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words, expressive of the mild heroism be very ill.” That night the "serene, of the man.”* About six he sank into unimpassioned, ever-collected man was a deep slumber. Awakening for a heard to weep. In the morning he moment he said, “Now is life so clear! said to a friend, “Is it not true that -So much is it made clear and plain !" Schiller was very ill yesterday ?" The He then sank back into a sleep, which friend sobbed." He is dead ?” said “deepened and deepened till it changed Goëthe. “You have said it.” “He is into that, from which there is no dead !" repeated Goëthe, and covered awakening.”
his face with his hands. Schiller's death was presently known So lived and died Friedrich Schilthroughout Weimar, and the news ler-one whose works will never cease soon spread over the whole of Ger- to shed a glorious lustre on the literamany. The sensation was universal- ture of his country and of Europe-a the grief of thousands deep and sin man, the very memory of whom “will cere. To Goëthe no one at first had the arise afar off, like a towering landmark courage to mention the circumstance. in the solitude of the past, when disHe perceived that the people of his tance shall have dwarfed into invisihouse were gloomy and embarrassed, bility many lesser people, that once and seemed desirous of avoiding him. encompassed him and hid him from the He divined somewhat of the truth near beholder.” at last, and said, “I see--Schiller must
HARRIET BEECHER STOWE. "SHE has filled her Northern readers rule ; whilst a native of Alabama, in with a delusion.” So writes one of her wishing to prove the truth of them, own countrymen, on Mrs. Stowe's asserts that the early years of the world-talked of book. “She has struck author was passed among them. But, the death-blow to slavery," cries one. abolitionist and slave advocate have “But the blow will merely rivet the one other question,—“Who is Mrs. chains," retorts a second ; and so on, Stowe ?” from one to another; and literally, in That question we shall endeavour to the very old phrase, from the cottage to the palace,“ Uncle Tom's Cabin” is She comes of a large family of writers. read and talked of; and wherever it is In a leading paper of that land, where so, it appears to be the key to open up women fulfil more public duties than the old and foul subject of slavery. they at present do here, and where None can mistake at whom the shaft has literature has a plentiful company of been aimed. It went home too truly followers among the softer sex, one for that. Therefore, the defenders of may see the name of Mrs. Stowe, and that “ peculiar institution," of which of one of her family placed conspicuthe southern states of America are the ously amongst the list of contributors stronghold, do not attempt to impugn to its columns. This is in the “New the literary merits of the book, but York Independent,” where occasional apply at once a plaster to the sore, and little crisp articles bearing the initials, defend slavery. So that any adverse “H. B. S.," may every now and then critique, upon Mrs. Stowe has run be seen. curiously, but naturally to a laboured Dr. Lyman Beecher, the father of defence of the peculiar institution,” Mrs. Stowe, and of eleven other childwhilst any encomiastic article on the ren, all celebrated in their way; of book verges, on the other hand into a whom eight, exclusive of Mrs. Stowe, downright attack on slavery.
are authors, was born in New Eng- "A South Carolinian,” in one maga- land, in 1774, consequently some years zine, cannot well deny the truth of previous to the American revolution. Mrs. Stow's pictures, but declares that He was the son of a blacksmith, and they are the exception, and not the brought up to the trade of his father.
In America, education is more gene* Carlyle's " Life of Schiller.” 1 rally spread than in England ; and the
son of the blacksmith found that his of character, his daughter Harriet at father's occupation was uncongenial to this time twenty years of age. him. Still he continued in it till he Cincinnati is situated on the banks could safely venture from the trammels of the Ohio, and is a very busy mamuof trade; and he was of a mature age facturing and commercial town, conwhen he entered upon his collegiate taing at present about 125,000 inhabit studies at Yale, Newhaven ; a college ants but eighteen years ago, at the time 'which had the honour of partially of the first setling of the Lane Semieducating Fennimore Cooper. After a nary not quite a third of the nunber. severe course of probation, Dr. Beecher On a high hill which overhange the rone in fame as a pulpit orator. Alin city on the east, Lane Seminary in style was simple and plain, but graphic wituated. Near the buildings consisting and forcible, and came home to “men's of lecture rooms, dining hall, &c., are business and bosoms."
the houses occupied by the principal and He obtained a cure at Lichfield ; and the various professors, and immediately having published “Six Sermons on surrounding them, are other houses of Temperance," became, through them, greater pretensions, occupied by bankuniversally known; for they reached era, rich traders, and men who have Europe, and were translated into made their fortune in the city. The foreign languages; he was called to, little village is called Walnut Hills ; and accepted, the charge of the most and je osteomed one of the very pretinfluential Presbyterian church in the tient in the environs of Cincinnati. town of Boston; the inhabitants of “For several years," says one who which town are, by the way, noted for writes with authority, and upon whose their particular and jealous regard to facta reliance can be placed, “ Harriet all matters relating to the pulpit. Beecher continued to teach in conOver this church Dr. Beecher remained nection with her sister. She did so as pastor till the year 1832.
until her marriage with the Reverend There had been at Boston and clue-Calvin E. Stowe, professor of biblical where a peculiar want felt, by the literature, in the seminary of which her Presbyterian community, of some kind father was president." of collegiate institution, wherein to pre- Professor Stowe was, at the time of pare and instruct thone young mem- | his marriage, well reported as a bíblical bers, who intended to embrace the savant. He graduated at Bowdoin calling of gospel mainistry amongst them.College, Maine, took his theological
To meet this want, there had been degree at Andover, was appointed Profor a long time antecedent, a project on fensor at Dartmouth College, New foot, which, in the year 1832, was car-Hampshire, and went thence to Lane ried out by the foundation of the “ Lane seminary. After her marriage with Theological and Literary Seminary ;" this gentleman her life glided on hapand to enable the very poorest of their pily enough, with that soft and gentle younger brethren to enter thin, and pleasure, which adds so calm a glow to prepare himself for the ministry, a syy to the lives of the American clergy. tem of manual labour was instituted Mrs. Stowe does not appear to be whereby any young man of determined what is called a “notable housewife," industry could himself defray a large that part of wife-duty falling, it would portion of the expenses, necessarily neem, to the lot of a distant relative attendant on his education. The prin who has been her constant friend and cipal of this college must of course be guest, whilst the gifted authoress has himself a self-educated man of energetic devoted herself to the more genial and truly Christian character; and occupations of educating her children, such a one was found in the father of and of contributing occasional pieces Mrs. Stowe.
to the newspapers and magazines, To aid him, a large corps of profess. What she writes is marked with a ors, learned, and known in each parti- highly religious and moral tone ; on cular department, were selected, and the production of an imaginative relithe doctor removed to the college in me the immediate neighbourhood of Cin * Article in a late number of Fraser's cinnati, taking of course with him his Magazine, from which, amongst other family, and amongst them already sources, we have derived great asuistance known for a certain energy and depth and information.
gious work by her brother, the Rev. -"Phineas! is that thee?'. Charles Beecher pastor of Newark, “Yes ; what news !--they coming ?' New Jersey, Mrs. Stowe was selected “Right on behind, eight or ten of to write the introduction : we say them, hot with brandy, swearing and selected, for out of the nine authors of foaming like so many wolves !' the family two of them are ladies, and, “And just as he spoke, a breeze indeed, Miss Catherine Beecher, her brought the faint sound of gallopping sister, author of “Truth stranger than horsemen towards them. Fiction," and other tales, was, until the “In with you-quick, boys in!' publication of “ Uncle Tom,” esteemed said Phineas. 'If you must fight, wait the better writer of the two.
till I get you a piece ahead. And, To this portion of the author's life with the word, both jumped in, and belong the scenes of various tales called Phineas lashed the horses to a run, the the “May Flower, and the “Two ways horseman keeping close beside them. of Spending the Sabbath.”
The waggon rattled, jumped, almost But a great work was preparing for flew, over the frozen ground; but Mrs. Stowe, and her experience became plainer and still plainer, came the ripe by degrees. She had long medi- | noise of pursuing horsemen behind. tated upon slavery, and seen for years The women heard it, and, looking personally its horrors. Escaped slaves anxiously out, saw, far in the rear, on often came to the house of her husband, the brow of a distant hill, a party of and received shelter and assistance, in men looming upagainst the red-streaked some cases their wounds fresh and sky of early dawn. Another hill, and their backs still raw with the lash ; their pursuers had evidently caught helpless children and orphans of these sight of their waggon, whose white slaves she herself had educated, with cloth-covered top made it conspicuous her own children in default of any at some distance, and a loud yell of school. But not alone in this way brutal triumph came forward on the was she gathering materiel for her wind. Eliza sickened and strained her work. Running through Walnut Hills child closer to her bosom ; the old and within a few feet of the door of woman prayed and groaned, and George her house, is a road which her tale has and Jim clenched their pistols with rendered known, and the principal use the grasp of despair. The pursuers of which was somewhat remarkable. gained on them fast; the carriage made It is none other than the “ underground a sudden turn, and brought them near railway" alluded to in “Uncle Tom.” a ledge of a steep overhanging rock, On the road, certain Quakers and abo- that rose in an isolated ridge or clump litionists of other sedts lived, and had in a large lot, which was, all around it, formed themselves into an association, quite clear and smooth. This isolated for the aid of fugitive slaves who were pile, or range of rocks, rose up black escaping. It was done thus. One and heavy against the brightening sky, Quaker would get out his waggon, clap and seemed to promise shelter and conthe fainting and exhausted fugitive cealment. It was a place well known therein, cover him with straw or hay,and to Phineas, who had been familiar with hurry on as quickly as fast horses could the spot in his hunting-days; and it carry him to the next abolitionist mem- was to gain this point he had been ber of the association, who would go racing his horses."* through the same process till the land With the cruelties which drove them of safety was reached.
to run so hotly for their liberty, she Very often in the dead of the night, has grown familiar by hearing, either or in the still and early morning, Mrs. from the slaves themselves or from Stowe, bappily, watching by some sick others, narrations of which she has child's bed, would hear the rattle of given no overcharged picture. Taking these waggons as they hurried past ; one day a collecting tour, her brother and close upon them the tramp of James Beecher, now engaged in comhorses falling quickly on the frozen merce at Boston, met with a prototype ground gave token that their pursuers of Legree ; a brutal slave-owner, whose were near. It needed little imagination great argument with his slaves was a therefore to clothe such facts as these, blow from his fist, which would fell an ox. but merely the pen of truth. Let us mark its tracings,
* Uncle Tom's Cabin,
On hearing this James Beecher felt his the reverend gentleman's sermon, and abolitionst feelings rise, but knowing on that Harmonious Presbyterian resohis powerlessness, merely opened his lution. As her eye wanders down the eyes wider with a horrified gesture. advertisements of the organ of the The planter took it for a movement of slave-owners, it meets such as these, discredit. “Feel,” said he, as a proof which curiously confirm her in her of his truthfulness, “feel my fist, its heretical opinions, and wed her still calloused with knocking the niggers more closely to “ the doctrines and heads about," and he stretched forth, fancies of men':”said the narrator, “a heavy clenched “Ten dollars reward for my woman hand like a blacksmith's hammer.” Siby, very much scarred about the neck
Not only personally did she witness and ears by whipping. these, but her husband also a deeply- “ROBERT NICOLL, MOBILE, ALABAMA." interested abolitionist himself - was “Ran away from the plantation of collecting statistics against the inhu- James Surgette, the following negroes : man trade. So that slavery was, in Randal, has one ear cropped; Bob, has fact, a very hideous incubus on Mrs. lost an eye ; Kentucky Tom, has one Stowe's life, brooding for ever, poison- jaw broken.” Mr. Surgette having, it ing with its noxious life the very | appears, distributed his favours pretty gospel truths she read, since Christian equally. But we will not prolong the professors themselves held and sold brutal extracts. Now and then her slaves. And this is the danger we all eyes swim, and her heart beats more run--meeting with men who are above quickly, when she comes upon a trace us so very much in profession, so much of some poor original of Uncle Tom:below us in practice. Going to church “Ran away, a negro named Arthur; or meeting, she would hear, perchance, has a considerable scar across his a minister as did the Rev. J. C. Pos- / breast and each arm, made by a knife; tell-declare, “ 1st, That slavery is a loves much to talk of the goodness of God. judicial visitation ; 2nd, That it is not “J. BISHOP, SOUTH CAROLINA.” a moral evil ; 3rd, That it is supported! These little paragraphs, somehow or by the Bible ; 4th, That it has existed other, disturb any nascent belief in in all ages."
Harriet Stowe's breast, in the doctrine “It is not a moral evil,” said Mr. of the Rev. J. C. Postell, as to slavery Postell. “The fact that slavery is of being “a merciful visitation.” Disdivine appointment, would be proof turbed somewhat by such readings, enough that it cannot be a moral evil. she will perhaps seek to take a walk, So far from being a moral evil, it is a and, putting on her bonnet, takes one merciful visitation. It is the Lord's of her children with her, very likely doing, and marvellous in our eyes.”” to make, at the same time, some bene
Or again, she sees the resolution in volent visit in Walnut Hills. The sun plain type and paper-how plain those is hot and glaring, and the logs of letters will look upon the judgment wood on the underground railway, on day-of the Harmony Presbytery of which the waggon of the escaping South Carolina,“ that the existence of slaves bounces, and jerks, and rattles slavery itself is not opposed to the will 80 at night, have had the mud baked of God, and whosoever has a conscience on them, till it has cracked and partoo tender to recognize the relation as tially peeled off in the heat. But even lawful, is 'righteous overmuch,' is wise at this time there is a slow, laborious above what is written,' and has sub-bumping on the logs still heard, and, mitted his neck to the yoke of men, raising her parasol to see whence it sacrificed his Christian liberty of con- comes, her eyes encounter some such a science, and leaves the infallible Word sight as this :of God for the doctrines and fancies of "First, a little cart drawn by one men."
horse, in which five or six half-naked Truly thinks mild and gentle Mrs. black children were tumbled like pigs Stowe, as she hears such a sermon, or together. Behind the cart marched reads this real paragraph—“The Devil three black women, with head, neck, can quote scripture for his purpose.” and breasts uncovered, and without Other paragraphs there are in this shoes or stockings. Next, three men, same paper, which have a silent, but a bareheaded, half-naked, and chained searching and biting commentary, on together with an ox-chain. Last of
all, a white man on horseback, carry- | the same feelings raged, with little less ing pistols in his belt, and who, as he excitement. In Boston, the abolitionpasses, has the impudence to look at ists' houses and stores were burnt, and them without blushing. At the house one gentleman was hurried with a rope they stop at, they learn that he had round his neck to be hanged, and only bought these miserable beings in Mary- saved from that fate by the interposiland, and was marching them in this tion of the authorities. In New York, manner, to some of the more southern the anti-abolitionists pulled down the states."*
houses, and burned an African church. Truly our authoress cannot quite When brought before the magistracy, conform to the slave-owners' doctrines, the feeling of the court and judges was and so, that in 1833, when the Abolition in favour of the rioters, and in most Society met at Philadelphia, and sent instances they were acquitted. Negro forth its reports to every part of Ame school houses were razed to the ground; rica, which set on foot an agitation now and then came an armed attack which has convulsed, and will convulse, on the negro quarters, or the office of America for years, it found a ready the abolitionst press, which would be disciple in Mrs. Stowe, and, in fact, in broken into, the presses broken, and the whole of the inhabitants of Lane the type scattered. Even woman were Seminary.
warred against. A Miss Prudence Mr. Arthur Tappan, who was the Crandall, somewhere in Connecticut, president of the Abolitionist Conven had set up a school, to which she adtion, was at the same time one of the mitted coloured children on terms of most honoured patrons and liberal equality with her white pupils, in itself donors of Lane Seminary, and as such, not so alarming a matter, but a number forwarded the addresses of the Cons of the most pious and distinguished vention to its principals. The young | gentlemen of her state aud neighbourmen, ardent and enthusiastic, and hood, including a judge of the United under such humane teachers as Dr. States court, took an early opportunity Beecher and Professor Stowe, soon to break up her school, and to send her caught the abolitionist fever. They out of the town. The excitement prehad been instructed with the idea of vailed everywhere, with about equal going on foreign missions, and of violence, as the following quoted from Christianizing the heathen. They an eye-witness, will testify : found that at home-nay, in their own “From New York I passed on to immediate neighbourhood, there was a Philadelphia, and thence to Washingstill darker heathenism-a worse than ton. In every village and town on my Egyptian blackness.
way I heard the same execrations Their sensibility grew rapidly into vented against the abolitionists, with enthusiasm. Some amongst them, who accounts of new riots, in which they were slave-owners," says a credible had suffered, or new attempts to subauthor, gave liberty to their slaves. ject them to more legal punishments. Others collected the coloured popula There seemed to be a general .contion of Cincinnati, and preached to spiracy against freedom of speech and them. Some formed Sunday and freedom of the press. A learned judge evening schools, every one felt inte of Massachusetts, after severely derested, and acted again to quote our nouncing the abolitionists as incenauthority,' as if the abolition of slavery diaries, proposed to have them indicted depended upon his individual exer at common law as guilty of sedition, if tions."
not of treason. The accomplished To keep this fire still alight, and to governor of the same state said ditto prevent such enthusiasm from falling to the judge, and added fresh denundown to a dull and formal protest, ciations of his own. Almost the only there needed some antagonism, and it person in New England of any note, as was soon found. The traders of Cin I understand, who ventured to withcinnati took the alarm, and, as interest stand the popular clamour, or to dropwas their tender point, feared for the a word of apology for those unfortunate loss of their southern trade. Through- abolitionists, was Dr. Channing, whose out the whole of the northern states, writings have made him well known
wherever the English language is read; + “Paulding's Letters from the South." but whose refusal, on this occasion, to