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Chiswick, and his wife raised a monu- father had left him a small fortune, and ment to his memory, bearing the fol- this placed him in a position which lowing inscription : “ Here lieth the gave him leisure to indulge in talents, body of Willliam Hogarth, Esq., who which he had manifested at an early died Oct. 26th, 1764, aged 67 years." age. These were caricaturing and song. A mask, a laurel wreath, a palette, pen- writing. Even at school he had shown cils, and book, inscribed “Analysis of extraordinary talent in turning to ridiBeauty,” are carved on one side of the cule any prominent feature of those monument, with some verses, which, who annoyed him. But this is a story by the way, are not worth quoting. Dr. related of almost every clever boy,-a Johnson wrote four lines which are story which has furnished very many somewhat better, but which are cer-pictures of rebellion to scholastic autainly not worthy of the Doctor, or of thority, which it were better, perhaps, the painter :

altogether to repress. The world seems

| too satisfied in taking scholastic inThe hand of him here torpid lies, That drew the essential forms of grace.

subordination as a proof of talents. Here closed in death the attentive eyes When Sayer grew up he soon gave a That saw the manners in the face.

proof of his talent, and finding that the One must not omit to add that the majority of the caricaturists were upon latter days of Hogarth, himself a ca- the side of the people, and few or none ricaturist, were wearied out by attacks upon that of the government, he aj)by anonymous brothers of the art. After pears to have been partly biassed by the publication of his “ Analysis of early predilections, and partly by inteBeauty," a great number of caricatures rest, in taking the ministerial side in were launched forth against him, and the warfare of political pasquinade, every possible means taken to annoy song, and print. He appears to have, and disturb him. His ridicule of the in his earliest specimens, courted the absurd idolatry shown to the ancient favour of the Right Hon. William Pitt. masters by those who, with pretended who was then, by his extraordinary taste, formed large collections of copies, genius, astonishing the nation, and called forth a large print, wherein he is alarming the opposition. On May the represented in the act of undermining 7th, 1782, Mr. Pitt made his first mothe sacred monument of all the best paint- tion for the reform of the representaers, sculptors, &c., in imitation of the tion,-a motion which procured him Greek Erostratus, who, in the distance, considerable popularity, but which was is seen firing the Temple of Diana; defeated by a small majority. Under other caricatures represent him in his the Shelburne administration, Mr. Pitt studio, where are hung parodies of his held office as Chancellor of the Exchepaintings. The artists of these works quer, but the alliance of the Whigs and are anonymous, but we cite them—and Tories drove this ministry from office. we have not mentioned a tythe of the Another body, similar in construction to prints launched against Hogarth-to this, seceded from Lord North, and proshew that when he died, in October, fessed themselves the friends and support1764, he left many behind him to fol- ers to the court, in opposition to the new low in the career of political caricatur- ministry. Of these Pitt was the recog. ists. His greatest persecutor, if we ex- nised and powerful leader in the House cept Wilkes, Charles Churchill, did not of Commons, and James Sayer, the long survive the victim whose death volunteer caricaturist in the print shops he rejoiced to have caused. He died at of London. One of his earliest proCalais in November of the same year. ductions is a large caricature published

Caricature was carried on after the on the 5th of May, 1783, founded upon death of Hogarth by various hands, the a speech made by one of the opposition most noted of whom was

Lords, in the Upper House, immedi

ately after the formation of the new JAMES SAYER,

ministry, who, speaking of Lord North, the son of a captain merchant, at Yar- had expressed himself as follows:mouth, and after being articled to an “ Such was the love of office of the attorney, passed his examination, and noble Lord, that, finding he would not was entered on the roll. Sayer, how- be permitted to mount the box, he had ever, did not need to follow the labor- been content to get up behind." The ious and dry study of the law. His I new Whig coach, with Fox's crest on

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the panels, is drawn by two miserable blocks, bearing the portraits of the hacks through a rough road, jogging popular political leaders of the day. So and nearly being upset, every minute, that the historian of political warfare, by some of the large stones thrown turning over the many similar prints in its way by the opposition, and by which like exigences have called forth, which one of the wheels has received cannot but remember, with a sigh, that a very serious fracture. Lord North there is “ nothing new" under the sun. is holding on behind with an air of Another plate, by the same hand, realarm, whilst Fox and the Duke of presents Britannia pointing with her Portland, seated on the box, are join-finger, and directing the attention of ing in their efforts to draw in the the coalition (Fox and North, who are reins. Contemplating this print one joined together something like the cannot but think upon the many times Siamese twins) to a distant block and a which the subject has been repeated. gallows, by which the artist means to Almost every ministry has been typi- insinuate that a violent and shameful fied by a coach, and the reins of go- death was the proper destination of the vernment have been spoken of in the ministry. Here we may remark, that same terms as the reins of the stage Britannia at this period was the presidcoachman. We need but turn over a ing genius of caricature, and that John very few leaves of our contemporary Bull had not arisen to the prominence Punch to find the same idea repeated which he at present occupies. over and over again.

Aided by such means as these out of On the 21st of April, 1783, Sayer doors, which gradually undermined again satirized the whole of the minis- whatever popularity the ministry had, try, and the print is valuable by afford Pitt shewed that he was no unskilful ing the historian undoubted portraits of leader of an opposition. He let the the New Whig Administration, as it was ministry, by ceaseless provocation and called. The plate is entitled, “ The other parliamentary tactics, make themRazor's Levee; or the Heads of the selves ridiculous in the eyes of the New Whig

A n on a broad bot- House, so that their majority of sixty tom.” The scene is the shop of a bar-gradually dwindled down to a ridicuber, who is busily engaged in arranging lously small number. In July the para quantity of blocks, representing the liament separated, and the ministry members of the coalition ministry. He were left to prepare some great measures is particularly occupied on the heads of which they were about to bring forward Fox and North, joined on one stand, for the consideration of the legislature. to intimate what some of the present Parliament met on the 11th of Noday would call an unprincipled coali-vember, and the first measure which tion. On a wall immediately behind was brought forward was the bill for are the heads of Cromwell and Charles the regulation of India. It passed the 1st, in a curious juxtaposition, through the House of Commons by apparently to intimate that the most large majorities, and out of doors the opposite principles were for the first people at large were interested in its time brought together. Over the fire-fate. “The Politicians of London, who place is a new map of Great Britain are at present a most numerous corand Ireland, from which Ireland is poration" — writes Horace Walpole, nearly torn away. The celebrated “are warm on a bill for the new reguWestminster publican, Sam House, of lation of the East Indies, brought in whom we shall hereafter have to speak, by Mr. Fox. Some of his associates and who described himself as “a pub-apprehended his being beaten, but his lican and republican," sits in front with marvellous abilities have hitherto tria pot of beer, and looks on admiringly. umphed, and on two divisions in the This caricature cannot also fail to call | House of Commons he had majorities to mind similar prints of a more modern of 109 and 114. . . . The forces will be date. When Mr. Gilbert Albert à more nearly balanced when the Lords Becket first started that rabid political fight the battle. ... In Parliamentary paper, Figaro in London-the illustra engagements a superiority of numbers tive cut on the title had the same scene is not vanquished by the talents of the as the one described. Figaro, the bar-commanders, as often happens in more ber, is about to sharpen his razor, and martial encounters. His competitor, to proceed to operate upon various / Mr. Pitt, appears by no means an ade

quate rival. Just like their fathers, (the offices of marshal of the Court of Mr. Pitt has brilliant language, Mr. Exchequer, receiver of the six-penny Fox solid sense, and such luminous duties, and cursitorship,) and the artist powers of displaying it clearly, that to gratify his patron, came out with a mere eloquence is but a Bristol stone triumphant set of plates, “ The Fall of when set by the diamond reason." Phaeton," wherein Fox is represented as

The opponents of this India Bill de- falling headlong from the car of state, clared that it was an infringement of the reins being snatched by royalty, the Company's rights, and that it would the influence of the King being used to give immense influence to ministers. throw out that great minister. In anšome said that Fox aimed at a sort of other published the 12th January 1784, supreme India Dictatorship, and on this Sayer has attempted a parody of Milaccount they gave him the title of “Carlo ton's passage descriptive of the assemKhan.” Out of doors the caricaturists bling of the fallen angels, exhibiting were at work as busily as ever. Cari- Fox as the political Satan, surrounded catures, squibs, and pamphlets, were by his satellites Lords Portland, Carlisle, showered down upon him fast and Cavendish, Keppel, and North, and also furiously. Sayer came out on the 25th Edmund Burke; all his followers bave of November with a print called “A rueful countenances, but Fox encourages Transfer of India Stock," wherein the them; he minister is represented as carrying the

“With high words that bore

w!!), India House on his shoulders to St. Semblance of worth, not substance, gently raised James'; a hint of course of the transfer Their fainting courage, and dispeli'd their fears," of power. Sayer appears to be assi- Leaving James Sayer, comfortably duously courting the notice of Wil- enjoying his place, and passing in affluliam Pitt, and on the 5th of Decem-ence a life, presenting no other remarkber issued his most famous production, able occurrence than the issue from time a caricature which is very inferior to to time of a strong political lampoon, or most of his works, but which had an a smart caricature, we must now proceed extraordinary sale; and which accom- to take up the thread of caricature plished the end for which it was history as exemplified in the life of intended. It bears the title of “ Carlo Gilray. We are moreover almost Khan's Triumphal Entry into Leaden-obliged to pursue this course, because hall Street," and represents Fox as the most notable instances in both Carlo Khan, seated upon the back of lives run parallel with each other. an elephant, the face of the animal being that of Lord North. The ele

JAMES GILRAY phant is led by the celebrated Edmund has perhaps the most famous name in Burke, as Fox's imperial trumpeter; political pasquinading in the world. Burke having been the loudest sup-His life being passed in a most exciting porter of the India Bill in the House period, when the world was undergoing of Commons. A bird of ill omen on such a transition as possibly we shall the top of a neighbouring house is not see again, he had a greater opporcroaking forth the impending doom of tunity of influencing the mass, ignorant the monarch.

and excitable as most of the populace "The night crow cried foreboding luckless then were, than any modern caricaturist time."

can hope for. His father, who bore the Fox is said to have acknowledged that his same name as himself, was born Sept. India Bill received its severest blow in 3rd, 1720, at Lanark. He enlisted early public estimation from this caricature, in life, and was present at the famous which had, as we have before said, a battle of Fontenoy, where he lost an prodigious sale, and the effect of which arm ; on his return to England, he bewas increased by a multitude of pi- came an out-pensioner of Chelsea rated copies and imitations. On the Hospital, and in order to add some 17th of December the bill was thrown thing to the very small dole which the out by a majority of nineteen, and on government afforded to its veterans, bethe night of the 18th, the King dis- came sexton to the Moravian burial missed his ministers, and gave the ground in that parish. He married, seals into the hands of Lord Temple. but who or when, we are not told. His When Pitt came into power, he rewarded celebrated son was born about the midthe caricaturist with a profitable place, dle of the last century.

When of sufficient age, he was, like Agreeably to this intimation, an imHogarth before him, and William Sharp mense multitude assembled in St. the eminent line engraver, bound ap- George's Fields, where Lord George adprentice to a silver or heraldic engraver. dressed them in an inflammatory speech. This sedentary, and if not laborious, Then the procession marched, six abreast, at least fatiguing business, did not over London Bridge to Old Palace Yard, please him, and having imbibed a taste where they behaved riotously, and anfor private theatricals, he ran away to noyed and insulted the members who join a company of strolling players. If were entering the house. We need not the monotony of an engraver's bench, bere go any further into the history of and of having his head continually the “No Popery" riots. In his admibent down watching the strokes of his rable tale of "Barnaby Rudge," Charles burin, were tiresome, he now found that Dickens has already made that period he had escaped from one kind of drudg- of history popular. The caricaturists. ery to embrace a worse. The hardships did their part in ridiculing the rioters, he had to endure, the mean and dis- and in throwing the whole proceeding honest shifts which the strollers are into contempt. An anonymous print put to; the sordid way of life, so differ- probably gives us a very good specimen ent from the glowing pictures before of what sort of men these rioters were. the scenes, totally destroyed the illusion The “no popery man" appears to have which he had formed, and uprooted any been of the lowest kind of rabble, and love which he had for the life of an has his hat ornamented by a cockade, actor. He returned to his father, and on which is written, “No Popery." The entered his name as one of the students subscription of the plate is entitled, of the Royal Academy. His style of "No Popery, or the Newgate Reformers." drawing, vigorous, free, and masculine The rioter is in the act of shouting, as it is, will witness that he did not “Down with the Bank," a consummaneglect his lessons. He appears first tion which was indeed devoutly wished to have obtained work from the book by a great majority of the concourse of sellers, and illustrated Goldsmith's thieves and low people, who formed the “ Deserted Village," in an edition which supporters of Lord George. was published in 1784. His master in The riot went on with fury for some the art was most likely Ryland, a well days, but on Saturday, 8th June, 1780, known artist of the time.

after a great many of the rioters had been Caricature, however, was soon found killed by the soldiery, and a yet greater to be his forte, and he very early gave number had perished through excessive intimation of his powers. In 1779 he intoxication, and some by being left published, as far as we can ascertain, helplessly drunk in the burning houses, his first plate, which appears to be an tranquillity was restored. On the folimitation of the very successful Sayer, lowing Saturday, Lord George Gordon as it bears that artist's monogram. This was committed to the Tower, whence was called “Paddy on Horseback," and he was subsequently brought to trial contains a joke, which at that time for high treason. He escaped conricwas, perhaps, new; namely, of an tion, and was committed to Bedlam, Irishman riding with his back to the having shown sufficient proofs of inhorse's head, and the horse, moreover, sanity. Lord Amherst, who after the being represented by a bull, intimating, death of General Wolfe had obtained no doubt, the headstrong tendency of the credit of the conquest of Canada, the Irishman for that kind of verbal directed the military operations against error. Gilray made his appearance in these rioters. His severity rendered & stirring time. Lord George Gordon, him unpopular, and he became the butt whom Walpole designates as “The Jack of the caricaturists; one by Sayer, (an of Leyden of the age,” was at the head admirable portrait,) represents the of a society termed the “ Protestant General as killing geese, (in allusion Association," and after various inflam- to the rioters,) whilst he is so occupied matory speeches, gave notice, on the he is made to declare, “If I had the 26th of May, 1780, of his intention on power I'd kill twenty in an hour." the 2nd of June following, of present. By another plate we are made acquainted ing a petition against the toleration of with the fact, that a rumour existed the Roman Cattholics, signed by above that the King (George III.) was secretly a hundred thousand men,

inclined to Popery; he is represented as

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kneeling before an altar, and wearing ble print by Gilray, represents the prothe dress of a monk; a picture of the bable fate of the obnoxious Ministers; it Pope hangs above the door, on one side, is called “ Britannia aroused," and the whilst on the other a print of Martin genius of the country has hold of Fox Luther is dropping in neglected frag- by one leg, and of Lord North by the ments from the wall. To the fanatical shoulder, and is about to dash them to ultra Protestant party, the great Burke pieces in her ire. Another, bearing the had also made himself particularly ob-old title of “a long pull, and a strong noxious, on account of his advocacy of pull," represents King George the III. the Catholic emancipation. With the and Fox, pulling each different ways, mob he obtained credit for a character by the halters of an ass, which is laden under which he was often pictured; with packages like sand-bags, labelled namely, that of being a concealed Jesuit. taxes. The ass, of course, typifies the In another of these humorous prints, British nation. The road to which Fox we shall find that the personification of would take the animal leads to “ReJohn Bull, under which the British na-publicanism,” the other to “ Absolute tion at the present moment is so often Monarchy;" republican being a term typified, was not yet (1780) invented, of reproach applied to Fox's party; they, or rather since it is taken from the sati- however, had their caricaturists, and rical fable of Swift and Arbuthnot, had from the style of some of these it would not become popular: Britannia, with seem that Rowlandson worked for them. her faithful lion and her red-cross shield, In March 1784, the dissolution of supplies his place. We meet this latter the unpopular ministry took place, and figure in various plates, and in many William Pitt, then only in his twentydifferent attitudes, Sometimes she sits fifth year, was firmly established as dejected and weeping, at others exulting. prime minister of England. His colThe different political views of the cari-leagues were those who were well known caturists inducing them to clothe her in as the “King's friends," and he united regal purple or in rags; or to repre-in himself the offices of First Lord of sent her as victorious, or destitute and the Treasury, and Chancellor of the Exabout to be executed. But shortly after chequer. The royal hand was shown this time we have a faint gleam of the in many ways, in turning out the coali. coming glory of the effigies of John Bull. tion, and in establishing the Pitt minisIn the month of April, 1780, an unpo- try, and for once the nation and the pular ministry had been defeated, and a monarch were on the same side. “Adcaricature called “The Bull over-drove; dresses were poured in upon the Crown, or the Drivers in Danger," represents the thanking the king for exerting his peBritish bull in a rage kicking at the rogative against the palladium of the ministers; the kings of France and people,” writes Walpole, and the great Spain are standing by, and the latter whig families were, in the election which exclaims, “I wish I was out of the way, ensued, turned out of seats which they he heats the bulls of Spain.”

had hitherto regarded as their own. Parallel circumstances call forth simi- But the most remarkable contest perlar ideas, the history of caricatures is haps ever witnessed in the history of not free from plagiarism any more than elections took place at Westminster. It any other art; our readers will recall had been represented previous to the many touches in Punch similar to dissolution by Sir Cecil Wray and Fox. that of the “Bull over-drove;" but in Wray deserted his side, and turned to 1784 we have a subject from the pencil the Court, and the king resolved to turn of Gilray, which has since been repeated Fox out, and place Admiral Hood in by Mr. Leech, in Punch. Pitt in the his seat. The poll was opened on the character of the infant Hercules, is 1st of April, and continued without in. strangling the two serpents of the coa- termission until the 17th of May, 1784. lition, Fox and Lord North. The coa- For the first few days Fox was in the lition must have been extensively un- minority, buteventually he was returned popular, from the multitude of songs, by a majority of 236 over Sir Cecil pasquinades, and pictures, which were Wray. published against them. There seems No political event seems to have to be in the nature of such connections, given birth to a greater number of something extremely disagreeable to songs, squibs, and caricatures, than the English nation. A bold and forci. this election. Sir Cecil had, in the for

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