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was supported, and closes in a strain the generous people will recognise the of pure and lofty eloquence seldom truth of the facts we present to them. reached in the House of Commons Above all, we are sustained by the --where sparkling personalities and sense of justice which we feel belongs party hits are more keenly relished to the cause we are advocating, and than the luminous enunciation of great because we are determined to follow principles, or touching appeals to noble that bright star of justice beaming from sentiments. In this speech, the orator the heavens whithersoever it may lead." showed himself able to excel in the Mr. Gladstone's second important former, but delighting in the latter. work appeared in 1840, under the title, After turning upon Lord John Russell “ Church Principles Considered in their one of his lordship's own most effective Results.” It is virtually the suppleperorations, Mr. Gladstone proceeded ment of his former production, deve Thus: “My conviction is, that the ques- loping, and largely arguing, views there tion of religious freedom is not to be only incidentally, if at all expressed ; dealt with as one of the ordinary matters of greater interest to theologians than that you may do to-day and undo to- to politicians. It treats of the inmorrow. This great principle which stitutions or doctrines of the church, we (the opposition) have the honour to as regards their authority and oper. represent, moves slowly in matters of ation — especially of the sacraments politics and legislation, but though it and of apostolical succession. The moves slowly, it moves steadily. The author's views on the first of these principle of religious freedom, its adap- two points may be thus summed up in tation to our modern state, and its his own words: “In the midst of all compatibility with ancient institutions, the threatening symptoms of tendency was a principle which you did not towards unbelief and disorganization adopt in haste. It was a principle well with which the age abounds, we are led tried in struggle and conflict. It was to regard the sacraments as the chief a principle which gained the assent of and central fountain of the vital influone public man after another. It was ences of religion when the church is in a principle which ultimately triumphed health and vigour, as their never wholly after you had spent upon it half a cen- obstructed source when she is overtury of agonizing struggle. And now spread with the frost of indifference, as what are you going to do? You have their best and innermost fastness, arrived at the division of the century. when latent infidelity gnaws and eats Are you going to repeat Penelope's pro- away the heart of her creed, and of all cess, but without Penelope's purpose ? her collateral ordinances.” On Aposto.... Show, if you will, the pope of lical Succession he is equally decided. Rome, and his cardinals, and his church, His sense of the value of a question that England as well as Rome has her which to many is only one of “ vain semper eadem ; that when she has once genealogies,” is fairly expressed in the adopted the great principle of legisla- following clause of a sentence, too tion which is destined to influence her long for quotation entire :—“It is to us national character and mark her policy nothing less than a part of our religious for ages to come, and affect the whole obligation to seek the sacraments at the nature of her influence among the na- hands of those who have been traditions of the world-show that when tionally empowered to deliver them in she has done this, slowly and with their integrity ; that is, with the ashesitation and difficulty, but still de- surance of that spiritual blessing which, liberately and but once for all, she can although it may be obstructed by our no more retrace her steps than the disqualifications in its passage to our river that bathes this giant city can souls, forms the inward and chief porflow backward to its source..... We, tions of those solemn rites.” Venturing the opponents of this bill, are a mino-to transfer ourselves from the “ dim rity, insignificant in point of numbers. religious light” of our author's diction, We are more insignificant because we into the clearer atmosphere of popular have no ordinary bond of union. But phraseology, we may say ;-he holds that I say that we, minority as we are, are the ordinances of baptism and the sustained in our path by the conscious- Lord's supper are veritable means of ness that we serve both a generous communicating grace, not merely the Queen and a generous people, and that' symbols of its communication; and that

Episcopal ministers, historically con- ! This “hope" was in some danger of nected with the apostles, are the only disappointment. The Low-church and authorised, and therefore effective, admi- Anti-tractarian parties, elated by several nistrators of those ordinances. To trace consecutive triumphs in the University, out Mr. Gladstone's corollaries from vehemently opposed Mr. Gladstone on these propositions, would be to overstep account of the sentiments advocated in the province of a non-theological maga- this very work, and in that on “ Church zine; and to impute to him conclusions Principles.” They set up against him, which he may possibly repudiate, would in conjunction with Sir R. H. Inglis, be to imitate one of the worst though Mr. Round; but Mr. Gladstone tricommonest vices of controversy jumphed by a majority of some two

The Maynooth question having been hundred votes over the latter candidate. removed out of his way, Mr. Gladstone In the course of the late parliament, re-entered the ministry in December, he incurred the risk of displeasing 1845, taking the post of Colonial Secre- alternately both sections of his suptary, vacated by Lord Stanley on ac-porters—the liberals, by his opposition count of Sir Robert Peel's resolution to University reform, and his speech to abolish the corn laws. In the on Mr. Disraeli's motion for the relief of spring of the previous year he had agricultural distress; the conservatives, rendered important service to the by refusing to take office with Earl new policy by the publication of a Derby, in February, 1851, and inflicting pampħlet, (“- Remarks on Recent Com- on the late Government the only mamercial Legislation,") exhibiting in ela- terial defeat they experienced through borate detail the beneficial working of the session of 1852. He was, therefore, the tariff of 1842. Probably none of exposed to a determined opposition at the converts to the free-trade doctrine the last general election ; when Dr. Bulmade a greater sacrifice of personal and lock Marsham polled more votes than Mr. party ties than did Mr. Gladstone. Not Gladstone himself in the previous cononly were his father and brothers bi- test. He has just emerged from a still goted protectionists, but the late lord more vexatious and protracted struggle of Cumber so successfully exerted his By taking a very prominent part in the ducal influence over Newark, as to pre- recent free-trade and budget debatesvent Mr. Gladstone's re-election; thus gaining, indeed, the most signal rhetodepriving the premier of his ablest rical success of the whole conflict-and lieutenant through the memorable accepting office in the new coalition parliamentary struggle of 1846. At the ministry, he at once exasperated his general election of 1847, however, Mr. old opponents, and alienated some of Gladstone was compensated for this his warmest supporters.* temporary exclusion from the House Wecome now to an episode in Mr. Gladof Commons, by the bestowal of an stone's career which has conferred upon honour two successive statesmen (Can- his name a world-wide reputation, ning and Peel) have prized as nobler and gained for him the admiration of than any in the gift of crown or people, millions. In the winter of 1850, he and have yielded up as the heaviest pe- went to Naples, actuated only by such nalty of faithfulness to conviction- motives as carry thither annually hunnamely, the representation of Oxford dreds of our affluent countrymen. He University. How highly be appreciated came in contact, however, with circumthis honour may be judged from the stances which converted his visit of dedication to his alma mater of the pleasure into a “mission” noble as was first-born of his intellectual progeny, in ever undertaken by any knight errant these words of filial piety and pride :- of humanity. Naples had been con

Inscribed to
THE UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD ;

Tried, and not found wanting,
Through the vicissitudes of a thousand years ;
In the belief that she is providentially designed

to be a
Fountain of blessings,
Spiritual, social, and intellectual,

To this and to other countries,

To the present and future times;
And in the hope that the temper of these pages

may be found
Not alien from her own.

* The following are the numbers of votes polled for each of the respective candidates in 1847 :Sir R. H. Inglis ..............

1700 Mr. Gladstone

999
Mr. Round .....

824
In 1852:-
Sir R. H. Inglis ......

1369
Mr. Gladstone ...

1108
Dr. Bullock Marsham ........

758
In 1853 :-
Mr. Gladstone ..............

1022
Mr. Perceval ................

898

spicuous in the tragic drama of Revolu- written letter to Earl Aberdeen, as extion and Reaction. In January, 1846, Foreign Secretary, reciting what he had a constitution was spontaneously granted witnessed, and suggesting a private reto the kingdom of Naples, sworn to by monstrance with the government of the monarch with every circumstance Naples. That remonstrance having of solemnity, accepted by the people proved ineffectual, Mr. Gladstone pubwith universal and peaceful joy. Under lished, in July, 1851, that and a supplethis constitution, à Chamber of 164 mentary letter. Never did pamphlet deputies was elected by about 117,000 create a more profound sensation. "Fifvotes. On the 15th of May following, teen or twenty editions sold in less than a collision took place, or was assumed as many weeks; newspapers multiplied to have taken place, between the author- its revelations a million-fold; and ities and the citizens. The former were Lord Palmerston presented copies to all victorious, and made ferocious use of the continental ambassadors, for transtheir victory. Nevertheless, the conference to their respective governments. stitution was solemnly ratified, and the Only one English litterateur, Mr. Charles King conjured the people to confide in Macfarlane, could be found to indite an his “ good faith,” his “sense of reli.“ Apology” for the power thus formally gion," and his “sacred and spontaneous impeached at the bar of universal oath.” On Mr. Gladstone's arrival in opinion; and that performance was Naples, about two years and a half from justly deemed so unsatisfactory by his the date of this address, he heard re- clients, that an “Official Reply” was peated the assertion of an eminent put forth. Mr. Gladstone briefly reNeapolitan, that nearly the whole of joined; and his facts, by almost unanithe Opposition in the Chamber of mous consent, stand equally unimDeputies (the Chamber itself having pugnable with his motives. been abolished) were either in prison That he is “ a member of the Conseror in exile. He deemed this statement vative party in one of the great families a monstrous invention; but was con- of European nations,” is alleged by vinced, by the sight of " a list in de- Mr. Gladstone as one of his reasons for tail,” that it was under the truth—that doing the very thing which has proan absolute majority of the representa- cured for him the sympathetic admiratives were either suffering imprison- tion of English and European liberalment, or avoiding it by self-expatriation. ism. “Your deviation from the ConThe knowledge of this terrible fact led servative principles of finance will be him on to the investigation of other followed by a late but ineffectual repentand yet more horrible statements—that ance," was his final appeal against the there were ten, twenty, thirty thousand budget of a tory minister. These circumpolitical prisoners in the kingdom of stances are strikingly significant—the Naples; that many of these unhappy explanation of his apparently vacillating

persons were of eminent station and of career, and of his present anomalous , unimpeachable loyalty ; that few or position. He is emphatically a Consernone of the detenus had been legally ar- vative-Liberal-Conservative in convicrested or held to trial; that, neverthe- tion and sentiment, Liberal by the preless, they were suffering intolerable science of his intellect and the generwretchedness—sickness, hunger, suffo- osity of his nature. One of the herecation, and irons; that, in short, the ditary princes of commerce, he is also government was “the negation of God one of the elected chiefs of the republic erected into a system.” Having with of letters; having early set himself to his own eyes tested as many of these win distinction in the quiet walks of statements as admitted of verification, scholarship, and in the noisy arena of and found the borribleness of reality to intellectual strife. Content with no less exceed the horribleness of rumour, than a triple crown, he would add to Mr. Gladstone determined—despite his the reputation of the schoolman and strong conservative prejudices against the philosopher, that of the politician. interfering in the affairs of other na- He enters the senate as the champion tions, and especially of even seeming to of prescriptive power, at the moment side with republicans—to make an ef- when innovation is elate with triumph, fort for the abatement of such gigantic and impatient for renewed struggle ;atrocities. Immediately on his return yet in the only decisive struggle which to England, therefore, he addressed a / has since occurred, he bled and con

quered in the rearguard of progress. function of the understanding, not to He asserts the principle of authority in develop, but only to apply, religious religious faith, and of unity in political truth-that there is efficacy in outward institutions, with a rotund positiveness rites duly administered, deeper than our from which even its veteran devotees conciousness, and lasting as our exisrecoil ;-nevertheless, he surrenders one tence-that to a class of men is comby one every remnant of the times mitted the influences to which it is unwhen that principle obtained, with a speakably important that all men should promptitude shocking to many of its be subjected-his sympathies are en. professed opponents. He submits to gaged, beyond the utmost compulsion of toil and sacrifice to aid in the abolition the intelloct, to that side of public affairs of a system, for the loss of which he is which we are agreed to call the aristoafterwards not sure those who benefited cratic. Further, the natural bias of his by it should not be compensated ;-yet mind, strengthened by the direction of when that very position is embodied in his studies, is towards an undue revera Government, his is the hand put forth ence for the past. Thus we find, that to overturn it, and no one attributes to all his arguments are based, in theology, him an unworthy motive. He avows upon revelation-in politics, upon prehimself in virtual alliance with the es-cedent; all his appeals addressed to tablished governments of Europe, yet the religious prepossessions or histo. has done more to make them hateful, rical knowledge of those whom he and therefore feeble, than any one of would persuade. He never takes his the revolutionary chiefs. He framed a stand upon the immutable facts of our theory of social relations which requires nature, the inalienable rights of man-in the members of a Government some- never rises to those prophetic heights thing like a common faith and a corpo whence pictures of social perfection may rate conscience; yet takes his seat in be discerned. But over against all this the Queen's councils with men whose must be set that rectitude of intellect religious views are the antipodes of his which makes him anxious to understand own, and whose conscience has dictated both sides of a controversy,--that keenconduct quite the opposite of his, on ness of perception, which detects the questions of the highest moment;- entrance of a question upon what he still no one calls him umprincipled. calls its "fluent state "--and that deliThough a man of nicest honour, he cacy of conscience which will permit clings to a society in which he is in- him to inflict no known injustice, nor sulted by some, and can have little con-gain for his party any unfair advantages. geniality with any,---because, all are A philosopher among statesmen, he is agreed, he loves the name it bears, and also a purist among politicians. It the cause it represents. Holding, as would be most hazardous to predict the Jr. Gladstone does, that government is career of a man so thoroughly indivinot a human arrangement, necessitated dual; but, reviewing the incidents of a by human imperfection, but a divinely career chequered but unblemished, we appointed power,-though designed for may confidently anticipate, that as that the general good, not originating in the future lengthens out it will yield only general will,- he is necessarily a Con- honour to him, and chiefly service to servative. Believing, too, that it is the l his country,

W. W.

WILLIAM CHARLES MACREADY. The father of the subject of the present I became a stage manager and sometimes biography, William Macready, was an got engagements in London; it was author, actor, metropolitan and provin- during the time he was a member of cial manager. He was a native of the Covent Garden company, his celeDublin, where he was bred to the busi- brated son was born on March 3, 1793, ness of an upholsterer, which he de- at a house in Charles Street, Fitzroy serted for the stage, for which during Square, his apprenticeship he had imbibed a His father, it would appear, however taste. After various vicissitudes he successful he might have been himself upon the stage, did not intend his son distinguished theatrical critics profor the same profession; but he de- nounced him to be the best actor that termined to give him a first-rate edu- had appeared since J. P. Kemble; and cation, and some say, intended him for “ The Theatrical Inquisitor,” a journal the church, but others with more truth of the day, thus speaks of him : “ Mr. assert that he was brought up with the Macready's performance of Orestes is intention of practising at the bar. For in many parts very fine; not being this end he, after having been the usual used to a large theatre, allowance must time at a private academy, was removed be made for his voice being occasionto Rugby school in Warwickshire, and ally too low-some of his tones remind received his education under the cele-us of Mr. Elliston, who we apprehend brated Dr. Arnold, an accomplished has been Mr. Macready's model. Those scholar and gentleman, whose early who recollect Mr. Holman in Orestes, death must be regretted as a public will be delighted with the superiority of loss. Certain circumstances (probably this young man's performance. His his father's failure, the elder Macready love, his apprehensions, his hope, and having become a bankrupt at the Man- his despair, were admirably depicted, chester Theatre in the year 1809,) and his mad scene was a natural picaltered the determination of his after ture of insanity.” life. The law was abandoned, and On the announcement of Mr. Macbefore he had attained the age of 17, ready's name for re-appearance it was William Charles Macready made his received with three distinct rounds of debut at Birmingham in the year 1810. applause—the foreign and absurd cusHis success was great, and determined tom of calling before the curtain being him upon the course he had taken; not then in vogue. Mr. Hazlitt, who after fulfilling his engagement at Bir- was then considered the first theatrical mingham, he visited the principal towns critic, thus speaks of him. We quote in which his father managed, and in 1813 | the passage, as it will serve to give our and 1814, performed with undiminished readers an insight into Macready's success at Newcastle, Dublin, and Bath, powers at the time: where he immediately became a great “A Mr. Macready appeared at Covent favourite. His fame preceded him to Garden Theatre, on Monday and Frithe metropolis, and he was solicited by day, in the character of Orestes, in “The the proprietors of Covent Garden Thea- Distressed Mother,' a bad play for the tre to accept an engagement, this temp- display of his powers, in which, howtation he wisely declined. Most people ever, he succeeded in making a decidedly have probably forgotten that Mr. Mac- favourableimpression upon the audience ready, not satisfied with following his His voice is powerful in the highest defather as an actor, attempted authorship gree, and at the same time possesses great as well, and produced on May 20, 1814, harmony and modulation. His face is at Newcastle, a romantic play founded not equally calculated for the stage. on Sir Walter Scott's poem of “Rokeby,” He declaims better than anybody we the principal part in which he per- have lately heard. He is accused of formed himself. We may add en passant being violent, and of wanting pathos. that another actor, Mr. George Ben- Neither of these objections is true. His nett, has produced a play from the same manner of delivering the first speeches source called “Retribution.” After an of the play was admirable, and the engagement at Bath, overtures were want of increasing interest afterwards made him by the managers of Drury was the fault of the author rather than Lane Theatre, amongst whom were the actor. The fine suppressed tone in Lord Byron and the Hon. Mr. Kin- which he assented to Pyrrhus's comnaird; the theatre being governed by mand, to convey the message to Heramateurs. This engagement was never mione was a test of his variety of power, concluded, and Mr. Macready remained and brought down repeated acclamain the provinces. At last on Monday, tions from the house. We do not lay the 16th September, 1816, the rising much stress on his mad scene, though actor had the honour of making his that was very good in its kind; for mad first appearance before a London audi- scenes do not occur very often, and ence at Covent Garden Theatre, as when they do, had in general better be Orestes in Phillips's tragedy of “The omitted. We have not the slightest Distressed Mother.” Hazlitt and other hesitation in saying, that Mr. Macready

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