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bility and distress. On arriving at since, and my poor Keats gone. Three Rome he delivered the letter of intro- days since the body was opened, the duction to Dr. (now Sir James) Clarke, lungs were completely gone." The docfrom whom he received all the tors could not imagine how he had attention which skill and knowledge lived these two months. I followed his can confer, and all that sympathy and dear body to the grave on Monday, delicate thoughtfulness which could with many English. The letters I lighten the dark passages of mortal placed in the coffin with my own hand.” sickness, and soothe the pillow of the Keats was buried in the Protestant forlorn stranger. Dr. Clarke procured cemetery at Rome, one of the most Keats a lodging in the Piazza di Spagna, beautiful spots on which the eye or opposite to his own dwelling; it was in heart of man can rest. It is a grassy the first house on your right hand as slope, amid the verdurous ruins of the you ascend the steps of the “Trinita Honorian walls of the diminished city, del Monte.” The desolation and gloom and surrounded by the pyramidal of Keats's state were alone alleviated by tomb which Petarch attributed to the love and care of his faithful friend Remas, but which antiquarian truth Severn and Dr. Clarke. Once during has ascribed to the humbler man of his illness he requested that on his Caius Cestius, a tribune of the people grave stone might be this inscription:- only remembered by his sepulchre. In
Here lies one whose name was writ in water; one of those mental voyages into the he also wished that a purse of his sister's
past, which often precede death, Keats together with an unopened letter, which
had told Severn that “he thought the he was unable to read, and some hair intensest pleasure he had received in should be placed in his coffin This life was in watching the growth of flowrequest Severn fulfilled with his own
ers;" and another time, after lying hand. He continued to linger in a
awhile still and peaceful, he said, “I state of extreme suffering and weakness.
feel the flowers growing over me.” And The lowering clouds of gloom and
there they do grow, even all the winter foreboding which, during the first part
long-violets, and daisies, mingling of his illness, hung so heavily and
with the fresh herbage, and in the thickly around him, happily passed
words of Shelley, “making one in love away, and left a beautiful calm of quiet
with death, to think that one should be ness and peace. On the 27th February,
buried in so sweet a place.” 1821, Mr. Severn wrote a letter to a
To the memory of John Keats, Shelley friend,-"He is gone; he died with
inscribed his exquisitely beautiful poem, the most perfect ease-he seemed to go
“Adonäis—'truly one of the fairest to sleep. On the 23rd, about four, the
monuments ever raised, and the sweetest approaches of death came on. "Severn
tribute of love that has ever been offered -1-lift me up-I am dying-I shall
on the altar of departed genius.' And die easy; don't be frightened be firm. a few years after this was written, in and thank God it hằs come. I lifted the extended burying-ground, a little him up in my arms. The phlegm seemed above the grave of Keats, was placed boiling in his throat, and increased un- another tombstone, recording that below til eleven, when he gradually sunk into rested the passionate and world-worn death, so quiet that I still thought he slept.
| heart of Shelley himself—"Cor Cordium.” I cannot say more now. I am broken
P. B. S. down by four nights watching, no sleep
THERE are times in the histories of all / well as upon the earth. The sun of nations which are strangely productive knowledge and the dews of faith soften of great minds. After a long dark win the clods and warm them into life, and ter of sluggish inactivity, a spring time then the seeds which have been dropped comes upon the mind of the world as on the soil of humanity begin to ger minate and prepare to put forth their providential government of the world, harvest. Such a period in the history note its workings in this, that a crisis of England was that which preceeded brings the men fitted to meet it; close the Commonwealth. Up to the reign upon the heels of the danger ever of the eighth Henry, superstition had follows the means of safety. If it were dominated over art, set limits to science, our task to trace the progress of confined intellect within a narrow cir- humanity, we might show how, with cle, and banned free thought. The the spirit of enquiry which marked the world's heart and brain were as though era of the Reformation, came intelthey were dead, so faint was the action lectual power from which rose Shakesof one, under the shadow of the hood | pere and his contemporaries, and how of the monk-so faint the pulsation of the two blended to produce the pure, the other beneath its ecclesiastical earnest, unwavering, stern faith of the shroud. Philosophers were fain to puritans. But that is not our purpose. hide their lore within the recesses of We may only so far touch history as to their studies, for fear that it might observe the general circumstances which offend the dogmas of the Church-and preceeded and accompanied a partimen spake of the thoughts which began cular life--only so far indulge in specuto beam in upon their souls as though lation as to trace the connection of the truth were a crime. But there were wide-spread cause with the one effect men who, like Galileo, spake with the which forms our subject. That we voices which echoed to them out of the have attempted to do as briefly as may recesses of nature, and braved the dun- be; and now to the matter in hand. geon—there were martyrs who like the At the town of Kingston-on-Hull, Lollards, proclaimed the faith which where the broad Humber floats between was in them, and dared the stake and verdant banks to the sea, stands a mothe flame. The first blow at a system nument bearing the following inscripthoroughly rotten, seals its fate. Its tion: “Near this place lyeth the body end may be delayed or put off—but of Andrew Marvell, Esq., a man so from that moment it is written on the endowed by nature, so improved by page of the future, for
education, study, and travel, so consumFreedom's battle once begun,
mated by experience, that joining the Bequeathed from bleeding sire to son, peculiar graces of wit and learning with Though baslled oft, is ever won.
a singular penetration and strength of Human thought often errs, but it has judgment; and exercising all these in this godlike quality, that in the end it the whole course of his life with an unutalways tends to the right. Keep it terable steadiness in the ways of virtue, still, "silent, immovable-shut it in an he became the ornament and example exhausted receiver from which the air of his age, beloved by good men, feared of knowledge is thoroughly excluded, by bad, admired by all, though imitated it will remain latent-let but a breath | by few, and scarce paralleled by any. enter its prison-house, and it begins to But a tombstone can neither contain wake-it ceases to be compressible—it his character, nor is marble necessary to grows, and puts a firm grasp on power. transmit it to posterity ; it is engraved It is a beautiful story, that in the Ara- in the minds of this generation, and bian Nights' Tales where the fisherman will always be legible in bis inimitdraws up in his net the vessel sealed able writings, nevertheless. He having with the magic signet of Solomon. served twenty years in Parliament, and When he opened it there arose from it that with such wisdom, dexterity, and a cloud-that cloud became a giant courage, as becomes a true patriot, the threatening him with destruction. That town of Kingston-upon-Hull, from is how thought was imprisoned; but whence he was deputed to that assemwhen once the seal was off its prison- bly, lamenting in his death the public house, it grew so rapidly that it was loss, have erected this monument of beyond the power of man to force it back their grief and their gratitude, 1688." into the narrow cell from which it had. It has been observed by a satirist, emerged.
that if the testimony of tombstones is It has been said that great men to be taken, the living have sadly degemake great times. Invert the sentence nerated from the virtues of the dead. and it is still true-great times make Monuments are so infected with the great men. Thoso who recognise the vice of flattery, that monumental in
scriptions are not often to be depended into his mind before which his soul upon; but this tombstone is as much a trembled. They pointed to erring wis. verity as the man whom it commemo- dom in order to elevate infallible authorates. Andrew Marvell was one of the rity. They worked on the modest sense worthiest of the old English worthies. of his own weakness, to induce him to The friend of Oliver Cromwell and of repose upon the bosom of the Church John Milton, he shared the firm ad- which had endured for ages. They herence to a settled purpose of the one, painted the new form of worship as a and the stern truthfulness of the other, dark cloud which would pass away from to which he added those lighter quali- the sky of faith and leave it bright and ties which make men as lovable in serene as ever; and they appealed to private life as high virtue makes them the chivalrous feeling of which he was estimable in public.
full, colouring the sacrifice which would It is worth while to try to look into attend a change of religion, with the the heart of such a man; to know what tinge of noble self-devotedness to right. he thought and how he lived-to dis- It was probably this last consideration tinguish from the broad stream of life which proved most effective. Not that the current of his existence, and to Andrew Marvell had not doubts as to trace in the great web of history the the paths in which he was treading. threads which he wove into it. To Every earnest, inquiring spirit has had begin at the beginning, then, ANDREW them. Few who have thought on such MARVELL was born at Kingston-upon-subjects, but have propounded quesHull, in the year 1620. His parents tions to their own hearts to which they were in good circumstances, and his could give no satisfactory answer. Few boyhood passed off without distinction. but have shrunk before the mysteries Quick, versatile, and playful, he passed hidden among Revelation, and longed through the earlier stages of education for some oracle which could not err, to with credit, but without exciting suspi- interpret their hidden meaning. But, in cion of coming greatness. The first his case, we refer the success of the folstage of learning passed, Andrew Mar-lowers of Loyola rather to that charm vell, at the age of eighteen, entered Tri- which self-sacrifice has for the impulsive nity College. At this time, the clergy and generous; for it was certain that of the Romish Church had somewhat Marvell's change was one resting upon revived from the stunning-blow they sentiment rather than upon reason. received at their overthrow. They! The conversion of the young proselyte looked for brighter times, when kings was not made public. It was the policy should bow their heads beneath the pas- of the Jesuits to work in the dark, and toral crook, and princes walk bare to keep the results of their efforts secret headed in their processions. With that till they had gathered power enough to startling vitality which has ever marked brave the Protestant spirit of England. the propagandists of that faith, abro-Young Marvell silently left the college, gated by our forefathers, they had risen abandoned his studies, and entered upon from their defeat like a cork, for a mo- the discipline of the order. Upon how ment submerged by the whelming fine a thread hang the destinies of indiwaves. With that persevering, self-de-viduals and of the world. When Cromvoting energy which has ever charac-well had embarked on board a ship in terized their efforts, they were seeking the Thames to join the pilgrim fathers to weave their meshes round the young of America, if Charles had suffered that minds of the age. Moving stealthily, then obscure man to depart in peace, he under one disguise or another, the Je- might never have bared his neck to the suits were in the universities spreading axe at Whitehall. If Marvell's father their snares around. The agents of this had not sought him out and found him society fastened upon Andrew Marvell;among the neophytes of Rome, instead and, in youth, his was a nature fitted of standing in the front of freedom's for them to act upon. Joined to a clear battle, he would have wasted his enerintellect he had a sensitive temperament gies in the ineffectual attempt to rechain and an impulsive nature. His devo the liberated souls of men. Thus it is tional feelings were strong, and his that small circumstances are to great poetic instincts led him to love that events, what the rudder is to the shipwhich was venerable. Young, ardent, they serve to guide the bark of time and inexperienced, they infused doubts over the ocean of progress.
Great was the grief of old Marvell, at escaped. This satire was followed by Hull, over the loss of his son, and another, also upon an ecclesiastic. The earnest were the efforts made to track him pursuits of the graphiologists of our out. At last a clue was discovered and day only illustrate the adage, that, the father proceeded to the place of his “there is nothing new under the sun." concealment. It does not seem that any The Abbot de Manitan, of Paris, like stern exercise of parental authority was the gentlemen and ladies of to-day who necessary to reclaim the youth. Andrew discover firmness in a down-stroke, in. had already learned a lesson which told stability in an up-stroke, and levity in upon his future life. He had been a long-tailed letter, pretended to progtaught that in his new vocation, he nosticate people's dispositions from must smother those deep sentiments their hand-writings, and Marvell lashed which bound him to his kind, and make him much as the satirical writers of the human bond of sympathy which Punch do the impostors of our own day. binds man to man, an instrument to At this period there is a dark space serve a coldly-calculated end. He had in the life of Marvel. For some years found too that to be rid of doubt he we know nothing certain of him. An must give up freedom; that when he ex- uncertain rumour fills up the blank by changed half-darkened reason for blind saying that he accompanied a mission faith, he must cease to think. The to the Turks, as secretary, but reliable safety that was offered to him was in a evidence is wanting. What is known dungeon without light, and his was a is that he reappeared in 1653, when he mind to prefer danger beneath the open was appointed tutor to Cromwell's nesky. In fact, he was disenchanted of phew, and in 1657 was advanced to the the romance which prompted his change. post of Latin secretary to the pretender. He was like the traveller who looks Shortly after this Andrew Marvell may from a distance upon the mountains be said to have commenced his public bounding the horizon. They are tinged life. In 1658, when he was thirtywith the blue of the firmament. The eight years old, he was elected to represetting sun casting on them his slanting sent his native town in Parliament, rays bathes them in liquid gold. They and now having fairly got him upon the seem an earthly paradise. He reaches open stage of life, let us try to realize them, and instead of verdant dells and what manner of man he was, both phyembowered groves, vast chasms yawn sically and intellectually. Nature had and jagged peaks raise up their barren written her letter of recommendation heads. He learns that imagination upon his person. His appearance was clothes the remote with unreal attrac- altogether in his favour. With a thin tiveness.
graceful figure, he had a handsome face. So young Marvell had seen both | The brow was open. The nose and aspects. He had been drawn through chin classic and finely cut. The mouth distance and repelled by closeness. He softly sensuous, rather than firm; the left the Jesuits without a pang, and, dark eyes bright and full of vivacity; like a man who wakes from a benumb- the dark hair in keeping with a clear ing dream, returned to his old studies brown complexion, curled gracefully with an added zest. His college course down to his shoulders. In him there ended, young Marvell went upon the was perceived none of those tokens of Continent to enlarge his knowledge of stern determination which sits on the men and manners. It is believed that rugged features of Cromwell; none of it was in Italy he first met Milton, and that rigid self-command, which marks began that friendship which lasted the intellectually beautiful face of throughout his life. The first literary | Milton. He had not event of Marvell's life took place in That vast girth of chest and limb, assigned Rome, and it serves to show that he So oft to those who subjugate their kind. had become more than indifferent to The body was, as it often is, the corthe Jesuits; that he was inimical to rect indicator of the nature of the mind them. His first effort was a satire upon it enshrined-He gained much of the Richard Flecknoe, an English Jesuit of harder portions of his character from same notoriety. It is a critique full of the circumstances in which he was and it humour and biting sarcasm, placed. His was no band to lift itself ovat meçe gained for him the undying first against a monarchy. His was a
*** ose from whose toils he had mind which sought for gradual reform
rather than violent revolution. He And there are some other lines which looked to gentle means rather than to seem to settle a disputed point in his. force, and bad it not been that there tory, about which rival writers are even was at the bottom of his kindly nature now contending. When Charles esa fixed regard for right, he would caped to Carisbrooke Castle, and these have been more likely to have clung to fell into the hands of an adherent of the fallen fortunes of the monarchy, the Protector's, it is asserted on one than the rising hopes of the Republic. hand that Cromwell so intrigued as to That which stronger men regarded as give the King an opportunity of apcapable of being prevented, he some- parently escaping, and so planned as times regarded with the eye of the fa- that he should be led to direct his flight talist as inevitable, and thought, to to Carisbrooke, where preparations were quote his own words, .
already made for his capture. The mo'Tis madness to resist or blame
tive assigned is that he wished to irriThe face of angry Heaven's flame. tate the army and the nation against
Charles. On the other side the tale is .. But though he could not have emu
regarded as a fabrication, not to be lated Cromwell's deeds, and would not
charged against Cromwell's memory. have imitated them if he could, he looked
Whichever may be true, Marvell who with that admiration which most men
wasin the secret of the time, gives ground 1. accord to the powerful, as one who
for inferring the truth of the accusation, : Could by industrious valour climb
In the same poem (referring to Cromwell)
And Hampton shows what part
He had of wiser art;
Where twining subtle fears with hope.
He wove a net of such a scope, justice against fate complain,
That Charles himself might chase .. .And plead the ancient rights in vain;
To Carisbrooke's narrow case. : *. But those do hold or break
That hence the royal actor borne, ::.. As men are strong or weak.
The tragic scaffold might adorn,
While round the armed bands
Did clap their bloody hands,
Here then we have an avowal, in re, What hateth emptiness,
poetry it is true--but still an express : Allows of penetration less, • And therefore must make room
avowal by a republican, who was at .. Where greater spirits come.
once Cromwell's Latin Secretary, adAnait from this, however, he regarded mirer, and friend, that he prompted the triumph of Republican principles Charles to escape so that he might come : as the triumph of right, and while he to the block. That one would think :looked upon the death of the First would almost suffice to settle the con. Charles as necessary, accorded to the troversy. The admirers of Cromwell fallen monarch his pity and respect.
will regret to see this dark stain of
treachery fixed upon his character, but . : He nothing common did or mean, į :: Upon that memorable scene;
regard for historic truth is of more But with his keener eye,
consequence than partiality for an inThe axe's edge did try:
dividual, however great he may be.
We have already said that Marvell Nor called the gods, with vulgar spite, ...To vindicate his helpless right!
was sent to parliament in 1658, and But bowed his comely head
with the exception of three years, when Down, as upon a bed.
he was Secretary to the Embassy to If we may take Marvell's ode on Russia, he continued to represent Cromwell's return from Ireland, from Hull till 1675, when the parliament which we have quoted, as an authority, was prorogued. It was not until after we may presume that in some minds the death of Cromwell and the restora. there was an expectation that Cromwell tion of the monarchy, that Marvell's would carry “the sword of the Lord and true character fully shone out. Then, of Gideon" into other countries, in de- when so many of the adherents of the fence of the persecuted Protestants. Protector paid their court to the reAs Cæsar, he, ere long, to Gaul,
stored Prince, his consistency would To Italy as Hannibal,
not allow him to change, nor his inAnd to all states not free, Shall climacterio be,
| tegrity to deny, the principles he con