith advantage our own medicines for foreign ones candra; Podophyllum pellatum; Prunus virginiana; of the same class and similar properties ? Is it not Quercus alba, tinctoria ; Rhus glabrum, toxicodenbetter to have a medicine of a slightly inferior dron; Rubus trivialis, villosus; Convolvulus panduquality pure, than to have one of a superior quality ratus; Rumex acetosella; Sabbatia angularis; Samin a doubtful state ? Besides, age deteriorates most bucus canadensis; Sanguinaria canadensis; Laumedicines in a greater or less degree; and this may rus sassafras; Aristolochia serpentaria; Statice be somewhat the case with many more than we are caroliniana ; Datura stramonium ; Leontodon taaware of; for on account of getting them from the raxacum; Triosteum perfoliatum; Verbascum thapapothecary, few have been frequently tried both sus; Leptandra virginica ; Spartium scoparium ;when old and when lately gathered, and thus there this though put down in the books as an exotic, to has not been a correct comparison of their relative all appearance grows wild in this district. virtues in their two states; here also therefore, I say nothing of those employed by some practhere would be an advantage gained with respect to titioners, but not considered officinal nor in general native medicines, whether used expressly for their use; nor of those which have been once in esteem peculiar properties or as substitutes. But many but which are now rejected. Many of these may, imported from foreign parts, which have others in it is probable, experience the fluctuations which this country closely resembling them in property, have occurred to sarsaparilla. The same remark are probably only considered superior to the latter too will perhaps apply to many of those, which I on account of long standing abroad and at home, have before made, viz: that they have not been and their merely coming from a distance; ours sufficiently tried nor duly estimated, because of have not been sufficiently tried. This circum- their being so easy to obtain, and their not coming stance is therefore added to that of their being from a distance. Moreover there are many permore pure, to lead us to a further use of them. haps not yet medicinally tested at all; which, judg

But perhaps it may be said that there are not a ing by various circumstances, might, in all probasufficient number in any one neighborhood to in- bility, prove on trial efficacious medicines: to enuduce the physician to adopt the above plan. I do merate these however I have here neither the space not pretend to say that he can get all, but he can nor opportunity. But from the above catalogue get very many vegetable medicines in each class; and the subsequent remarks, I think that it be so many at least as shall supply the place of those safely asserted, that a physician may procure many foreign vegetable medicines that are liable to inef- of his medicines from the woods and fields around ficiency by reason of adulteration or some other him; for one locality is, in some measure, a speci

The mineral medicines need no interfer- men of all; if not the identical ones, there is in ence, as they are more apt in general to be general an equal number of medicinal plants in efficient and free from impurity; even here how-'each neighborhood.



Another reason why we should use our native from the study of botany we have it in our power medicines on account of their superior purity, is the to produce. Every one who makes medicine a following :-a physician on leaving college and profession, who though he takes no interest in it commencing his profession in the country, in the as a science, yet who nevertheless thinks more or general run of his practice, uses very few com- less each day about it, must necessarily feel interparatively of the long catalogue of medicines in- ested in its progress and improvement: and I imacluded in the Pharmacopeia ; very few of the large gine there are few who would shrink from lending number whose qualities and efficacy he has been assistance to that improvement, if in so doing, there taught at college : the diseases are generally very was derived as much or more pleasure than labor. uniform, and they are in general thus suitably In the first place, if they meet with any plant treated. But still some cases occur in his prac- possessing medical virtues, either by their own obtice, requiring other medicines, -as for instance servation or experiments, or from those of others, some rare disease, or sometimes in the same dis- they will not only be enabled by a knowledge of ease, when the system of the patient by long use botany to discover its name, but also to speak of it has become accustomed to the action of all the in intelligible terms to the medical world. The medicines which he possesses, included in the class same plant has so many different names in different by which the disease is treated. Will it not be parts of the country, e. g. those appropriated to better in such instances for him to use a native the Sanguinaria canadensis; and the same name is medicine, which he is sure of getting pure, than to so often given to many entirely different plants, e. take one to whose use he has not been accustomed, g. Snakeroot, that merely mentioning it by name and of whose efficacy and purity he is therefore no will, in most cases, convey no sort of information. judge ? But moreover, though the diseases may be I have observed loo in conversation particularly, uniform and not very difficult of treatment, yet is and also in writing, how imperfect an idea of a it not a familiar fact, that every disease often as- plant could be conveyed by description in ordinary sumes certain phases and types, for which one terms ; indeed this is the reason that modern botzmedicine of a class is better adapted than another? nists have found it so difficult—so almost utterly Now, though a physician may not choose to bur- impossible to identify most of the plants described then himself with foreign medicines not absolutely in the classics : in conversing with ladies this is necessary; yet when he could easily get them from often the case ; on such occasions flowers being the woods around in a state of purity, and at the par- frequently the subjects of conversation, they will ticular time in which they were needed, then certainly attempt to describe some plant to you, and in genethere would be a greater inducement to an extension ral your idea of the plant will be about as clear of the catalogue of medicines which he employs. after their description as it was before. The fact

Finally, the following extracts from Dr. Lind- that the same name has been applied to many plants ley's Medical Botany, will serve as an additional differing from each other in all the most important argument in favor of the use of native medicines, characteristics, has proceeded from a similar ignoand a further investigation of their properties : rance the multitude of the true principles upon “The heat of a country, its humidity, particular which the division into genera and species is based; localities, food, and the social habits of a people, from a resemblance perhaps in the shape of the will predispose them to varieties of disease, for leaf, the color and shape of the corolla, the oder which the drugs of Europe offer no efficient remedy, of the plant, or some other unimportant trait, they and will render that which is relied upon in one have regarded plants having no affinity whatever, country unworthy of dependence in another. Speak- as species of the same genus. It appears then ing of Ipecacuanha, Dr. Von Martius, who so care- that to make known a plant in this manner with fully examined practically the Materia Medica of such certainty that it may be easily identited bị Brazil, asserts “nullum est dubium quin Emetica others, is generally almost impossible. But a per: in terris zonæ fervidæ subjectis effectus producent, son who has studied botany can, in two or three multo majis salutares quam in regionibus frigidiori- lines, make known a plant and its virtues to be bus.” This last observation seems to indicate, that whole medical world; by giving its scientific name if emetic plants be so much more common in hot and the characteristics by which it can easily be than cold countries, it is because there is a much distinguished and recognized. greater necessity for them. The late Mr. Burnet If we consider the fact, that a number of the and many other persons, have asserted that," every discoveries in Materia Medica have been made by country spontaneously furnishes remedies for the enipirics, and moreover that a physician frequently maladies which the people of the soil are naturally meets with nostrums in his practice, we must see subject to, and that the foreign drugs imported to that he might do much good by testing the efficacy the m ets of Europe would soon be superseded of these. In making the investigation, and giving to a great extent if the properties of European the result fully to the medical world, some know: plants were carefully examined.”

ledge of botany is almost absolutely necessary

; (! 4. The good to medical science generally, which 'speak in relation to vegetable medicines.) I have


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