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the “ travelling English” who flocked foundation in truth. The print was over there. His visit was not of long inscribed to George II.; but when the duration, for having dared to take a proof was laid before his Majesty, he sketch of the gates of Calais, he was ar- did not quite understand the joke. rested as a spy, and conveyed back to “Does the fellow," said he, “mean to England. The artist tried to avenge laugh at my guards? Take his trumhimself for this affront, by a print which pery out of my sight." The picture he termed “The Roast Beef of Old was removed, and the dedicatory inEngland." The print comes, one can scription erased; and Hogarth dediwell see, from the hands of an angry cated his print to the king of Prussia, man. It is very absurd and ridiculous, from whom he received a handsome no doubt, to be ragged and ill fed, but acknowledgment. The original paintas few people would submit to such ing was disposed of by the kind of lotunpleasant fortune if they could help it, lery which at present is known by the the satire upon these weaknesses falls name of the Art-Union ;" every purto the ground. We have now, happily, chaser of a print receiving a ticket. outlived the times when our most bitter Some chances which remained were tuunt against a Frenchman was the presented to the Foundling Hospital, meagreness of his diet. Upon this and one of these latter tickets carried vulgar prejudice, Hogarth's print hinges; away the prize. This plan was more it is not worth description. In the beneficial to the painter than his sales : year 1751, he presented to the Found" a lottery,” he observed, “is the only ling Hospital à picture of The Find chance a living painter has of being ing of Moses," which is perhaps the paid for his time.” “Beer Street," and best of his serious works. This paint- Gin Lane," two works, one of which ing, with others presented by other ar- has, no doubt, great admirers amongst tists to the same Institution, used to be the temperance societies, next appeared. exhibited for the benefit of the Found Their logic is weaker than their execulings,--a proceeding which gave rise to tion. The imbibers of beer are very the present Royal Acadamy. Hogarth joyous, pleasant people; the gin drinkwas the earliest and amongst the largesters are no doubt copied from nature, of these who, by their paintings, thus and amongst them, the only being who contributed to so deserving and meri- thrives is the pawnbroker. Two natorious a charity. The next works oftional prints, called " France" and "Eng. our artist were, “The Four Stages of land" followed ; and ridiculed the fear Cruelty," which are revolting in the which was then as now, (and probably extreme; and a ludicrous picture of the ever since the Dauphin landed at Do“ March of the Guards to Finchley.” | ver, in King John's reign,) very prevaPrince Charles Edward, the darling of lent, namely, of the French invasion. Scottish minstrelsy, and the hope of a Both pictures belong properly to hisgreat portion of the then British nation, toric caricature, and both are in their had began a successful campaign by way overloaded. The French soldier one or two bold strokes, and was ad- in the first print, who has spitted five vancing upon London. The guards of frogs upon his sword, and is roasting the Hanoverian prince, who occupied them at a bivouac fire, was a popular the throne, are advancing to meet him ; element in national ridicule, which and the drunken and reeling rout of would now be scouted at Astley's, or the soldiers do not badly represent the lower theatres, whereat highly coloured terror which spread over all parts of the nautical dramas are popular. Some community. In the gossiping pages of scenes called “The Cockpit," followed Horace Walpole, we shall find the true this pair of prints, and are broad safeeling of the country concerning this tires upon that cruel sport. The satire advance of the Chevalier, and in the fell harmlessly. Lords and gentlemen, papers of Fielding's Covent Garden as well as blacklegs and butchers, conJournal, we find the fear and alarm tinued to indulge for years after, in the visibly depicted. Hogarth has probably noble sport of " cocking.” The next highly caricatured the scene he beheld, series was “The Election," in four but the drunken panic and disorder, the plates. The bribery and corruption of hurried march, the carousing and swag- such a scene had, perhaps, never been gering, and thorough carelessness of placed so prominently before the eyes of discipline, had, without doubt, some the world. To the polling, the lame, blind, dead, and deaf, are carried up to treatment, and the prints and illustrarecord a vote for one or the other memtions which accompanied it, were not ber. A doctor by the side of a sick left untouched. Hogarth, who seems man, has him borne along to vote for a to have had like most great men in his favourite client. This incident is a art, a considerable share of vanity, was fact, and is related of Dr. Barrowby. not undisturbed by these attacks; he The patient expired at the hustings. had endeavoured-the work of a giantThe fourth scene is the “ Chairing of to fix the principles of taste, and he the Member," who resembles in his failed, yet his book has its merits, and person the celebrated Bubb Doddington, it has been highly commended by a raised to the peerage by the title of president of the Royal Academy, Sir Lord Melcombe Regis. He is seated in Benjamin West, whose judgment was a chair, raised aloft by four brawny con- vastly superior to his powers as a stituents. The pictures are full of ex- painter. pression and life, and are finely painted, In 1759, Hogarth, about to discontinue merely to speak of their mechanical painting, determined to enter into comexecution. Foes mingle, however, in petition with a painting said to be by his cortège, but a blow from a flail| Correggio. His wife, who was a very prostrates one of his bearers, and is handsome woman, supplied the model, about to overthrow the member. The and the artist produced his “ Sigispictures are now in the museum of Sirmunda." The picture was painted for John Soane, which he bequeathed to the Sir Robert Grosvenor, but the gentlenation; whilst looking on them, and man refused the picture, when it was remembering recent scenes of bribery completed, and it remained on Hogarth's and riot in our own days, the reader hands. The answer of Sir Robert was, will sigh to think how little we have besides this, unmanly and insulting, for politically improved, since the days age was growing upon Hogarth, and a when Hogarth published the election refusal should not be coupled with insoscenes of the honourable and immacu- lence; he refused the picture because, late member for Guzzledown. David he writes, “ the performance is so strikGarrick bought these excellent pictures ing and inimitable, that constantly for £200.
having it before one's eyes, would be too The time now came when Hogarth often occasioning melancholy ideas to was to come forward as an author ; that arise in one's mind, which a curtain's is to say, for it has been denied that the being drawn before it would not dimibook was written by him, he published nish in the least." The artist gave no a book called the “Analysis of Beauty,” answer to the insult, and the picture, a work containing many new notions as we have said, remained on his hands, on his art, and only probably interest-attacked and laughed at by all his ing to artists. The chief point on enemies. which it insists, being in the undulat- Of these Wilkes and Churchill were ing line, called the line of beauty and the bitterest, and those who made their grace, and which Hogarth had some anger the most felt. Hogarth in a time before introduced upon his palette print called the “ Times," published in in his own portrait. Of this line, he|1762, when he was sixty-five years old, claims to be the discoverer, and asserts ridiculed the opponents of the Ministry with truth, that nothing beautiful in and the friends of Wilkes, as agitators. nature is stiff or angular, the line of Wilkes, although not included in this grace being found in the undulating political caricature, wrote a furious hills, in the shape of the flower, and in North Briton attack (in number 17 of the beauty of man and woman, bird his paper) on “ the King's Sergeant and beast. With one or two exceptions, Painter, William Hogarth,” in which such as the leaves of the holly, the thistle, he accused him of being a vain, greedy and the various cacti, this is true, but and treacherous hanger-on, of a corrupt some denied the discovery, and asserted court. Hogarth replied with his pencil, that the principle was known to Michael and the print of Wilkes, which we have Angelo. A book from so universal a before described, appeared, and was satirist as Hogarth, was sure to be as- sold by thousands. Wilkes felt now sailed, and assailed it was by writers the sting of the satirist, and Churchill from Wilkes to Walpole. Every part the poet, who appears to have been of the work came in for a share of rough sincerely attached to the demagogue,
came to his rescue, in a personal satire, by me, with some parts ready sunk, as called the “ Epistle to Hogarth.” The the background and the dog, I began quarrel only shows how furiously angry to consider how I could put so much men could abuse each other; both work laid aside to account, and so Wilkes and Churchill had been personal patched up a print of Master Churchill friends with the artist, and now they in the character of a bear. The pleavigorously abused him. The world has sure and pecuniary advantage derived much to regret in the loss of so vigorous from these two engravings, together with a poet as Churchill, from the fact of occasionally riding on horseback, rehis being led away to vice and dissipa- stored me to as much health as can be tion. The satirist whom Cowper owned expected at my time of life.” as his master, and who has much of Hogarth speaks thus lightly of the the manly freedom and masterly ease fray, but it probably broke his spirits of Dryden was an ally on the side of and hurt his health. Churchill, who was virtue, of whom the best might be an unfrocked clergyman, and a man of proud. Alas, that he spent his talent the loosest life, was unworthy of notice. upon personal abuse, or in vain regret. A short time after he writes thus heartHe attacked Hogarth as Pope attacked lessly of the old and failing painter. Dennis, upon his old age, and declared " (naming his mistress) tells me that malice led him to satirise Wilkes. with a kiss, that I have already killed “ Malice (who, disappointed of her end,
him. How sweet is flattery from the Whether to work the bane of foe or friend, woman we love ;” and again, even more Preys on herself, and driven to the stake,
heartlessly, the malevolent satirist Gives virtue that revenge she scorns to take) Had killed thee, tottering on Life's utmost says—“ he has broken into the pale verge,
of my private life, and has set the Had Wilkes and LIBERTY escaped thy scourge.
example of illiberality which I wanted, Hence, Dotard, to thy closet, shut thee in, and as he is dying from the effects of With all the symptoms of assured decay,
my former chastisement, I will hasten With age and sickness pinched and worn away his death by writing his elegy.” Even From haunts of men, to shame and sorrow fly, | Wilkes, debauched as he was, was more And, on the verge of death, learn how to die."
generous than Churchill: he remarked Surely it is no crime to be sick and of his squinting portrait, “ that he did old, feeble and weak with disease. not make himself," and therefore might Hogarth might have retorted upon that
be excused for being so very ugly, but weakness which proceeds from dissipa- Churchill exulted over the painter's tion; more cutting probably was the failing health, and when he heard of allusion to Hogarth’s failure.
his death, rejoiced that it was imputed “ Poor Sigismunda! what a fate is thine! to the terrors of his satire. Dryden, the great High Priest of all the nine Revived thy name, gave what a muse could give,
We are now to chronicle the last And in his numbers bade thy mem'ry live; work of Hogarth, which we think shows But, “how fallen! how changed !' \ a failing power, and an exaggeration Doth Sigismunda now devoted stand.
of which the painter was not always The helpless victim of a Cauber's hand!" guilty. It is termed “ Credulity, Super
That these attacks wounded Hogarth stition, and Fanaticism,” and seems to and hastened his decline, there can be be intended by the artist to show the little doubt. He retorted on Churchill, effects of a low conception of religion, by a caricature called “ The Bruiser C. and also the idolatrous tendency of Churchill, (once the Rev.) in the cha- pictures and prints in churches or in racter of the Russian Hercules regaling books. A fierce preacher seems to be himself after having killed the monster condemning with terrific energy the Caricatura, that so galled his virtuous whole world to perdition, such is the friend, the heaven-born' Wilkes.” | fury of his looks and gestures. His Churchill was drawn as a canonical bear, congregation are in a terror of alarm, with a pot of porter and a knotted club, and are thrown into various gestures bearing on the various knots “Lye 1, typical of their state, and in the corner Lye 2,” and so on, by his side Hogarth's the notorious Mrs. Tofts, whose imposdog tramples on his “Epistle to Ho- ture is unequalled in the annals of garth.” The intrusion of the painter's credulity, seems to have added a quandog by the side of the “Russian bear” |tity of monsters to the scene. At the is accounted for by Hogarth in the fol- window a Turk, calmly smoking, looks lowing manner: “having an old plate in at the window, apparently drawing
a very satisfactory parallel between the ceived an agreeable letter from a friend, workings of his religion and that which he wrote a rough draft of an answer, he witnesses The aim of Hogarth was and finding himself weak, postponed no doubt good, but it is not too clearly writing the letter, and lay down upon perceived in this curious print, and his bed. He had lain but a short time those who sneer at religion, sometimes when he was seized with a vomiting, allude to this engraving as a proof that and starting up, he rang the bell with Hogarth sneered too, which is very far such violence that he broke it. An indeed from the fact.
affectionate fomale relative came to his The time had now come when he aid, and after two hours' intense sufferwas to find a consolation in religion.ing, he expired from a suffusion of He had bought a small house at Chis-blood among the arteries of his heart. wick, which yet remains; it is not very So lived and died William Hogarth, far from the one occupied by the Duke a genius entirely English, and master of Devonshire, and is still called Ho- of a style of which he might have said garth House, and to this he retired; at with Swift, that time indeed it might have been
" Which I was born to introduce, called retirement, for it was very pret
Refined it first, and showed its use." tily situated, and the garden contained many fruit-trees, and in it he had And in which, although he has had buried his favourite dog, the headstone many imitators, he has not had one of whose grave, standing in a corner of worthy successor. His great success the garden, close against the wall, still in his own peculiar style, and his entire remains. The cottage has since been difference from other painters, seems inhabited by another man of genius, to lie in this, that he paints perfectly the Rev. Henry Cary, the translator of dramatically, and takes care to let his Dante. It was in this cottage that own peculiar mind pervade his pictures, Hogarth felt death coming upon him, No painter ever told a story better than but his spirits did not desert him; he Hogarth. He is not entirely a painter, seems to have summed up his actions he may be called an author, and viewed of past life, and to have been as much in that light we shall understand the as most men at peace with the world, answer given by the gentleman who, and with his Creator. “I can safely Charles Lamb tells us, being asked assert," he writes, “that I have invari. which book he preferred most, said, ably endeavoured to make those about “ Shakspere," and which next, said, me tolerably happy; and my greatest / “ Hogarth.” Most of his admirers have enemy cannot say, that I ever did him felt the truth of this; they read his an intentional injury; without ostenta- pictures, at those of other painters they tion I could produce many instances merely look. Great draughtsmen and of men who have materially benefited fine colourists some artists may be, but by me. What may follow, God knows." they do not throw the soul into their This reasoning is scarcely satisfactory pictures which Hogarth did. In the to the Christian, alas! That many men painted illustrations of the “ Waverly have materially benefited by our weak Novels,” or of “Gil Blas," or of the endeavours to do good is not sufficient ;“ Vicar of Wakefield,” we see various the better the man, the less confidently figures over and over again, to reprewill he look back upon his past life; the sent the “ Vicar," or “ Gil Blas;" but in great Newton talked sorrowfully of wasted painting the “Rake” or “Councillor time, and Coleridge, weeping, confessed Silvertongue,” or “ Viscount Squanderthat even then, in his last few days he, felt,” Hogarth has indelibly fixed them who had been praying all his life, on our minds, and they will bear no scarcely knew “how to pray."
second impression. All his pictures are On the 25th of October, 1764, Ho- of this kind. The puzzled face, rather garth left Chiswick, and returned to indeed prosaic, of the distressed poet, we Leicester Square. He was very weak, never forget; the vapid face of the young but at the same time extremely cheer. nobleman, the conceit of the Italian ful, and his mental powers were as per singer, are to us as much matters of fectly unimpaired as ever. Physicians fact and reality, as the madness of Don do not appear to have been with him, Quixote, or the burlesque cowardice of and of the nature of his complaint he John Falstaff. More than this, Hogarth himself was unaware. Having re- stands alone, he is sui generis, and without a rival; Sir Joshua Reynolds fool. The history of his five days' peregrinaishly denied him the title of “painter.” tion to Gravesend and Rochester will That he could paint, and in many points show what sort of man he was, better better and more solidly than Sir Joshua than any laboured description. Under himself in his“flying colours," the scenes the town hall in Rochester, the curious of the “ Rake's Progress" in Sir John are still shown the place where he pubSoane's Museum, abundantly testify; licly played at hop-scotch with a jovial but he does not want the petty title, he companion, to the great delight of the was no Royal Academician we know, onlooking boys. His personal spirit but there have been many hundreds of was great, and he would resent any painters, and but one Hogarth. I insult offered by any one, nor did he
Besides this, he was like all great bend in any way to rank or power. men, evidently of his age, and yet beyond He loved state in dress, and a certain it. His satire upon its defective morals decent order in his household; his wifo will testify the latter, and for the former who tenderly loved him, assisting him we may cite Walpole. “The Rake's in entertaining his guests at a pleasant Levee Room," says that author, “ The house and handsomely furnished table. Nobleman's Dining-room, the apart-" In his relations of husband, of broments of the husband and wife, in the ther, friend, and master," says Ireland, Marriage à la Mode, the Alderman's “he was kind, generous, sincere, and inParlour, the Bedchamber, and many dulgent; in diet abstemious, but in his others are the history of the manners hospitalities, though devoid of ostentaof the age."
tion, liberal and free-hearted, not parThis is high praise, “but greater yet simonious, yet frugal; but so compararemains behind;" he was not only the tively small were the rewards paid to historian, but the moralist of his time ;artists, that after the labour of a long in openly reproving vice, he stood out life, he left an inconsiderable sum to beyond all other painters. Art in his his widow, with whom he must have hand did not degenerate into sensuous- received a very large portion.” To this ness and prettiness, nor did he excite another biographer adds, that he was religion by the faces of meek Madonnas, very considerate and kind to all his or emaciated saints; but he showed servants, that they had remained many vice her own image, stamped the paltry years in his service, and that he painted and conceited coxcomb with a brand; all their portraits, and hung them up placed abject poverty, copied with an in his house. He used to study at all unerring hand, by the side of prodigal times and in all places; he would sketch and selfish wealth, and preached such a any remarkable face which he saw, sermon thereon, as the world will not sometimes upon his nail. He was a easily forget. If fame be worth any great observer of the workings of the thing, he has fame enough; the portrait passions in the face. Barry once saw painters and effeminate flatterers of the him patting the back of one of two dayfwere ashamed to own his masculine fighting boys, who was hanging back genius; the sentence is now reversed, from the fray, and telling him not to there is scarcely an educated English- be a coward, all the while very attenman, but who is proud to own that he tively observing the face of the other. is the countryman of William Hogarth. He went into good society, and dined
In his personal appearance, Hogarth with Gray, at the table of Horace Walwas not singular. His portrait gives pole. He left his wife by his will, all us a blunt English-looking face, marked his property in his plates, the copyright with great determination and self-pos- of which was secured to her by Act of session; his eye was peculiarly bright Parliament for twenty years; the numand penetrating, and his forehead high ber of impressions annually sold, proand broad. He was rather below the duced a very respectable annual income, middle size, active in person, and bust-but she outlived her right and became ling in manner, and fond of some little reduced to the borders of want. The importance and state ; he had a great interposition of the king with the deal of bonhommie, and was sought for Royal Academy, procured for her a 29 an excellent companion; when out pension of £40 per annum, which she on a trip or jaunt his spirits rose to a lived but two years to enjoy. great height, and kept the company Hogarth was buried plainly and in a considerable state of amusement. without show, in the churchyard of