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(See Note B). In the recent contest on the shores | larly in this country, by the improvements and exof Syria, the presence of a few small Austrian ves- tension of steam power upon the ocean, upon all sels of war, was of little importance in a physical our lakes and rivers, and as connected with railpoint of view, but the co-operation of this small roads,-seem to require an entire revision of the force was a pledge to the world, that 400,000 men former plan. This plan was prepared by a Board, [See Note C) in the heart of Europe were ready which was composed of officers of the Engineers to act, in case they should be required to resist and of the Navy, and a similar Board would apthe hostile intervention of any other power. pear to be the most competent for its revision.

The particular cases which are cited as proofs The officers of each service could furnish the inof the insufficiency of our force for giving proper formation peculiar to each, and adjust the extent protection, are the recent blockades by France of and proportion of each class of force that would some of the ports of Mexico and the Argentine be required and could be most advantageously emrepublic, and the existing difficulties between Great ployed at different positions. Britain and China. The chief causes or grounds The praises bestowed by “Harry Bluff" upon of these complaints are the recognition of block- the Navy officers for the plan of defence which he ades, when there was no formal declaration of says they furnished and urged in 1819, and the war. In the opinion of “Harry Bluff,” the want severe censures which he passes upon that, by of this formal declaration would not only have jus- which, he says, their's was smothered, seem to be tified, but required, the employment of sufficient equally undeserved. He will find upon a more careforce to disregard or resist the blockades. Al- ful investigation, that the alleged report and plan by though our own practice has in some instances the Navy officers, has no existence except in his imabeen similar, let it be granted that this want of a gination ; (See Note E]-that the action of the formal proclamation of war was an irregularity Navy and Army officers was joint, not separate ; and that could not be admitted. In such a case, would the public may perhaps doubt whether a plan recomnot a proper regard to friendly relations require mended by such names as Swift, Bernard, McRee, remonstrance to the government of France, before Armistead and Totten, among others, may not force was resorted to? If this had been made, have had some claims to favorable consideration, France could have removed the alleged cause of although “ Harry Bluff” is of opinion that it was complaint, by adding to her acts a declaration of " fit only to be discussed by the inmates of a madwar. Or if she declined doing this, we could then house.” Such harsh expressions can hardly be with better show of justice have resorted to force, justified when applied with a perfect knowledge of if for such a cause it had been deemed expedient all the facts, much less so by one who appears to involve the country in a war. The same rea- not to have been fully informed upon the subject. soning will apply to England and China ; and with The suggestion that our best policy is to act enall due deference to the opinion of " Harry Bluff," tirely on the defensive, will not, it is hoped, meet it may well be doubted, whether the interests of with general favor. Such a plan would leave to commerce and the interests or the honor of the an enemy the choice of time, place and mode of country would have been better secured by the attack. With a sea-coast of such great extent as adoption of his propositions, than they have been ours, upon which there are so many positions by those means which the government has thought where it is important for us to prevent the near proper to employ. (See Note D.)

approach of an enemy, such a system of defence The strength of the Navy and our state of pre- would seem to be fraught with infinite danger, and paration in steam vessels and in fortifications, when to lead to enormous expense. The true interests viewed in connection with the protection of our of the country and the spirit of our people will extensive Atlantic coasts and lake frontier, is un- hardly permit the adoption of such a system. On doubtedly insufficient. That it is so, must be im- the contrary, both unite in requiring one which puted to higher authorities than the officers of will enable us to meet the enemy before he reaches either the Army or the Navy. The necessity for our shores, or, if practicable, to confine him to his increase has been urged by them and by the heads own ports,-[See Note F) at all events, to retard of their respective departments from year to year, his progress, interrupt his plans, and confine his but Congress has either withheld necessary appro- sphere of action. priations or made them so sparingly, that the coun- This passive defensive system was contemplated try is still almost as defenceless in these particu- for our little Navy at the commencement of the last lars, as it was at the close of the late war. This war, and but for the earnest remonstrances of two has been owing perhaps, to doubts of the expe- Captains, then at the seat of government, our ships diency of completing a system which was adap- would not have been permitted to act on their only ted to the situation of the country twenty years proper element—the ocean. What would have since.

been the fate of the Navy, or its value in the esThe great changes which have been made in timation of the country now, had the passive dethe elements of attack and defence, and particu-'fensive system at that time prevailed ? For the

honor and the interests of the country, may it sels, might be manned with about 32,000 men. If never be again proposed.

these numbers are assumed, and the officers for Whether the present numbers of officers in the each are regulated by the number supposed to be respective ranks bear a due proportion to each | sufficient only for the proper performance of duties, other, and whether they are sufficiently large to and the present numbers for commands of squadmeet the probable future wants of the country, are rons and shore duties be retained, while an addiquestions of vital importance to the Navy itself, tion is made of one fifth of that aggregate for and to the interests of the country as connected casualties and sickness, the following will be found with or dependent upon its efficiency. The manner to be the number required and deficient: viz. in which “Harry Bluff" has estimated the future demand for officers, and compared the present num

Required-84 Captains, 84 Commanders, 534 Lieuls.

174 Masters, 1322 Midshipmen. bers with that future demand, does not appear to Now in service-55 Captains, 55 Commanders, have been done with sufficient care, nor treated

290 Lieuts., 28 Masters, 450 Mipshipmen. with the fairness which is properly due to the sub

Deficient-29 Captains, 29 Commanders. ject.

244 Lieuts., 146 Masters, 872 Midshipmen. It cannot be admitted that a given increase of By the above statement it appears that, for a the force in commission will require the number of force carrying eight times the number of guns and officers now in the service to be increased in the five times the number of men now employed, the same ratio. The number now employed in Navy whole number of promotions from the Midshipmen Yards and on services of all kinds on shore, would upwards, would amount to 302, if the Masters are require very little increase, however much the excluded, and they could be readily and perhaps cruizing force might be enlarged. By excluding better supplied from the Merchant service. To these, and applying the ratio of increase to those supply these 302 vacancies, there are now 195 only which are required for the vessels now em- Passed Midshipmen, or if all were required to be ployed, his number of Captains for a fourfold in- filled now, there would be a deficiency of about one crease will be diminished from 112 to 55, and from hundred. The Midshipmen could be supplied from 92 to 50 Commanders.

among the 4000 applicants, said to be on the list. In his estimates for the future wants of the ser- Although this view shows that the deficiency vice, it is generally assumed that our vessels actu- has been overrated by “Harry Bluff,” there can ally require the full number of officers which have be little doubt that the employment of a larger been assigned to them since 1815. It is generally Naval force in active service would not only imunderstood however, that as many officers have prove the qualifications of the officers we now been put in vessels as could conveniently be ac- have, but would be the best mode of supplying decommodated, without regard to the numbers ne- ficiencies. Another advantage in a gradual encessary to perform the duties, for the laudable largement of this kind of force, would be found in purpose of extending the means of improvement allowing an increase of the average number of to the officers as far as practicable with the force seamen employed in the Navy, without interfering actually employed. The numbers in some of the materially with the supply for the merchant service; classes might be reduced without injury.

and consequently requiring a smaller proportion The true basis of all calculations and estimates from that service to give the Navy any particular for the extent of our Naval force seems to be the extension. In a time of peace, when the employbomber of seamen whom we could probably obtainment of the Naval force would have reference during a state of war with a formidable Naval principally to these objects, its extent must probaenemy. In such a war, the commerce of the coun- bly continue to depend on the extent of our revetry would naturally be so much crippled, that we nue and the relative claims of other national obmight reasonably expect to command from thirty jects upon it. to thirty-five thousand men. The most advanta- It is assumed in the essays that the only rule by geous proportion of vessels of different classes for which the proper number of officers can be deterthe employment of these men, would depend upon mined, is by providing for all the vessels which may circumstances not easily to be foreseen; but upon be contemplated. At the same time he admits this classification and relative number of vessels, this rule would give more than would be required would depend, in some considerable degree, the for a time of peace, but asks—“ Is not this the number of officers necessary for the service ; be- case with the Army? Is it not the case with the cause the proportion between the officers and ships themselves ?" crews varies in the different classes of vessels. The correctness of his rule is not admitted ; nor [See Note G).

is it perceived how his references to the Army or In some of the communications to Congress on to the ships will sustain it. His rule

all subjects connected with the Navy, it has been sug- the officers to be provided, which the contemplagested that about 20 ships of the line, 20 frigates, ted number of vessels would require. As a neces25 steamers, 25 sloops and as many smaller ves-'sary consequence, no other promotions would be


necessary than to fill vacancies. These vacancies, further remedy, the evil would only be increased upon a mean of several years, have not exceeded and extended. three and a half per cent. of the numbers in ser- As this is an evil which vitally affects the invice. Let it be supposed that the numbers which terests and efficiency of the Navy, the best exerwere estimated on a former page to ascertain present tions of all its friends may be well employed" in deficiencies, were now to be filled up, as the basis devising some remedy (See Note I) which may be for future action. To prevent any complaint of efficient, and yet conciliate in some degree the conunfairness, let it be assumed, that, instead of the flicting claims of national and individual interests. average annual loss of three and a half per cent. Promotion by seniority has been the general rule there will be four per cent. in the Midshipmen, five in our Navy. Exceptions have only been made in the Lieutenants, seven in the Commanders, and for some special cause. This course secures to eight in the Captains ;-the whole number, exclu- each officer, (against whose promotion some well sive of Masters, being about 2000. The annual established objection does not exist,) progressive vacancies in the class of Midshipmen would then advancement, uninfluenced by the partialities or be 84, of which 40 might be promotions, and their the prejudices of his superiors. Favoritism, unaverage length of service would be nearly 24 due or improper influence, are excluded, and as far years. The vacancies among the Lieutenants as seems to be practicable, the interests of the inwould be about 40,–12 by promotion, -length of dividual are secured. But if these are its advanservice about 13 years :—vacancies among Com- tages, the disadvantages are great also. It has manders about 13,—by promotion 7,—and their already been shown that unless those proportions length of service about 14 years more. Thus the in the different grades which the ordinary duties of chances for the advancement of a Midshipman en- the service require, are entirely disregarded, the tering at 14 years of age (See Note H] would be, chances for promotion to any officer cannot occur that he might be a Lieutenant at 38, Commander when he is best qualified to receive it: in fact, at 51, and Captain at 65 years of age.

in most cases, not until he has passed the age Although the foregoing estimate is not proposed when he can perform them with pleasure to himas minutely accurate, yet it is believed to present self or much advantage to the country. Dependa fair general view of probable results with the ing alone on mere seniority, all the most powerful assumed numbers of officers, if promotions should inducements for exertion are destroyed, and even be made by seniority. It seems evident therefore, the best of the officers will naturally be discourthat the adoption of the rule proposed, though it aged from making the necessary exertions to acmight remove for the moment and to a slight extent quire high professional attainments. They natusome of the present evils of which complaint is rally ask themselves, “ wherefore should we seek made, would only lay the foundation for their active and arduous services, endure privations or greater extension hereafter. Promotions would be hardships, or even seek to increase our professtill slower than at present, and the inevitable con- sional knowledge, when our utmost exertions will sequence would be, that instead of the present 220 neither hasten our own advancement, nor give us “ discontented spirits, we should soon have others, any preference over those, who merely take care worse and more injurious than the first, sowing to do just so much, and no more than will secure broad-cast the seeds of discord and insubordination their continuance in service ?" Can any system be among all grades."

devised, which would so completely destroy the The only means proposed in the essays of pre- efficiency of the Navy, deaden the exertions and venting this great evil, (which from past expe- blight the energies of its officers, as this of prorience

may well be considered of the gravest cha- motion by seniority, coupled with the necessary reracter) is, that only so many Midshipmen shall be lative proportions of the different grades of officers ! annually appointed as may be sufficient to fill va- Favoritism to some, injustice to other individu(ancies, and if any excess of Passed Midshipmen als, might and undoubtedly would occur, under a should accidentally occur, the surplus should be system which should recognize the principle of encouraged to seek employment in the merchant general or partial selection; but even with these service-to be recalled, if they should afterwards occasional and partial evils, would not such a sysbe required. Is it not apparent that neither of tem, under certain restrictions and modifications, these can remedy or reach the disease ? The mis- be far preferable to promotion by seniority alone, chief would proceed not only from any excess of not only for the country, but the mass of the offiappointments to Midshipmen, but would be inherent cers themselves? If it were adopted, and its pracin the relative numbers previously established for tice made to depend upon presumed or alleged each grade. They would not, and in fact cannot, claims to superior qualifications or greater services, be made to bear such proportions to each other, as and guarded in the Senate by proper inquiry into will admit of promotions by seniority at the ages causes of preference or neglect, there seems to be which the interests of the country or due encour- little ground for apprehending many confirmations agement to the officers, require. Without some'which the Navy generally would find cause to cengure. The belief that greater zeal, superior profes- | The delay in the promotion of Passed Midshipsional qualifications and greater services might men and Passed Assistant Surgeons is made the possibly, if not certainly, gain advancement over subject of special complaint in the essays of “Harthe incompetent, the negligent and the indolent, ry Bluff.” Although the remarks already made Fould, it is believed, infuse a spirit into the service, may apply generally to these, as well as to others, the beneficial effects of which would soon be appa- it may not be amiss to examine whether these rent to the country.

classes of officers have any superior claims over This principle of selection is universally adopted others. Passed Midshipmen had no distinct rank in the British Nary, without other limitation than until 1826, nor Passed Assistant Surgeons until Executive discretion, up to the rank of Captain 1828. Previous to these periods, they stood on inclusive. Above that rank, the claims of seni- the same level, as to rank and compensation, with ority prevail, with few exceptions. As the number those who had belonged to the Navy but for a day. of officers in the respective ranks is not limited by All that they could gain by proving themselves any regulation, the consequence is, that a sufficient qualified for higher duties, was a preference in case number of competent officers and of the proper promotions should be required, but it gave them no ages, can be placed in all the ranks, while those other claim to earlier promotion than they poswho are not considered worthy of further promo- sessed before. tion remain in their respective grades for life. Believing that some distinction was due where

In France, the number of officers in each grade the qualifications and length of service were so is determined by royal ordinances, and may be va- different, the President, in 1826, in virtue of auried at the royal pleasure. Promotions from Mid- thority vested in him by law, increased the pay of shipmen are made by their standing on the list the Passed Midshipmen, gave them a rank over after examination ; in the two next ranks (or up those who had not passed, and assigned them a to what is equivalent to Commander in our ser- distinction in dress. From the same motives, rice,) a certain proportion are promoted by seni- Congress regulated by law the compensation and ority, and others by selection ; above the rank of standing of Passed Assistant Surgeons,—but in Commander, by selection entirely. As, with their neither case was any encouragement given, to jusestablished numbers, the vacancies, even when sup- tify an expectation of earlier promotion. These arplied in this manner, would not furnish the re- rangements were considered at the time, as benefits quired numbers at the proper ages, they have conferred, not as injuries inflicted, [See Note J) and adopted a further means for securing this object. these officers were supposed to have been advanced, The government grants to each officer the privi- not as having been placed upon a retired list. lege of claiming, and reserves to itself the right When it is borne in mind that promotions must neof requiring him, to retire from the list of officers cessarily depend on vacancies, until the numbers in for actire service, after he shall have been in the the higher grades are increased, --what possible Navy twenty years. Although this privilege and cause of complaint can be urged, while the claims of right frequently remain unexercised with some in the candidates have been distinctly recognized and dividuals, yet it affords the means, which are not their relative rank and compensation increased, neglected, of removing the indifferent, and supply- during the time they are waiting for vacancies to ing their places on the active list with those deemed occur? Are they not in every respect more favomore competent; and thus their list is kept filled rably situated, than if they had been left in their with efficient officers. A compensation during life original positions ? If there is any just cause of is given to the officers thus removed, and is gra- complaint, it must be that the whole number of duated upon the pay of the rank from which they Midshipmen and Assistant Surgeons is too large. retire, and according to the whole length of their That such is not the opinion of the author of the service in the Navy.

essays, may be inferred, for he alleges it is insuffiThese statements of the plans pursued by the cient to meet the increased demand which would two nations with whose arrangements we are most exist, were the number of superior officers to be conversant, and who at this time have the most increased to the extent which he considers as indispowerful Naval forces in Europe, are made, that pensable.

C. S. the attention of the Navy and the country may be directed to a consideration of the expediency of

EDITORIAL Notes. selecting any of their details, should the general

[A] Well founded. Does C. S. think proper protecprinciple of selection be in any manner counte- tion has been given to our commerce on the coast of Africa? sanced. It is admitted, that the principle of selec- If so, whence these frequent arrivals of American vessels tion is liable to objections which may be conclu- in charge of English prize-masters-the recent practice sive with some, but those which experience has on the part of British cruisers, of searching and seizing demonstrated to be inevitable upon the continuance American vessels, and of interrupting them in their lawful

pursuits ? of promotion by seniority, will, it is hoped, secure

[B] Respected accordingly. Why then have we any squada fair comparison and lead to a judicious decision. 'rons at all ? If it be true that " with civilized nations, inoral

force is as powerful and more appropriate than physical," C. S. would have it, 1300 for the whole Nary. If the why not replace our squadrons in the Mediterranean, and French officers can attend properly to all the details of on the coasts of South America, with a gun-boat? The duty on board their men-of-war, without any Midshipmen Commander of a gun-boat could protest as earnestly as the at all, surely C. S. will admit that the officers in our Navy commander of a frigate or a 74, “ against a meditated wrong." can carry on the details of duty as well, in their ships, with

[C] A pledge to the world that 400,000 men. Are we in the assistance of 5 or 6 Midshipmen in each. a condition to give any such pledge ? On the Atlantic sea- [J] Benefits conferred, not as injuries inflicted. Benefits board, from Maine to Georgia, we have but little more than conferred on individuals certainly, but injuries inflicted on one whole company of Regulars. In all the distance from the public service. A sea-going friend who chances to be the St. John's to the Sabine, we have not one fort that is at our elbow likens the Navy, with its grade of Passed garrisoned—nor guns enough, with perhaps the exception Midshipmen, to a private ship-owner wbo should establish at Old Point, to make a battery for them. And most of the a system of apprenticeship of his own for the purpose of guns that are at these forts are laying on the ground for furnishing his vessels with proper Mates and Captains. the want of carriages to mount them on. Cannons too But he commits the blunder of receiving apprentices three without carriages, are as useless as muskets without stocks. or four times as fast as his Mates and Captains die offSo far then, from being in a condition like Austria, with her consequently when his apprentices become qualified for "400,000 men, to give a pledge to the world, that we are their higher duties, he calls them passed apprenticesready at home to act;" our exposed and defenceless state doubles their wages, and keeps them 6 or 8 years longer is considered by foreign nations rather as an invitation to, doing those duties which the apprentices proper can do than as a warning against, aggression. That it is so con as well. Though it is charitable to increase their pay, we sidered by England, we need only to instance her conduct cannot perceive how the interest of the public, any more in the Caroline affair, her pretensions to the territory of than that of the private ship-owner, is advanced by sup. Maine, and the searches and seizures of American vessels porting these passed cadets. now continually made on the high seas by her men-of-war.

[D] Those means which the government has thought proper to employ. We know not what they are. But if the interest of American commerce required the presence of a Naval force in the China seas up to August 1839-(when the difficulties of the opium question commenced)--and again

THE QUAKERESS : in April or May '41 (about the time the two ships now on their way, will arrive there,) when those difficulties will A TALE IN ELEVEN CHAPTERS. probably have been adjusted, surely the presence of a Naval force during the two years that intervened, and when those difficulties were at their height, would have proved highly

CHAPTER IX. beneficial.

“Damsel, if the pity I feel for thee arise from any prac[E] No existence except in his imagination. If C. S. will tice thine evil arts have made on me, great is thy guilt. inquire of Commodore Warrington, who Harry Bluff says But I rather judge it the kinder feelings of nature which is one of the officers that got up and signed that petition, grieves that so goodly a form should be a vessel of perdihe will find perhaps that it is the imagination of some one tion.

Lucas Beaumonar. else that is concerned in this matter.

A dilapidated antique building may still be seen where [F] Confine him to his own ports. Among all the mad- were held the trials of the New-England witches. It house' schemes for spending the public money, we have stands in the outskirts of the now somewhat celebrated never heard of one which contemplated a Navy large enough town of S—, where, even at this day, its grey gloomy to confine to their own ports the ships of England, France walls, tottering old steeple and sombre appearance all reor Russia-the only maritime nations from which we have main as monuments of the superstition of that olden time ; any thing to dread.

and these, by their solitude and desolation, all seem to say, [G] The proportion between the officers and crew varies and ignorant period, are also fast passing away. Two han

those days are gone forever, and we, the relics of that dark Therefore, as Harry Bluff says, the number and size of the dred years ago that deserted pile prezented a very different vessels afford the only rule by which the proper number of offi- scene. Early on the morning of what was expected to be cers can be determined. Scraps from the Lucky-Bag.-No.iv.

an eventful day, great numbers of people were seen burry. p. 5met passim.

ing to the place of general convocation. As they eagerly [H] Fourteen years of age. Admitting the rate of pro- prosecuted their course thitherward, and each anxious face motion here assumed to be true one; and, instead of C. spoke the importance of the occasion, it would have been S's. 1300 Midshipmen, adopting the plan proposed by Harry difficult for a spectator to detect the various emotions and Bluff, of appointing only Midshipmen enough to fill up va sentiments which were agitating the breasts of the multicancies, and of promoting them as soon as qualified after 6 tude. But no mere spectator was there. Each counte. years of service-then, a Midshipman of 14 would be nance wore a common index of concern and interest. Here made a Lieutenant at 20, instead of at 38,--a Commander was seen a group whose sable garb and sacerdotal air be at 33, instead of at 51,—and a Post Captain at 47, instead spoke, perhaps, the sacred office-there another, designated of at 65.

by their stern aspects and solemn deportments as the judges [I] Devising some remedy. This Harry Bluff has done of the court and yet another at no great distance, whose in three words-regulate the supply by the demand. C. S. white locks and more reverend aspect, betokened their bequotes usage in the French Navy. We are told it is not ing the Patriarchs of the Colony. Also many of the more uncommon for French men-of-war to go to sea without any quiet and humble citizens, artisans and tillers of the soil, Midshipmen at all in them. If C. S.object to the school-ship were seen earnestly pressing onward; honest laborers, plan, we cannot perceive why only the necessary supply of who had suspended their business for the sake of witnessofficers may not be obtained by reducing the number of ing that day's proceeding. Besides these, there were clusMidshipmen in our ships to 5 or 6, if necessary, instead of ters of garrulous old women, other companies of younger having it as now does, frequently to reach 15 or 20, or, as' females, also children of both sexes, all excited and all

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