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thousand two hundred and eighty, yards, into the jas we are true to our own principles, and will heed Pacificateur, an 80 gun ship.
the dictates of wisdom and of policy ; so long are The first shot struck low-made a hole of eight and we defended from the maritime nations of the Old a half inches diameter in the ship's side-tore off two feet of World, by a "watery bulwark,' three thousand miles the inner plank,—then exploding, made a hole two or three across. To reach us, this must first be passed by feet square in the orlop deck-knocked away and shattered them; and in that passage, the winds and the to atoms more than one hundred and sixty feet of timber.
The third shot entered between two ports-tore off a waves, those unsubsidized and faithful allies of large knee, which, with its fastenings, weighed more than the Republic,' may disperse the strongest force; or two hundred and six pounds--then bursting, its splinters leave it so shattered, that it would fall an easy prey knocked down forty of the wooden figures, Dailed around to our steam-sentinels of war. the guns to represent men. The explosion also shattered one of the beams of the deck above-started several planks, tional Dock-Yards, not one south of the Chesapeake;
Therefore, considering the positions of our Naone ten and a half feet long, another five and a quarter, &c.
At another trial, the fourth shot struck three feet above that much of the timber used in them for ship-buildthe water, and, by the explosion, knocked off the butt of a ing, comes from the very banks of the Mississippiplank, and made a hole nearly three feet square. Moreover, considering too, the defenceless and exposed state two straßes of planking below, and one above this hole, of our Southern coast, every principle of the nationtwenty-two feet long, were started more than five inches al interests concerned, demands the establishment from the frame, at the place of explosion, and two inches at the scarfing. The commission of officers, appointed to of a Public Dock-Yard on the Mississippi. It would conduct the experiments, reported, that a like breach at the be bringing home to every man's door, in the West, waler-line would have sunk the ship immediately.
a portion of the benefits, public and private, which A ncochet shot fired one thousand and seventy yards, flow from the Navy. By such an establishment, budged between two ports of the lower deck battery. Its too, that section of the country would receive no explosion knocked out one whole plank and two-thirds of
more than its fair quota of the national bounty. It Esther-raised a third its entire length, and shattered a part of the frame. Another thrown twelve hundred and would be the opening of the door, through which eszkis yards, exploded in the ship's side-shattered two of the that hardy race of watermen in the West, could ribs-lore away two inner and outer planks of the spirket- enter the Naval service; thus, it would make tig, and made a hole more than two feet square.* available the dormant resources of that part of The experiments above quoted were made in the country, and give new strength and greater
Had the Pacificateur been under powers to the Navy in war. It would serve as sail in a sea-way, either shot would probably have a connecting link between the Naval service and disabled her ; perhaps have caused her to founder. 10,000 Mississippi boatmen, who now feel that This being the case, a small steam-vessel pre- they are permitted to have no lot nor part in such seating but little surface above the water, and armed service. with two or three of these guns, trained by skilful Our policy is not to send steamers abroad, but marksmen, might destroy the largest ship of the to keep them at home along our own coast,—therefine. Hence, the importance of entrusting the fore we want but few large ones. The size of daties of the Revenue service principally to small those we most want for cruising on the coast, should Eteamers, manned from the Navy and armed only range from 300 to 400 tons—and their average wilh chase guns to throw shell-shot.' The cost, if built of white-oak in Private, or by the job first requisite for such vessels should be speed; in the Public, Yards, would not exceed $75,000, or so that in attacking or retreating, they should $100,000. Those built on the Mississippi, where always appear end on, and thus present the least timber is so cheap and abundant, would cost less. sariace as a target to the opposing ships. And It would be desirable to establish on board of one I imagine it would be no difficult matter to of the vessels in that river, a school of practice, make their bows so sharp, or so to protect them in which the Kentucky riflemen and the Tennessee with iron, that if a shot from the enemy should marksmen could be trained to the Paishans guns. strike, it would glance, and do little or no mis- By these means we should give those vessels an cluef. With as many of these vessels stretched accuracy and a precision with their destructive along our coast, as are required for the protection missiles that would make them formidable indeed; of the Revenue in peace, an admirable guarda- by these means, vulgar prejudices against the manensta would be formed, which, in war, would render of-war's-man's calling, would be gradually removed our ports and harbors, if not perfectly inaccessible, from a hardy and valiant class of ycomen; by these at least dangerously so, to any enemy, however means, statesmen would accomplish the important numerous might be his first-rates and 74s. For, in end-always a national desideratum-of making all our plans of coast defence and national security, resources that lie dormant in their country, availait should be borne constantly in mind, that so long ble for the public safety and the public good; and
* See an excellent translation by Lieutenant John A. by these means, too, the Navy would be strengthDahlgreen, United States Navy, of a little work by H. J. ened in war, with that mighty host of brave and Paithans, on experiments made with 'shell shot in the patriotic spirits who now sing the merry boatman's
song to the “father of waters,' and make glad with
life and animation his peaceful tributaries of the der Barney ; in the everglades of Florida : in short, West.
wherever duty has called them, there they are, brate, The importance of commanding the pass into, and patriotic and true. But the usefulness and neces. out of, the Gulf of Mexico,* and of a Dock-Yard sity of a Marine Corps as a part of our Naval force. for ships at the South, has been often and ably set is a settled question, approved and endorsed by the forth. I have not the presumption to suppose that practice and the experience of every maritime naI can add any thing to the force, or to the weight tion under the sun. England the greatest of them of what has been said on those subjects. I can all, has, within the last quarter-century, and after only raise my feeble voice to implore the pa- an experience of near two hundred years, doubled triots of the North, to unite with the friends of her Marine force on board her cruising ships. Ask their country in the South and the West, in promo- what is her opinion of that ancient and bonorable ting its safety and its interests, wherever these may Corps; and one bright column of bayonets, 10,000 lie. I entreat Southern and Western men to con- strong, glitters back the reply. · Ask France, and sider well the exposed and defenceless condition of she will pass them in review, by whole ships' erews their coasts; to reflect upon the importance of es- at a time. tablishing there, suitable depots for the materials And as to the usefulness of the Marine Corps to and implements of war—for providing safe places the American Navy, I give you, not my own, but of rendezvous for shipping, and for affording the the opinions of some of the oldest and best officers means of defence and offence, against danger from in the service. First, of Commodore Stewart without. A Dock-Yard for steamers on the Mis- whose practical and vigorous mind always leads sissippi would necessarily lead to the establishment him at once to the point; and whose opinion is of of a National Foundry on the Western waters- weight. which is also an object of great importance, that has been strongly urged, again and again, upon the
"" Whether marines can, or cannot, be beneficialy dis
pensed with on board our public ships-of-war?" consideration of the national law-givers.
“I would beg leave to remark, that the marines are the only Rumor has often charged certain members of portion of the crew of a ship-of-war that is wbolly mitat, the Navy-Board with an unfriendly disposition to- and the only part which could be rendered such, by the nature wards the Marine Corps. Those officers certainly of the service, as well as the nature of those comprising *** have a right to their opinions, which, whatever they other classes. If, then, it is at all desirable or usefu be, I doubt not, are honestly entertained. For an
have a portion of the force of a ship-of-war wholly and cuts honest difference of opinion, how much soever it larly organized infantry, for this reason : that the sea 5
pletely military, that portion must be composed of a rect may sometimes, and on some subjects, be deplored, I cers, from their employments and occupations in skipsarraign no man, blame no man; nor do I, in this war, differ materially from military officers; because tha case, ascribe any improper motives. As it regards ideas and general habits of sailors unfit them, in a graf this gallant little Corps, however, Mr. Editor, I measure, for infantry soldiers; and because the line
a ship-of-war would not admit of their train wish to say a word. In the Official
ports that and their general duty and employment would be too e are annually made to Congress concerning the af- deranged and interfered with. In order to ascertain fairs of the Navy, it has been much the fashion of necessity and utility of having a portion of the crew of * late years, to pass the Marine Corps by with a slur; ship-of-war organized as infantry, it will be necessary tai and in calling your attention to the condition of the inquire into the object and duties of such a corps.
" The first object is, to instil into them these sound o >> Navy, I had well nigh fallen into the same track.
tary principles-obedience, subordination, and respect The existence of the Marine Corps, is coeval they may be entitled to confidence in the discharge of their with the Navy. Ashore and afloat, in the storm duties as sentinels to watch over your magazines, spirta and the calm-in peace and in war, this little band rooms, store-rooms, gangways, galleys, and look-outs ; ** of sea soldiers' has been true to its Country, the preserve order, and prevent interruption to the cooking tay Navy, and itself. And no officer who has cruised ties, and to guard your prisoners-of-war, who sometimes
outnumber the crew. In port, they constitute tbe certo much at sea, could ever doubt the utility of ma- guard, and at sea they are (at least, a large propor1200 rines on board of our ships-of-war. They bore them,) always near their arms: thus they prevent sur an honorable part in all our Naval victories and from without, and check mutiny witbin. In the artist actions on the ocean; and whenever an opportunity duties at sea, the marine watch perform the same dai.rs presented itself, they as invariably embraced it, and deck which would be required of any other body of sem
except going aloft; consequently, their usefulness and ima distinguished themselves. Congress has voted the
as men are not lost; for there must be some men korku thanks of the country to its officers, and history deck, in reefing and furling, to haul the rigging, ard *** has bestowed her meed of praise upon the privates, nage the cordage for those who are aloft. In baitle, . for their gallantry in many a bloody scene and hard- the ship is engaged on both sides, or when otherwise ne fought battle. In the gun-boats off Tripoli; in cessary, they can be distributed among the carriage siis several actions of the late war; at Bladensburg un- military, be required of them on shore, they would be 0.7
for working the artillery. Should any operations, wxT * For an important and able paper on the subject of na- efficient and competent to its performance. Should tional Defences, see Doc. H. R. 206, 1st Sess. 26th Con- combined efforts of seamen and marines be required for gress--by a Board of Army-Officers.
surprise of posts, or the escalade of a fortress, the marines
as a supporting column of regular infantry, would form a “To the interrogatory, whether it is necessary to the disciplined body whereon to rest the security of the other armed equipment of a vessel-of-war that marines should classes who are appointed to make the grand effort, and compose a part of its military force? 1 answer, unequivowould yield them a steady column and military support in cally, that, in my opinion, it is indispensably necessary.” case of failure, when they would constitute the reserve, and
[Commodore Ap. C. Jones: Ib. cover the retreat and embarcation of the seamen. The lat- “I conceive it of the atmost importance in the armed ter are a class of men, whose onset and first efforts are tre equipment of a vessel-of-war, that marines compose a part mendons and formidable; but, if resisted and discomfited, of its military force.”—[Commodore Kennedy: Ib. they break into a bundred groups, which cannot be rallied,
“I do conceive it necessary to the armed equipment of a and they become a mere mob, who, without a body of regu- vessel-of-war, that marines should compose a part of its lars to sustain them, must fall a sacrifice. Seamen have a military force.”—[Captain Hoffman : 1b. particular aversion to the infantry drill, and, generally
** Marines should compose a part of the force of a shipspeaking, can be brought to little more in that art than to loud and fire. That strict subordination and obedience to
of-war."-[Captain J. J. Nicholson : 16. orders, and the pride of feeling, intuitive in a regular sol.
“ I cannot omit the opportunity afforded of expressing der, cannot be attained by a seaman : hence, the entire the high sense I entertain of the gallantry and good conduct confidence of the officers, for the performance of the ordi- of the marines. The peculiar position in which that part of Dary duties on posts, cannot be yielded them; frequent pun. my command, extending along the Florida shore, placed teements would ensue for neglect and irregularities, and me, enabled me to entrust important, arduous and disagree. decast to the service would follow. But, sir, there is able duties, to those I have had so much pleasure in comanother evil in attempting to make marines of sailors: the manding; and none have performed their service more faithKarcity of seaten and ordinary seamen would embarrass fully, more ably, and more cheerfully, than the marines--more and more the manning of our ships-of-war, if those always and ever ready.” bo act as marines be substituted from the other classes.
“I for one should be most happy to see the Corps inTo take them from landsmen, no advantage would be gained, creased.”—[Commodore Dallas, 28th March, 1838. es regards the increased nautical efficiency of our ships ; “That there are military duties to be performed on board but much would be lost with respect to the military portion-- a vessel-of-war which cannot be as well performed by any He should have the men without the seaman's or the sol. one as by a regularly disciplined soldier, I presume none will der's profession. In the above observations, I have refer- deny; and it is to me equally clear, that with the guards red to the possibility of mutiny in our national ships-of-war. allowed at present to the ships, some of those duties must That mutiay has occurred in our Navy, there is no doubt. be neglected or inadequately discharged."--[Commodore W. One instance took place on board the Constitution, in the B. Shubrick to the Secretary of the Navy, August, 1839. Baş of Leghorn, in the year 1807. The mutiny broke out, In 1839, the Commanders of all the vessels of I think, in July, and was near becoming serious. By the the West-India squadron, united in a remonstrance, forwidable appearance of a column of marine bayonets, sup. setting forth, that the detachments of marines on ported by nearly a hundred gallant officers armed, it was But only suppressed, but twenty of the ringleaders were se.
board the several ships of that squadron were not Sired, and sent home in the ship, ironed, for punishment. sufficient lo furnish a relief-guard for the number If mutinies have not more frequently occurred in our ships. of sentinels posted. And in closing that remonof-war, it has been owing to the mildness of our command-strance to the Secretary of the Navy, Commodore ers, the good feelings of the seamen towards their officers, Shubrick added, “I fully concur in opinion with and the support afforded the latter by a steady column of bayonets. There are some who will say that marines are
the signers of the communication, that the guards useless, except for idle parade. But even form and parade at present allowed, are insufficient.” in a military system, is perhaps more essential, in aid of Notwithstanding all these testimonials, would it the prezervation of discipline amongst republican citizens, be believed that there has been a malign influence than with the subjects of a King.
at work with the Marine Corps ? Why, Sir, in "The whole business of life may be considered a little more than bent, so far as the desire of distinction goes, to- 1830, the Navy-Board made an attempt to abolish it wards appearances. Men are at best but grown up chil- altogether. The letters, from which extracts are dren, pleased with a rattle, tickled with a straw.' Take quoted above, saved it. After that, the slur was from military service its distinguishing trappings, the pos- cast upon the marines by turning them away from sible • pomp and circuinstance of war,' the probable vote of the Navy-Yards as sentinels—and government was, thanks of the National Legislature, and what will then be left them to aid their patriotism, in calling forth the whole
as you have seen, put to the unnecessary and useless Elitates of the man, to support them in the perils of the expense of hiring watchmen in their places. And baile and the ocean, the deprivations of their homes and after thousands have been paid to these, all of which
might have been saved, the discovery is now being "If we refer to the past services the Marine Corps, made, that watchmen wo’nt do—and marines have they will be found to be among the most distinguished. been taken back into all the Yards, I believe, but Whether you take them at the charge of the bayonet, in UD:300 with the seamen wielding the sabre and the pike, twarding the gun-boats off Tripoli, in their various actions
The ratio of marines to sailors in the English Naon the ocean, or in their efforts with the seamen under Bar- vy is about 1:2. The ratio now in the American Hey in resisting the advance of the British columns to your Navy is about 1:8. By the law of January 2nd, taşatal, you will find they have ever sustained a high repu- 1813, one marine (private) was required for every fation for discipline, conduct, and courage. Under these excamstances, I am decidedly of opinion that the marine seven sailors in the crew of a 74. By the Comcannot be beneficially dispensed with in our national ships. missioners' table of January 20, 1838, the ratio of war."-[Commodore Stewart to the Secretary of the Navy, of marines on board of a 'first-rate,’ is one pri
vate for every twenty-two sailors! In 1825, the Vol. VII-48*
Stk March, 1830.
Navy Commissioners, with Commodore Bainbridgether striking illustration that that Board is not only at their head, assigned a guard of, I think, ninety an irresponsible institution, but practically unacmarines, as the complement of a 'first-rate'-the countable in many respects. English have one hundred and forty. But, two The Army has its Topographical Bureau, its or three years ago, when the hostility to this Corps Department of Engineers, &c. In the re-organihad gained the ascendancy at the Navy-Board, zation of the Navy, which the whole country is the alternative was presented of recommending an looking for with so much confidence, it seems but increase of the Corps, or of diminishing the guards fair and reasonable, that there should be also a Maafloat. Of course the latter was adopted--and rine Bureau, over which the Commandant of the Commodore Bainbridge's guard of ninety, which Corps, assisted by his staff, should preside. Though had been found not a man too strong for one of a part of the Navy, the duties proper of this Corps, our ships of the line, was reduced down to a mere are as separate, as distinct, and as well defined, from handful of four dozen men : and a proportionate those of the Navy Officer, as are the duties of a reduction was made for frigates, &c.
Surgeon from those of a Post-Captain. The law of 1834 fixed the number of privates The present organization of the Marine Corps, of the Marine Corps, at 1000. But by increasing appears defective in many respects, and imperfect in the active Naval force afloat, the ratio of the ma- others. In my desire to see the Navy complete and rines to the seamen employed, was altered ; and perfect in all its parts, I cannot resist the temptation 3 of course some such reduction, or an increase of here presented, to make one or two remarks concertthe Corps became necessary. You have seen ing this branch of it-premising, however, that they some of the practical results of such reduction, are mere suggestions of one who professes no very and read the unheeded remonstrance of officers in intimate knowledge of its details. command, against it.
In the first place, the present plan of supplying On board ship, in cases of fire, disturbances it with officers, appears to be very injudicious and among the crew, rows, mutinies, &c. the place of objectionable. When a vacancy occurs,
instead of the marines is always along side the officers on the filling it with a graduate from the Military Acadequarter-deck, with fixed bayonets--and there they my at West-Point, they go out into the highways
, are sure to be. And never has an instance occur- and bring into it, noviciates who have been roamired in which they have failed to support the officers, ing over the political commons for years. It is true, either in maintaining order, or enforcing discipline. that many a good tall fellow,' has been brought irIt is seldom that sailors, though ordered by their to this Corps—but, per contra—many a one gets officer, will arrest a brother-sailor in his career of into it, who from the day he enters, till he is dismutiny. Cases of riot and outbreak, though not missed, only brings it into disrepute. In any comfrequent on ship-board, do sometimes occur in boats, munity, whether military or the reverse, the efwhen absent on duty from the vessels to which ample of every member has its effect for good or they belong. Though several such cases have for evil-and though the dissolute and unworthy occurred within my own knowledge, I have seldom, are sure of final expulsion from the Corps, the or never,
known the sailors to assist the officers; leave behind them, to taint it, traces of their evil and I may add, that I have never known a marine, example. Besides this, the salary paid to such, is if near, to hesitate. In the case of the notorious more than a public loss ; because, abusing their mutineer, Fleming Livingston, who rose up against trust
, they never render a quid pro quo. For these his officer in a boat, the sailors to a man, though and other obvious reasons, much better would it be called on to seize him, refused to do it; two ma- to appoint into the Corps, from West-Point. rines came of their own accord to the rescue, and I have before me, letters and papers from many for that, they were bulletined by the Commander oficers, in every way qualified to judge, in which of the squadron, and honored with promotion. the opinion is expressed and oft repeated
, that the This little incident is mentioned, because it serves to Corps is too small. In my humble opinion
, if I may give an idea of the different principles and motives be allowed to express it, the public interests of conduct, by which the two classes are actuated. require the enlargement of this Corps ; bot, so
In the progress of improvements at one of our what extent, I am not prepared to say. The opp Navy-Yards, the Marine Barracks were torn down; nion has been expressed by the officers of the 1 and though Congress has twice made an appro- West-India Squadron and others, that a large por priation for rebuilding them, or others, the Navy- tion of that force, known in our ships as landsmen, Board has in each instance, set aside the law of might, with great advantage to the public services Congress, by failing to apply the appropriation. be classed with marines. It is always attempted Where is the responsibility in that case ? Because to train a certain number of the sailors in every of individual hostility to the Marine Corps-so say ship's company, to the use of the musket
. But writers in the papers-a law of Congress is set such is the aversion among seamen to every thing aside ; but certainly, I know of no reason why the in the way of soldiers' duty, that I have deres works were not erected : that they are not, is ano- known one to become even a tolerable proi
cient with the musket. And, if backed by a line
AFFECTION'S TEAR. of sailor musketeers in boarding, I should be as apprehensive of a shot from behind as before ; for
BY JUANA MATILDA KNIGHT, in exercising them at repelling boarders with blank A YOUNG MISS ONLY THIRTEEN YEARS OF AGE. cartridges, I have seldom seen the exercise to con
Thou bad'st me strike my harp again, clude without some one being more or less injured
For thee, my father, dear; by a blank shot, from some awkward musketeer. The theme to swell my song upon, And if sailors will be so clumsy as to shoot each
To be "AFFECTION'S TEAR." other, in the exercise, with blank cartridges, much more may be apprehended from them, in the confu
I saw an angel hovering nigh,
With tear-drop standing in his eye,sion of an action, when they are loaded with ball.
That deep blue eye so soft and bright, Admirable then, it seems to me, is the sugges- I knew him by its dewy light. tion of dividing the Marines into two classes, one of which shall compose the Marines proper, or
He hover'd there on seraph wings,
And with a voice that e'en now rings Veterans—who shall perform on board ship, all the
Within my soul, he seemed to say, duties of Marines under the present arrangement; (How sweetly) “ Daughter, come away." the other, the Grenadiers, Musketeers, or whatever be their title, whose duties on board ship, shall be
He fled away, but as he passed Fery much what those of landsmen now are ; and
A tear fell on me, 'twas the last
Sweet record of his heavenly love; thus, in the same person, would be united the dou
I knew he came far from above; ble qualifications of Landsman and Soldier. Who I knew him by that drop so dear, does not perceive the advantages, strength, and ef- It was, it was “AFFECTION'S TEAR." ficiency which men thus trained, would confer upon Washington City, 1841. ships in close action, upon boat expeditions, descents, and skirmishes on shore, &c. ?
These Grenadiers, when first enlisted, should be sent to the Marine Barracks to receive the rudi- DEATH, DOUBTS AND IMMORTALITY. ments of their soldier-education; when drafted on board ship, they would learn as readily as landsmen It
be doubted whether the prevailing sentinow do, to pull an oar, splice a rope, go aloft, hand ments on the subject of death, are in accordance a sail, reef, steer—and so on. And thus, they could with true philosophy or our Religion. As God is a be tanght the duties requisite for an ordinary seaman, being of pure benevolence, and as death is inevitain which class they could be rated as occasion re- ble and universal—an infliction visiting alike the quires. It is well known that a soldier has no ob- good and bad—the inference would seem to be that jections to learn the duties of the sailor, whereas death is a good appointment. But very different the aversion of the latter to be even like a soldier, from this seems to be the prevalent opinions on is insuperable. I leave this subject in abler hands—this subject. Excited and unhallowed fancy racks to the powers that be, and to the Marine officers itself to find images of terror to represent this disthemselves, who, I hope, will receive, in a kindly pensation of our Heavenly Father. The “secrets spirit, the poor suggestions that have been ventured of the last prison-house” of poor mortality are reconcerning their neglected little band.
vealed for empty rhetorical parade, or to indulge A lame man on his hobby is said to ride like “a the ravings of undisciplined imagination, till the beggar on horseback.” If I have rode too furiously, despairing, shrinking spirit, exclaims, “Did our God I hope that those of your readers who have fol- make us in mockery ?" It may be said that through lowed thus far, will find an excuse for me in the fear many are induced to reformation. But a recircumstance that I am much of a cripple, and can formation which proceeds from a source so selfish mount but seldom. If I have rocked over the toes and slavish, cannot be very sincere nor acceptable of any one, I can only say, it is not my fault
. in the sight of Heaven. To base Religion on the Had it not been for the question of veracity, raised fear of death, as many appear to do practically, if between the statements of the ‘Lucky-Bagʻ and of not theoretically, cannot be authorized by Reason the Report, I should not have untied the ‘Bag,' or
or Revelation. In all our Saviour's teachings, we bare troubled your pages with any inore · Scraps." hear nothing of the terrors of death; and he cerHowerer, before I tie up again, and dismount, per- tainly knew the human heart, and how best to inmit me to thank you, Mr. Editor, for your kindness, cline it to right dispositions. The duties of life, and the reader for his courtesy.
occupied his compassionate mind; and were we to HARRY BLUFF,
perform aright these sacred obligations, there would
United States Navy. be less reason to fear the transit from one state of P.S.-In the 2nd column of page 358, instead of saying being to another. It were to be desired that men that not one of the sloops-of-war cost less than '$113,000-- feared wickedness more, and death less. We pracit should be $110,000.
H. B. May, 1841.
tise sin with little remorse, if we think the great