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embarrassments of a country occupied narrow pass at Macta, the squares by a foreign army, the French concluded which enclosed the wounded and the with Abd-el-Kader a treaty which con- baggage were broken through, and the stituted him sovereign of the province slaughter was immense. All the of Oran, with the rights of monopo-wounded were put to the sword, and lising the whole of the commerce of their heads, stuck upon the long lances the country, in the same way in which of the Arabs, were pushed, gashed and Mehemet Ali did in Egypt. The Arabs bleeding, over the bayonets of the were forbidden to trade with the Euro-infantry into the very faces of their peans except through the agent of the comrades. After having left upwards Emir, who himself fixed the price of of 500 heads (for the custom of decapitheir goods, which he resold to the tation taught the French thus to number European merchants. The treaty was their dead) in the hands of the enemy, divided into two parts, the Arabian and and after having performed prodigies of the French agreement; the first part valour, General Trezel effected his reonly Desmichels communicated to his treat. government, upon which a misunder- The news of this reverse changed the standing arose between the Governor-policy of the French. They no longer general Voirol and Desmichels, which dreamt of remaining even partially inacthe Emir knew how to turn to his own tive. Marshal Clausel was sent expressly advantage. But us every ambitious to take signal vengeance (une éclatanterechief has other enemies than those he vanche) upon Abd-el-Kader. He marched meets in the open field; the coldness without any resistance upon Mascara, of his partisans, the revolt of some and the capital of the Emir, which he found the jealousy of others at his eleva- abandoned and in ruins. After having tion, so it happened with Abd-el-Kader. destroyed it entirely, he returned to Many Kaids declured against him, and Oran, and, on the 8th January, 1836, on the 12th of April, 1834, Mustapha recommenced the campaign. He then Ben Ismaël, chief of the Douaires, basely turned his arms against the raised the standard of revolt, and, in friendly tribes who had absolutely first spite of a determined resistance, over- applied to the French for assistance, threw him, put him to flight, and would and effected a most cruel razzia on the have taken or slain him had it not been Conlouglis. Even in France this usefor the devotion of one of his men, I less cruelty was condemned, and in who raised and remounted him. This England the papers wrote fervently time Abd-el-Kader was indebted to against it. After two of these promethe French for assistance. Desmichels Inales, to use the French term, during refused the friendship of Ben Ismaël, i which Abd-el-Kader hovered on his one of the most faithful allies of his flanks without coming to any decisive nation, assisted Abd-el-Kader in re- engagement, the Marshal returned to pulsing him, and sent to that Emir a Algiers, persuaded, if one may judge supply of powder and muskets. By from the bulletins which he issued, that this aid he recovered his position, and he had entirely destroyed the power of in his ambition of extending his do- the Emir. Soon after, General d'Arminion, he conceived the project of langes, conducting a convoy of provioverrunning the whole of the provinces sions from Oran to Tlemsen, was atof Algiers and of Tittery; he crossed tacked by the Emir, and overthrown the Chelif, entered into Médéah as a with considerable loss, on the 24th victor, and placed over the tribes he April, 1836. This check, added to the had conquered friends of his own, and failure of an expedition on Constantine, returned triumphantly to his own terri- made the French still more energetic. tory. This was too bold a stroke to be General Bugeaud was ordered to effect pleasing to the French, and General the retirement of Abd-el-Kader, either Trezel, who had superseded Desmichels, by treaty or by arms. A new expedimarched against the Emir to chastisetion was sent against Constantine, him. Their forces met at Macta, the which this time was successful, and the Arabians being much more numerous town was carried by assault, but with than the French, and the battle, which immense loss to the French; and recommenced favourably to the latter, pulsed in pacific overtures, Bugeaud terminated in their total defeat, on the met the Emir, on the 6th of July, 1838, 28th of June, 1835. Surprised in a at the Pass of Sikak, where he attacked him with the greatest vigour and over- making their enthusiasm subservient threw him; Abd-el-Kader retiring from to his administration; and secondly, to the combat with a loss of from 1,200 to give to the population a vigorous mili1,500 Arabs, killed and wounded. In-| tary constitution, so as to prepare them stead of taking advantage of this vic- for the task of expelling, by an energetic tory, Bugeaud remained inactive, gave and unanimous effort, all Christian the chief time to recover himself, to re- sway from the soil of Africa. Nor did establish himself in his authority; and, he rest here. He made a second line some months afterwards, admitted him of defence, in the rear of the towns of on equal terms to a most advantageous the interior on the borders of the treaty, which gave to Abd-el-Kader smaller desert. To the south at Medéah, three-fourths of Algeria, the provinces he established a post, and to the south of Oran, Tittery, and a part of that of of Mostaganena, at Boghar, he created Algiers, and granted him a facility of a military depôt. His influence exbuying ammunition and arms in France. tended as far as the Desert of Sahara; (Vide art. vii. in treaty.)

and finding on every hand that the This treaty was severely criticised in tribes were prepared for a holy war, he France; and, in carrying it out, various sent word of his intentions to General obstacles were found. Abd-el-Kader Vallée; and on the 14th of December, availed himself of several obscure pas- 1839, gave the signal for a deadly sages to extend his territory, and eluded struggle. For this the French were the propositions of the French to come unprepared. The colonists of Mitidja to a settlement. In December, 1837, were surprised by the Hagouts; their he encamped near Hamza, and required warehouses were pillaged and burnt, and received the submission of all the and in a short time from the comtribes of the adjacent countries. And mencement of the campaign, the sol. upon the Marshal Vallée, alarmed at this diers of the Emir had penetrated as far movement, establishing a camp at Kha- as the fortifications of Algiers, and had mis, the remnant of the tribe of Ouleb recovered from their enemies all the Teiton, which the Emir had on a pre- territory, save that which was inclosed text of contempt for his authority, sur- by strong fortifications. prised and massacred, came to the The news of this disastrous campaign French to demand vengeance. Such struck the French nation with amazeacts as these were deemed flagrant ment. The Duke of Orleans, heir to violations of the treaty of Tafna; and the throne, hastened over to take part the Governor-general made such de- in the war. He was accompanied by termined and energetic protestations his brother, the Duc d'Aumale, and disagainst them, that Abd-el-Kader con- embarked at Algiers on the 13th of sented at last to name an agent who April, 1840. Operations on a vast should discuss the basis of an inter- scale were at once commenced, but pretative convention, of the second after twenty engagements, wherein great article of the treaty of the 30th of May, valour was shown on both sides, and 1837.

amongst which we must not omit the Moulond-ben-Arach, who had gone to defence of Mazagran by a handful of Paris loaded with presents for the King, soldiers, no decisive result was obtained. was charged with this important nego- The two princes distinguished themtiation. On his return to Algiers, he selves by their coolness and intrepidity, brought with him a convention, which, and the French army, generally, impresin some measure, modified three arti- sed their opponents with a very high cles in the former treaty; but, in the opinion of their courage. This, withmeantime, Abd-el-Kader had profited by out any farther result, was unsatisfacthe truce, by strengthening his power, tory, and some blame being attached to and fortifyiug his towns where possible. General Vallée, Marshal Bugeaud was At Mascara, he had placed his brother- sent, in December 1840, to replace him, in-law, Ben-Tamir; Tlemsen was in with an express mission to destroy the the hands of his trusty lieutenant Bou power of Abd-el-Kader, and to reduce Hamedi, and various other strongholds the whole territory of Algeria. With were held by other chiefs of the Mara such spirit did he follow up these inbouts, equally favourable to the designs structions, that in a few months after of the Emir, which were, first, to inflame the commencement of the campaign he the tribes with a religious fervour, had already destroyed Tekendempt, Boghar, and Thaja, new fortresses built submitted. Amongst these, fear natuby Abd-el-Kader; had taken Mascara ; rally spread, and they repaired to had driven away the flocks, and destroyed General Lamoricière and supplicated the crops of the hostile tribes, and had him to assist them. He answered that by his agents occasioned many defec- they must defend themselves, and that tions in the ranks of the Emir. In the he had more important work in seeking following campaign in 1842, he placed to disperse the remnant of the army General Lamoricière in occupation of which was still faithful to the Emir. Mascara, who having fortified it, sallied Engaged in this, the two armies met from thence on every side. The enemy almost accidentally at Isna, in Novemwas reduced to the defensive, and in ber, 1842, and Abd-el-Kader was again the speech from the throne in the same defeated with great loss, and narrowly year, Algeria was pronounced to be escaped being taken captive, the very * henceforth and for ever a territory of horse which he rode falling into the France."

hands of the French From this time Abd-el-Kader was The indefatigable chieftain, escaped treated, not as a sovereign prince, but from this danger, found a new element as a rebel. But his genius and his of resistance amongst the mountaineer courage seemed to grow stronger than tribes of the Kabyles of Borgia. But ever in this last contest. Towards the Bugeand, aided by the Duc d'Aumale, middle of 1842 he had, after a vigorous penetrated in the middle of the winter l'esistance, lost five-sixths of his terri- to the mountainous regions of the Jurtory, all his forts and military depots, jura, and dispersed the enemy. The nearly the whole of his regular army, French also kept up incessant razzias and what was even of more consequence, on the tribes who yet withheld their that faith which the Arabs before had submission, occasionally inflicting unin his courage and his fortune. But heard of cruelties, and perpetrating such still undaunted, he went from tribe to barbarities as were a disgrace to any tribe endeavouring to relight in the nation calling themselves civilized, and hearts of his countrymen the spirit of a stigma on Christianity itself. One of resistance. “Would you abandon," these razzias ended in smothering the cried he, to the reluctant and wavering remnant of a tribe, consisting of uptribes, “the faith of your fathers, and wards of ninety persons, men, women, deliver yourselves, like cowards, to the and children, who had taken refuge in Christians? Have you not sufficient a cave. The French heaped faggots courage to support for a few more months and straw at the entrance, and with the the evils of war? Resist your enemies points of their lances forced back the but for a short time longer, and you shrieking wretches, who strove to break shall crush the infidels which soil our through the burning heap. Such mea. land. But if you are not of the True sures as these struck terror into the Believers, if you shamefully abandon hearts of the tribes, and after the combat your religion, and all those rewards of Oned-Malah on Oct. 11, 1843, wherewhich the Prophet has promised you, in the Emir lost the flower of his indo not think that you will obtain repose fantry, and his bravest lieutenant, the by this cowardly and unmanly weak-one-eyed Sidi Embarek, Abd-el-Kader ness. As long as I have breath in this was forced to leave his country, and to body, I will make war on the Christians, take refuge on the frontiers of the em. I will follow you like a shadow. I will pire of Morocco. reproach you for your cowardice, and I But even in exile the brave Emir will break upon your slumbers by the was not at rest. He fermented a war sound of my cannon, pointed against between Morocco and France, which your Christian protectors."*

was, however, soon brought to a close By the rapidity of his movements the by the successes of Marshal Bugeaud at Emir seemed to multiply himself, and Išly, and of Prince de Joinville, by sea, to his enemies and to the submitted at Tangiers and Mogador. tribes to be in two places at a time. After the battle of Isly, there were Wherever he was least expected there two courses open to the French, either he appeared, carrying away the cattle to leave the capture of their great enemy and decimating the tribes which had to chance, or to force the Emperor to

deliver him up; trusting on the antagon. * Moniteur Algérien, 6th July, 1842, ism in the characters of the Emperor and the Emir, they chose the former. This, diverting the attention of the senAbd-er-Rhaman, the Emperor', had for tinels and alarming the wholo camp, Abd-el-Kader few feelings of love, but gave time for the rapid approach and on the contrary, plenty of hatred, defi- charge of the Emir. But however sucance, and distrust. Although of that cessful he might be in his stratagem, faith which obliges all its believers to the attack failed, he was overpowered fight against the Christians till they are by numbers, and after fighting bravely exterminated, the two had no one other he was obliged to recross the river bond between them. Abd-er-Rhaman Malonina, on the banks of which the had an empire to lose; Abd-el-Kader Emperor had encamped, and to seek one to conquer. One was safely seated safety in the plains of Triffna. Placing on his throne, the other had just been the wives and children of his comdriven from it; nay, even if the Em-panions in the midst of his devoted peror had wished to carry on the war, band, the Emir succeeded in making all the glory would have redounded to the passage without losing & mule, the man who was equally with himself passed over to the territory of the descended from the Prophet, and who French, and followed by what few of had for so long a time borne a reputa- his men remained, sought safety with a tion as a saint not inferior to his fame remnant of the friendly tribe of Bénias a leader.

Snassen, which alone remained faithful Under these circumstances it is not to his cause. to be wondered at, that a misunder- He remained with this tribe for a standing soon arose between Abd-er-short time, and thence hoped to gain Rhaman and his guest, and the latter the South, but the vigilance of General endeavoured, first by negotiation and Lamoricière prevented him. The Genethen by force, to accomplish one of ral thus relates the capture of the celethose revolutions, which are not unfre- brated Arab Chief. quent amongst the Mahommedans, and “I had been informed that the Emir which would dethrone the Emperor, and had gained the country of the Béniplace himself at the head of the Moors. Snassen, and that he was desirous of

Thus, alone and without resources, in escaping thence, for the faction of the the midst of a hostile people, in open tribe the best disposed towards him, quarrel with the recognised head of his was precisely that whose territory apreligion, wandering from place to place, proached nearest to our own. The pass like a lion tracked by hunters, with no which opens on the plain of the Béniseat but his horse, no shelter but his Snassen, has its issue about a league tent, no kingdom but the desert, the and a half from the frontier. I deindomitable Emir yet inspired terror in termined to watch his passage, and I the hearts of his enemies, and obliged was decided in this by a letter from the them to keep on foot an army of 24,000 brother of the Kaid d'Ouchda, which men for the sole purpose of watching had been written that very evening to him. He resolved upon a night attack tell us to keep close watch in that direcupon the Emperor of Morocco, which tion, for by it the Emir would, without he trusted would at once overthrow him, doubt, endeavour to pass. It was necesand leave the throne vacant for himself.sary to take this step quietly, so as not Having gathered together the remains of to awaken the suspicions of the tribes his shattered army, he laid his plans who were encamped on the route. and waited for the night. His inten- “For this end, two detachments of tion being to throw the camp of the Em-picked spahis, clothed in white bournous, peror into confusion, he made use of the were sent forward. The first took up following cruel but ingenious stratagem. its position at the pass itself, the second, He caused some horses to be covered at one intermediate point between that over with pitch and to be loaded with and our camp."* taw, dry grass, and other combustible Besides taking these precautions, Lamaterials. They were then led, on the moricière had the whole of his men unnight of the 11th of December, 1843, to der arms at two o'clock in the morning, the camp of the Emperor by picked and having calculated the probable route men, who had been well paid for the of the Emir, held the troops in readiness enterprise beforehand. The tow, &c., to march on the frontier. These precauwas then fired, and the frightened and tortured animals driven into the camp. * Moniteur. 2 January, 1848.


tions were successful. Abd-el-Kader, 1848, he was transferred from Pau to finding that escape was impossible, sent the Chateau d'Amboise, near Blois. forward two of his most devoted adher- His family and himself were treated ents to apprise the general that he would with great attention, but the Desert submit to him. The lieutenant who Chieftain was evidently sinking under commanded the first detachment of his confinement, when he was released gpahis, spoke with the Emir himself, by the present Emperor of France, when who delivered to him a piece of paper President, on his return from a tour with his seal attached to it, but the through France, in October of last year. wind, the rain, and the darkness of the This prince, we are told, had pronight had prevented him from writing mised the Marquis of Londonderry that anything upon it. He demanded a he would at an early period liberate the letter of safe conduct from the General, ex-Emir, and had actually said to him, for himself and for his companions, but “ Tôt ou tard, je le mettrai en liberté;" the reasons which prevented the Emir he kept his word. The Moniteur of Oct. from writing also prevented Lamoricière, 17th, 1802, thus records the act: the General therefore sent him his sabre “The Prince has marked the end of and a seal, as a token that his request his tour by an act of justice and natural was granted.

generosity, he has restored Abd-el-Kader Such is the account of the surrender to liberty. In returning to Paris, the of Abd-el-Kader, from the general who Prince stopped at the Chateau d'Ameffected his capture. On the 23rd of boise, and having seen Abd-el-Kader, December, the Emir personally yielded informed him of the end of his capti. himself and family to the “generosity vity in the following terms: of France.” On the 24th he was re- Abd-el-Kader, -I come to inform ceived at the Marabout of Sidi Brahim, l you of your liberation. You are to be by Colonel Montauban, who was soon | taken to Broussa, in the states of the afterwards joined by the Generals La Sultan, as soon as the necessary premoricière and Cavaignac. Ile was then parations shall have been made, and taken to Djemma-Gazouat, where he | you will receive there, from the French was presented to the Governor-general government, an allowance worthy of your of Algeria, the Duc d'Aumale. The former rank. You are aware that for a Governor-general ratified the promise length of time your captivity bas caused of safe conduct given him by Lamori- me real affliction, for it incessantly recière: a promise which declared that minded me that the government which Abd-el-Kader should be conducted to preceded me had not observed the Alexandria or to St. Jean d'Acre, “with engagements entered into towards an the firm hope that the French Govern | unfortunate enemy, and nothing in my ment would sanction that promise." eyes is more humiliating for the governOn the 25th of February, Abd-el-Kader ment of a great nation than to misunembarked at Oran; from Oran he pro- derstand its force to such a point as to ceeded on board a French ship of war fail in its promise. Generosity is always to Toulon, where he arrived on the 29th the best counsellor, and I am convinced with his family and suite. On his ar that your residence in Turkey will not rival at Toulon, the pain of captivity prove injurious to the tranquillity of was increased by being kept for some our possessions in Africa. Your religion. timein quarantine. When landed he was like ours, enjoins submission to the transferred to Fort Lamalgue, whence he decrees of Providence. But if France was sent for some time (with his suite) | is mistress of Algeria, the reason is, to the castle of Pau, and although he that God willed it to be so, and the supplicated the Government to remem- | French nation will never give up that ber the promise of the Duc d'Aumale, conquest. You have been the enemy he was confined without hope of release. of France, but I am not the less willing On the revolution of February he re- to do justice to your courage, your chaminded the new Government of the racter, and to your resignation in mis promise made at the time of his sub- fortune. This is the reason why I migsion, and of the conditions upon consider it a point of honour to put an which he did so; but the answer he re-end to your captivity, having full conceived was, that all they could do at the fidence in your word. time was to make his captivity as little “These noble words deeply moved rigorous as possible. November, the Emir. After having expressed to

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