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so much to the gratification of Lady but the pictures themselves will by no Thornhill, that she advised her daughter means suit the advanced taste of our to place it one morning in Thornhill's own day. Hogarth himself writes of them dining room. Mrs. Hogarth did so, the very complacently, but no man is a ruse succeeded. “Very well ! very well, judge of his own works. Milton preindeed," cried Sir James, "the man who ferred “Paradise Regained" to the can do these, does not need a portion greater and earlier poem, and the fact with a daughter." There, was perhaps, of Hogarth frequently recurring to the a touch of avarice in this speech, but classical style, leaves us but little space they were soon afterwards completely to doubt but that he, in his own opinion, reconciled, and Sir James soon after- fancied that he could equal the old wards became generous to his son-in-masters; for it must be recollected that law and daughter.
his genius was of a most self-confident The “Harlot's Progress" was com- nature. But his keen sense of character menced in 1731, and appeared in a and the very power which made him series of six plates in 1734. The public what he was prevented this. “He was received it with general approbation, and ambitious," writes Horace Walpole, "of the money which it produced relieved | distinguishing himself as a painter of Hogarth from any fear of troubling his History, but the burlesque turn of his father-in-law. No one can look upon mind mixed itself with the most serious the plates without being struck with their subjects. In his 'Danaë,' the old nurse boldness, force, and originality. They tries a coin of the golden shower with her are full of truth, and are very far indeed teeth; in the Pool of Bethesda' the from being overloaded or caricatures. servant of a rich ulcerated lady beats Yet in them many living characters are back a poor man who has sought the severely satirised. Colonel Chartres, | same celestial remedy." of whom Pope had written that a good | The first of these incidents is a step man might wonder that
beyond truth, and although very ludi
crous is without thought. Surely when "Some old temple nodding to its fall"
we believe the shower to be divine, we did not
would not test the gold; the second “For Chartres' head regorve the hanging wall." contains a severe satire upon humanity,
a satire no less true, than it is severe, Parson Ford, Kate Hackabout, and Hogarth had by the “Harlot's Pro. Mother Needham have therein their gress” won the good will of those whose portraits preserved. The success of this opinion was worth winning. Somerseries of plates was so great, that the ville dedicated a work upon rural sports proceeds lifted the painter from the to him, and Fielding continually reverts slough of mean condition in which he to him in terms of the highest praise, was, till then, plunged. He took a both in his paper of the “Covent Garhouse for a summer residence in Lam- den Journal” which he then edited, and beth Walk, and the vine which he is said in the admirable novel of “Tom Jones." to have planted is still shown there. In 1734, he lost his father-in-law, Sir About this time, he had the temerity to James Thornhill, to whom he had been attempt subjects which were far, very ever kind and attentive, and whom he far out of his style : on the great stair-appears really to have looked to with case of Bartholomew's Hospital, he admiration. Hogarth wrote the obituary painted two Scripture stories, -- the of Sir James in the “Gentleman's in Pool of Bethesda,” and the “Good Magazine.” In the following year he Samaritan," with figures seven feet high. lost his mother, who lived near Cecil “These," he writes in some MS. notes Court in the Strand. Mrs. Hogarth had left by him, “I presented to the charity, lived to see her son famous, he had al. and thought they might serve as a speci- ways been to her tender and respectful, men to show, that were there any in- and had aided her in every way he clination in England for encouraging could, this aid was now to be extended historical pictures, such a first essay to his sisters who were both unmarried, might prove the painting of them more and who were left with little to support easily attainable than is generally ima- | them, but luckily in trade in a ready. gined.” An inscription which adjoins made clothes-shop in Little Britain. these pictures tells us they were painted The “ Harlot's Progress" had been so and presented by the artist in 1736; successful, that the next work of the
painter appears to have been intended seized by the bailiffs, and owes his as a pendant to it. The second pro- temporary liberty to the goodness of duction by far surpassed the first. It the very woman whom he had betrayed was the “ Rake's Progress," a work 60 and cast off, and at last comes the fruit of notorious and admired, that grave all this riotous living, this “blazing out divines preached upon its lessons from of life,” as Johnson in his “Life of the pulpit; whilst at the same time the Rochester," has forcibly called it. The stage, for once, in those days, coming to prodigal has no father or home to the aid of morality, produced the story return to. His friends, all save one, of dissipation and guilt, and its conco- have left him, and he dies mad in Bedmitant and wholesome moral, with all lam, a victim to his own vice, extravathe power of scenic effect, and living gance and folly. tableaux to startle the eyes and wring The fame of the painter now attracted the hearts of many of the audience, certain pirates of prints, which kind of who were engaged in that same wild property was in those days unprotected race, which ends in the prison or the by copyright. The whole of the eight grave. Fan-mounts, printed in red ink prints of the “Rake's Progress" were were also sold, bearing small copies pirated by Boitard, and printed on one of the subjects, three on one side and large sheet, and issued a whole fortthree on the other, so that the grave night before the originals appeared. and satiric touches of the painter, per- To do this, Boitard must have had some meated the whole mass of society, from understanding with the printer who the duchess who read its lesson upon took proofs of Hogarth's engravings, her gilt and feathered fan, to the fre- and must have obtained surreptitiously quenter of the sixpenny gallery, who the very proofs, which were worked off wept perhaps at its pathos, in Drury the artist's plates. The whole affair reLane Theatre. Hogarth had indeed veals to us a system of rascality which read a great moral lesson; he was in certainly does not place the honesty of this no caricaturist; there is no false the “ good old times” in a very favoursympathy, no overloading in the pic-able light. The eight plates of the tures which he has given us. In the “Rake's Progress" were not, on the first series, a young and innocent whole, so favourably received as their woman coming to town, is beguiled by predecessors had been, and this, coupled one of the basest of her own sex, and with the pirating, stirred on Hogarth led through six scenes of false and fleet- very naturally, to endeavour to turn the ing splendour and guilt, to punishment whole of the profits to himself. To do and misery, finally to end her life this he applied to parliament, and obamidst beings as depraved and as tained an act, “ for recognising a legal wretched as herself. In the second copyright in designs and engravings, series of engravings, the heir of a sor- and for restraining copies of such works did old miser steps suddenly from a from being made without the consent state of abject dependence upon ano- of the owners.” This was in 1735. To ther's will, to abundant wealth. At commemorate this act, the artist drew the moment in which fortune lavishes and etched an allegorical plate, wherein her favours upon him, he proves his a royal crown sheds rays upon bishops' baseness by deserting a poor creature mitres and lords' coronets, upon the whom he had seduced, and who before mace, the speaker's hat, and the great his accession to wealth, he had pro- seal; by which loyal symbols he typimised to make his wife. In the next fied the united wisdom of " lords and scene we find him already on the high commons assembled,” and the gracious road to ruin, sharpers, gamblers, and sovereign, under whom they guided the bullies surround the young man and nation. Underneath the subject are hurry him to dissipation. The foreign words no less loyal than the plate itself, master of dancing, and foreign singer whereby Hogarth, not faintly but share with English parasites his stupid strongly, lauds the Imperial Parliaadmiration, and the bully and fighting ment for the measure which they had man show that others are ready to taken to secure him his rights. defend his cowardice whilst they share In the next year, that is in 1736, the his gold. But these scenes are soon industrious artist again amused the followed by retribution: whilst going town with a plate which, though full in a gay dress to court, the Rake is of most cutting and truthful satire, yet
borders in its quaintness upon carica- in Covent Garden. The group is perture. It is called “The Sleeping Con- vaded with a drunken spirit of sife, gregation,” and represents a very mo- which is indeed admirable, and which notonous and heavy parson promoting could only proceed from one pencil to the utmost of a very large ability, This print has carried the name and the happy endeavours of a singular fame of Hogarth into foreign lands. It audience to sleep. The very church is a great favourite in Germany, in itself seemed steeped in slumber, re- France, and in Russia. His next work minding one of the metamorphosis of was no less full of life and motion-it the cottage of Baucis and Philemon was the “ Enraged Musician.” A prointo a church, the very pews are sleepy. fessor of that art, evidently foreign The artist must have had Swift's lines from his dress and air, is interrupted in in his mind:
his practice by a concourse of noises, A bedstead of the antique mode,
which are brought together with great
no longer, but, throwing up the window Which still their ancient nature keep, and placing his fingers to his ears to
By lodging folks disposed to sleep. shut out the discord, appears to be The only person in the congregation at yainly endeavouring to obtain a hearall awake is the clerk, “ å sleek and ing and to put a stop to the terrific oily man,” who has one eye kept open, noise. But it still continues; a dustby glancing in too worldly a manner
man cries “dust, oh!” a milkmaid upon a very fine young servant maid (sweetly drawn, and full of freshness who is most pertinaciously asleep on and innocence) cries out “milk above, his left hand. The clerk is in that ri.
milk below;" a fishmonger cries in diculous state when a person is con
linked sweetness, long drawn out, scious of going to sleep, but endeavours
"e-e-Is;" a ballad singer chaunts very vainly to keep himself awake. the monotonous story of “The Lady's The effect is ludicrous in the extreme. Fall;" a little French drummer drums; The author of the “ Philosophy of Drunk- a paviour rams the stones; a post-boy enness,” Mr. Macnish, has also written blows his horn; and a sweep from an able treatise on the “ Philosophy of the top of a neighbouring chimney raps Sleep;" in one chapter he has treated his brush against the pot, and shouts very scientifically, upon the strong out that “ he has done;" but this is not temptation which all are subject to of all, the picture, like Prospero's island, sleeping in church. He might have
is “full of noises,”- '-a cutler grinds a illustrated his subject by an allusion to butcher's cleaver; and “ John Long," Hogarth's print.
a pewterer, in a shop close at hand, In or about the same year, (for the adds to the turmoil the clink of many plate is without a date,) Hogarth pub- hammers. In addition to this, the lished another, called “Southwark Fair.” animal creation is called in, and an ass It has the usual busy scene of such a brays, whilst two cats squall and fight on subject, and is no doubt a very faithful the tiles of the houses; altogether the transcript of those who thronged to print well deserves the genial criticism fairs in those days, treated in a Ho- of a wit of the day : “ This strange garthian spirit. Next came another scene,” said he, “ deafens one to look very celebrated piece, the “Modern at.”. This print was published in NoMidnight Conversation," wherein november, 1740, and was intended as a thing can exceed the drunken revelry companion to the “ Distressed Poet,” of the assembly. A parson in the midst, published sometime before. said to be a portrait of the celebrated
“ The Four Times of the Day,” four Orator Henley, the subject of Pope's prints which described what they presatire
tended : Morning, Noon, Evening, and “O orator, of brazen face and lungs,"
Night, were the next productions of
Hogarth. The student of history and is the chairman of the drunken crew. of the manners and customs of the day, According to Mrs. Thrale, the portrait will find these prints teach him more is of another celebrated parson, Parson than many chapters in history. The Ford, who was a relation of Doctor state of the streets at night before gas Johnson, and whose ghost-credat was dreamt of, and when the watchJudæus !-used to haunt the Hummums men were of the true Dogberry and
Verges race, is capitally placed before On the 25th of January, 1743, he
The plates will well repay an atten- offered for sale the six paintings of the tive scrutiny. The first pair of pictures - Harlot's Progress,” the eight paintings were sold to the Duke of Ancaster for of the “Rake's Progress," and five other seventy-five guineas, and Sir William pictures, the "Strolling Players," and the Heathcote bought the remaining pair * Four Times of the Day.” The painter, for forty-six.
who seldom did anything like other The * Strolling Players,” a very cele- men, thought it incumbent upon him to brated engraving, representing a com- issue a kind of catalogue or bill, conpany of actors in a barn, dressing for taining strange conditions of sale, and the representation of a comedy, formed the public paid little attention to the the next publication; and the contrast sale at all. The paintings of the two between the dramatis persona, who " Progresses" sold at fourteen guineas, are all of the first order of heathen and twenty-two guineas each picture; deities, the Dii majorum gentium, and the Rake's fetching the largest price. their representatives in the barn, is Modern artists have realized, over and both ludicrous and satirical. Juno is over again, more money for a single sitting on an old wheelbarrow, which picture, than Hogarth obtained for the will serve, no doubt, as a triumphal whole. His wit and humour, which
Night, dressed in a spangled robe, were ever ready to flow, had induced is mending her stocking; and the Tra- him to issue, in addition to the congic Muse is cutting a cat's tail to draw ditions, a strange ticket to this sale, à little real blood, no doubt for thea- which was no less than “the Battle of trical purposes. On a Grecian altar the Pictures,” an idea probably caught from which one of the attendants of from Swift's “Battle of the Books," Pluto has just lifted a pot of beer, is a which Sir William Temple's essay had loaf of bread, and a tobacco-pipe with given rise to. The card is a satire on smoke issuing from it. Apollo and the passion for old masters, which was Cupid are endeavouring to reach down then prevalent. Hundreds of copies of a pair of stockings, which are hung the Bull and Europa, of Apollo and upon a cloud to dry, but Cupid's wings Marsyas, and of St. Andrew on the are of no avail, and his godship is Cross, are ranked in order; and from obliged to have recourse to a ladder; these hostile ranks certain pictures adbut the most startling is the cup-bearer vance and charge literally through picof Olympus, Ganymede, who is about tures of Hogarth, which are placed in to cure a raging tooth” by a glass of a row on the ground. All this, although gin. An excellent critic has well re- some critics profess to be puzzled at it, marked, “ that there is positively no end seems to us to be merely typical of the to the drollery. Into the darkest nook injury which a passion for second-rate the artist has put meaning, and there is copies of the old masters was doing the instruction or sarcasm in all that he native artist. has introduced !"* This wonderful pic- Chagrined at the result of his sale, ture was sold to Francis Beckford, Esq. Hogarth returned to his studio to work, for £276s. Od. The gentleman thought and in April, 1743, advertised the series the price too much, and the artist re- which, perhaps, reflects most honour turned him the money, and resold the upon him, and which from being the painting to one who had more judgment property of the nation, makes his name or more generosity, for the same sum. the most known. This was the celeIt must be a source of wonder that with brated “ Marriage à la mode,” which was the name and fame which his prints published by subscription, the plates brought him, that Hogarth got paid so being engraved by first-rate Parisian little, so very little, for his paintings, but artists, with the exception of the heads, we must recollect that it was the fashion which, in order that they might bear then, and even now until very lately, to the very touch of the painter, were declare that he was “no painter;" and engraved by himself. the artist supported himself by the sale Of this work it is difficult to speak in of his prints. He was soon to find at sufficient terms of admiration. The how little his pictures, now so valuable, grouping, the drawing, and the acces were reckoned.
sories, are alike excellent, and the tale
which they tell is essentially dramatic. The British Painters, by Allan Cunningham. A pompous peer, who, by extrava.
gance and pride in building and adorn- in the year 1797 for £1381. They came ing his estate, has impoverished himself, into the National Gallery by the befinds it necessary to recruit the income quest of Mr. Angerstein. which will devolve upon his son, the The pride of Hogarth was deeply viscount Squanderfelt, by marrying him wounded, nor can we wonder at it, at to the daughter of a rich and sordid this neglect. He knew how the foreign goldsmith. The bride and father are singer and dancer were patronised, equally despised by the proud and whilst he was neglected; and he recareless young nobleman, and misery venged himself by a little bit of legitiis the result. The bridegroom runs a mate caricature upon these puppets of career of vice and extravagance, and fashion. Two little figures, dancing neglects his wife for the company of and twirling about, exhibit the gracegamblers and courtezans. The lady, fulness and decency of the favourite stung by this neglect, listens to the amusements of the aristocracy. promptings of a designing lawyer, who Another work, which was intended after leading her to those empty and to teach the young, and which has been vicious frivolities of the higher classes, much admired by the staid citizens of which were then so much frequented, London, next appeared by our artist. the faro-table and the masquerade, This was Industry and Idleness," completes his villany by seduction. In wherein two apprentices to the same the very midst of their guilt, the en- master embrace different courses, and raged husband bursts in upon them, exemplify in their different endings the and after a few passes, receives a mortal wisdom and the folly of the choice. thrust from the sword of his wife's The one who is industrious marries his seducer. Nothing can be more striking master's daughter, and becomes Lord or vivid than this scene; the kneeling Mayor. The other, to use Hogarth's and horror-stricken wife, the dying own words, “ by giving way to idleness man whose knees are giving way with naturally falls into poverty, and ends the weakness of death, the open window fatally.” The moral lesson was welthrough which the murderer is escaping, comed by the citizens of London, who and the terrified valet approaching with hung them in the halls of their comthe Watch, all tell a tale of guilt and panies, for a special warning to those horror which must affect the most who were bound 'prentice. But it hardened.
The concluding scene is seems to us that the moral is imperfect: soon told, the wife dies at the house of the race is not always to the strong ; her sordid father, who is removing her not every honest or industrious apprenwedding-ring. She has perished by her tice can hope to be so rewarded, or even own hand, as the empty vial testifies, after much hard work realize a comand at her feet lies the last dying speech petence. In this world the best are often and confession of her seducer and her severely tried, and in confining his rehusband's murderer. These prints at wards and punishments to mere munonce became popular. A drama was dane means the moralist has failed. founded upon them, and Dr. Shebbeare That old Jacobite, Simon Frazer interwove the scenes in a novel called | Lord Lovat, who lived in the rudest the “ Marriage Act;" every author since state of regal barbarity in the Highthat time has, almost without exception, lands, was rather foolishly betrayed praised and admired them.
into open rebellion, and expiated his Soon after the publication of the treason upon Tower Hill. Hogarth prints, Hogarth advertised the original met him on his way, at St. Albans, and pictures for sale, with a bill almost as took his likeness. A printseller offered quaint as the first. But the sale was the artist, so popular was the rebel to be another failure. Mr. Lane, who chief, the weight of the plate in gold. purchased them, was the only one pre- The impressions could not be taken off sent on the day, and these six noble fast enough, although the rolling press pictures, in frames worth four guineas worked at them, without intermission. each, only realised, exclusive of the The plate produced, it is said, about frames, nineteen pounds six shillings. twelve pounds a day for several weeks. They are now the property of the na- The war, which had been of some tion, and the nation is justly proud of duration betwixt England and France, them. Colonel Cawthorne, who in. was concluded by a treaty at Aix-laherited them from Mr. Lane, sold them Chapelle, and Hogarth was amongst