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every market morning into Smithfield, sides the hereditary honour conferred and purchase all the young horses ex- upon him, others had accumulated raposed for sale which he thought might pidly. William IV. bestowed a Grand possibly be convertible into carriage or Cross of the Guelphic Order. Louis saddle horses, should they recover from Philippe sent, through Talleyrand, the their defects. Five pounds was to be decoration of the Legion of Honour ; the average price. In this manner I various Scotch and foreign universities have known thirty or forty horses col-showered diplomas on him; and at the lected at Gadesbridge, and thus Sir Duke of Wellington's Oxford installaAstley procured stock to eat off his su- tion, in 1834, he was admitted D.C.L. perfluous herbage. In the winter these In his latter years he began to suffer horses were put into the straw-yard, from attacks of vertigo, and was not and his waste straw thus converted into always in a condition for exertion. He manure, saved him many hundred continued, however, ardent in practice, pounds in the purchase of this commo until his increasing infirmities disabled dity. I believe, however, the greatest him for it, and he expired at his country pleasure derived from this new planseat, after a short illness, on the 12th was the occupation it afforded him, by of February, 1840, in the seventy-third treating these horses as patients, and year of his age. curing them of their various com- Notwithstanding the laborious life he plaints.” It was certainly more credi- led, Sir Astley found time to contribute table to him than his mania for canine several essays to the records of the surexperiments, but the heart had as little gical art, which, although by no means to do with the one as the other. The remarkable for their merit as composigrand idea of profit was the source of tions, will, in all likelihood, continue to all this unwearied well-doing. And “I hold a respectable place in the literature myself," says the nephew, “have paid of his profession; especially those on fifty guineas for one of these animals,"|"Hernia," on his own great operation (which doubtless originally cost Sir of " Tying the Aorta," on the“ Anatomy Astley five.) “and made a good bargain of the Breast," and on “ Fractures and too. And I have known my uncle's Dislocations.” Some of these were oricarriage for years drawn by a pair of ginally published in the “Transactions horses which together only cost him of the Royal Society;" but all of them, twelve pounds ten shillings !" In June, we believe, are now to be had in a 1827, Sir Astley had the misfortune to separate form. lose his lady, and the shock was so se- / We have hitherto purposely omitted vere, we are told, that he resolved on all mention of Sir Astley's connection withdrawing from practice. Accord with a set of the most infamous and ingly he sold his house in Spring Gar- daring ruffians that ever disgraced this dens, and shut himself up in Hertford- or any other country; but we cannot shire. The sense of his bereavement, close this summary of his career, without however, was neither so heavy nor so a reference to it. "We allude to his heinenduring as to prevent his resuming ous traffic with the body snatchers, or his professional duties, and remarrying " resurrection men,”-a class of despein July of the following year. Later radoes which, happily for the character in life he made an excursion to his na- of the medical profession, now, we betive Norfolk, where his principal diver- lieve, no longer exists. Without entersion, to judge from his journal, appears ing into any of the diabolical details to have been dissecting eels, gurnets, with which Mr. Bransby Cooper has porpoises, and herrings' brains! He thought fit to horrify and disgust his also took a trip to Paris, once again, non-professional readers, we shall conwhere, being invited to a grand dejeûner fine ourselves to the general statement, by the celebrated Dupuytren, at the that so intimately was Sir Astley mixed Hotel Dieu, by way of appetizer we up with the transactions of these sacripresume, he “dissected for nearly two legious wretches, who despoiled the hours before breakfast." Sir Astley on grave of its dead-ransacked tombsthis occasion had a most flattering and robbed churchyards—to furnish reception in the “gay capital," and washim with “subjects" for dissection; made a Memer of the Institute. His that when they had been tried and anatomical zeal seems to have attended imprisoned for their crimes, " he achim to the last wherever he was. Be- knowledged their perfect right to depend
on him for pecuniary support to them. disheartening obstacles and privations selves, and pensions to their families." with which, at the outset of their Perhaps as the law then stood, it may career, many men of equal skill and reluctantly be admitted that it was im- superior talents have had to contend. possible for any man who was ambi. Yet there is nothing upon record which tious of becoming a great anatomist, to indicates that Sir Astley ever evinced accomplish his object, without occa-or felt anything like a lasting gratitude sionally conniving at such unhallowed for the unmistakeable benefits thus from practices. The less, however, that is time to time conferred upon him. Indeed said, under that view of the case, the the reverse of this is almost made mani. better. Sir Astley in his time is stated fest, and were we to judge from the to have instructed no fewer than 8000 alacrity with which, when he saw it exsurgeons -- and some idea may be pedient to do so in order to attain a gathered from this, of the extremely highly coveted object, he publicly made fearful extent to which he must have known his intention of relinquishing had recourse to the odious services of " the companionship and intimacy of these malefactors. The recklessness his late democratical friends," we should with which he employed them, and the incline to the belief that gratitude ocliberal encouragement he gave to them, cupied as diminutive a space in the cannot be palliated, however, by any composition of Sir Astley Cooper, as plea of necessity, and we gladly turn either refinement of intellect or benefrom the contemplation of a most nefa- volence of disposition. “Number one," rious, and iniquitous business, which, as was his motto through life; the “ main systematically fostered and upheld by chance," his most prized maxim. Slice him, must for ever sadly lower him in after slice of good luck fell to his share. the estimation of every man who is not only still further to stimulate his faculty utterly destitute of all sense of social, of acquisitiveness, and his untiring moral, and religious obligation
powers of perseverance. A busy, bustFrom the brief abstract of his career ling, plodding, lucre-grasping existence now before them, however, our readers his, with scarcely a pause, nothing in will be enabled to form their own the shape of a lull or a rest worth menopinion of Sir Astley Cooper. They tioning from beginning to end. To the will have seen what proportion of his last he strove, never content, still strove great wealth and honours was due to to make more money. Medicine as a his own undoubted qualifications for science is indebted to him for no new the profession of his choice,--to his discovery, and practical surgery for little unwearied industry in practice, to his else, save, probably, a few extra flouzeal and attention as a lecturer,--to the rishes and novel graces of the scalpel. incessant pains he bestowed upon the The most it is feared that can be said cultivation of the practical part of the in his praise, is that he was an unpresurgical art.--and lastly, to the un-cedentedly popular practitioner, more questionable skill which in time was so perhaps than any other who has ever the inevitable result of this application. lived-and--that he left a large fortune They will also have seen for how much behind him--a kind of medical king, just of his success in life he was indebted as George Hudson is yeleped a railway to the good offices of his early friend king, and for precisely similar reasons, and benefactor, Mr. Cline. Through the unwieldiness of his coffers, and the that gentleman's friendly instrumen obesity of his bank-books. To the aptality he received his first appointment (pellation of a great surgeon, Sir Astley as a public lecturer-Mr. Cline, again, Cooper is, we will allow, most indispuhelped him to a rich wife---and subse- tably entitled; but to the far higher quently, Mr. Cline turned over to his accompanying distinctions of having favourite pupil a share of his most been also a noble-minded and humane lucrative practice. In Sir Astley's case man, and a good Christian, we cannot there seems to have been no struggling reconcile ourselves to the opinion, that with difficulties, on the contrary his he possesses the remotest shadow of a path upwards to fame and fortune was claim. thus rendered comparatively smooth
W. M. R. and easy, and entirely freed from those
THERE are some men whose names are patriot's Sanctum, Freedom has her inseparably interwoven with that of chapel there, but Algeria, known only their country, so much so, that you to Europe by piracy and slaves, renecannot refer to one without entering gades and swift feluccas, was scarcely upon the history of the other. Thus deemed a fit place for the genius of Lycurgus recalls that Sparta to which patriotism to breathe in. For centuries, he gave laws; Machiavelli, that Genoa from the time when its Arab conquerors for which he so successfully plotted ; first gave it the name of Al Jeriza, Washington, that great republic for (the Island) it has been identified with which he fought and legislated; and a tyrannous oppression, which was a Abd el Kader that territory for which galling sore to Christendom. That hé so long struggled, and from the sur- Spain which could glue its hand to the face of which he has, more than once, hilt with the innocent blood of Monswept the invader. The story of the tezuma and his compatriots in another hero who becomes the “foremost man Continent, quailed before the crescent of all his time" in repelling an aggres- and the green and pointed ensign of the sion, has been repeated often and often, Moors in this. Societies of Christian from that of Aristomenes to that of knights, who of old had carried terror Tell; luckily, while the human heart to the heart of Saladin and planted the beats with a love of country or of home, cross upon the walls of Acre, were glad the tale can never tire by repetition, to buy off prisoners taken by the pirate but the narrator will find his story Turk, and to form companies whose listened to with throbbing breast and business it was to rescue those who glistening eye, and the name of the had fallen into their barbaric clutches. hero will become a household word, and Driven from Spain the Moors certainly his deeds will be repeated from age to were, but from the stronghold of Al age with still increasing interest, Jeriza they arose and smote the
Spaniard sorely. When the oldest cask is opened,
Finding an easy prey in the rich And the largest lamp is lit, When the chesnuts glow in the embers, merchants of Spain, they naturally, And the kid turns on the spit;
since love of piracy increased with When the young and old in circle Around the firebrands close :
success, turned their arms against other When the girls are weaving baskets,
ships, and the trading Englishman And the lads are shaping bows.
became their prey. Luckily, we then
had one at our head who never hesiWhen the good man trims his armour, And mends his helmet's plume;
tated to protect those of whom he had When the good wife's shuttle merrily
styled himself Protector ;-—and the canGoes flashing through the loom ; With weeping and with laughter
non of Cromwell, pointed by Admiral Still is the story told;
Blake, taught the Algerines to respect How well Horatius kept the bridge,
the flag of England. His most ChrisIn the brave days of old,
tian Majesty of France acting upon Even so; no matter whether the dis- this, in 1683 ordered Algiers to be bomcourse be of Horatius Cocles or of barded by Admiral Duquesne, which Abd-el-Kader, we shall be listened to led to a treaty between that power and with interest. The title “ Defensor France. Fidei” has scarcely been so nobly or Nearly one hundred years afterwards so truly earned as that of “Defensor the Spaniards grew bold enough to Patriæ," and the latter is the more attempt the same thing, but without respected.
success. In 1775, General O'Reilly The subject of our biography opens and a Spanish army landed near Algiers, up new ground. Switzerland is the but were obliged to retreat with loss.
The Dutch, after some fighting, com* For a large portion of the materiel of this pounded for safety. So did the Danes article, we are indebted to a recent biography of Abd-el-Kader, contained in La Nouvelle Biographie Universelle, edited by Dr. Hoeffer. We have also
sian vessels were protected by special availed ourselves of the notes of commandant Boisonnet, who was governor of Amboise during the Emir's confinement in that fortress.-ED.
were, however, the most frequent losers, B. M.
*] and the prisoners taken from them were
sold as slaves or made to toil in the rally interwoven. He was born in the public works.
environs of Mascara, in the commenceThis state of affairs remained till ment of the year 1807, and was there1815, when America took an Algerine fore in the first glow of youthful vigour frigate and brig, and abolished all tri- and enterprise, when the government bute paid to the Dey, besides making that of Charles X. undertook in 1820 the potentate pay 60,000 dollars, compen- Algerian Expedition. sation for the ships which had been At the commencement of this enterplundered; and at the Congress held at prise they declared, as all people will Vienna in 1816, it was at last deter- declare and have declared, even in the mined by the European powers to put most shameful oppressions, that they an end to Christian slavery. This was only intended by the expedition to effected by Lord Exmouth, who bom- exercise “a moral influence," by a barded the city and reduced the Dey striking and astounding victory. In to terms upon that and other subjects. answer to a question of the English For eleven years subsequent to the minister, M. de Polignac avowed that bombardment the Algerines appear to the “only design of the expedition was have been sufficiently humbled; but in to destroy piracy; and that end being 1827 an insult was offered by Hassan accomplished, the" evacuation of Africa or Hussein Pacha, the last Dey, to the would be determined by an European French Consul, which led to the capture congress." We have seen how the of Algiers by that power. This took promise was kept, the occupation of place in 1830. The Dey capitulated to Rome was undertaken under a someGeneral Bourmont; abdicated and re- what similar pretext. Will it hereafter tired to Europe, and on the 4th of July, be declared, that France seized upon 1830, the French became possessed of that city with "an admirable instinct ?" the “city of Algiers, and the forts and To hold in subjection a country harbours depending on it."
stretching for two hundred and fifty The “Napoleon of Peace," as he leagues along the coast, from Morocco proudly styled himself, Louis Philippe, to Tunis, and of a breadth of from wanted to secure his throne; and to sixty to eighty leagues, bounded by the direct the attention of the fickle people desert, and peopled by fierce hordes, he governed elsewhere, some external | the descendants of the Numidians, a excitement was needed. In this he race of Kabyles, bold, determined, and was gratified by the acquisition of energetic, was not an easy task. The Algiers. France had always dreamt towns were few and had little sympathy of colonization. That by nature she with or authority over, the inhabitar is unfitted to be the mother of many of the plain; they were peopled by and flourishing colonies was no matter mixture of Jews and Moors, two ra to her. If la perfide Albion boasted equally feeble and degenerate, ai of colonies and dependencies in every therefore although easily reduced were habitable portion of the globe, it was of little use in the hands of the victors. thought reasonable enough that la belle Besides this, it was necessary in case France should outstrip her. France of an European war, not to displease then; to use the words of her historian, England, and consequently the French, seized upon Algeria with “an admirable in sending Marshal Clausel to Africa, instinct.” The minds of the revolu- enjoined him to remain almost in a tionary and dangerous classes were state of inaction (" d'agir le moins posfilled by constant rumours of conquest sible.") and aggrandizement. A portion of that The inhabitants, seeing the French immense army which is the bane of shut up in Algiers, began to doubt their the country was kept employed, and invincibility. Of the three Deys, one underneath the cloak of foreign con-only, that of Oran, submitted to them. quest the wily son of Egalité consoli- The other two entertained far less dated his power at home.
peaceable intentions. Achmet Bey There was one, however, who proved maintained himself in Constantine, a great obstacle in the way of French and defied the Christians to approach conquest, and this was Abd-el-Kader. him; whilst the Bey of Tittery, who His biography is the history of the suc- was near to their territory, thought it resses and the reverses of the French in incumbent on him to deal the first
ica, and the two subjects are natu- 1 blow; he preached a religious war, and endeavoured to shut up the French in guished thaleb, (doctor or savant,) but the town they had taken. Under these made himself also remarkable by those circumstances Clausel had only one way corporeal exercises which form so es. left him. He put the government in sential a part of the education of the order, prepared his army, and passed, Arab. He was remarkable for his skill for the first time, the celebrated defile in horsemanship, and in the use of the of Téniah, overthrew the Arabs, occu- yatagan and the lance. To acquire the pied Médéah, the Bey's capital, and title of Hadgi, (saint,) he twice made deposed the Bey. Here be stopped, the pilgrimage to the tomb of the having already gone far beyond the Prophet at Mecca; the first time cerlimits of his instructions. General tuinly was in his infancy, but the Berthezène was sent to replace Clausel, second time was when he was already who had so compromised his govern- a young man in 1828. On his return he ment, with orders to behave so that it married, and by his wife, whom he loved would be evident that the French were tenderly, he had two sons. For some uncertain about their occupation of time he lived in obscurity, rendering Algeria ; to impress this idea more himself remarkable by the severity of strongly, they left him but 9,000 men his manners, his piety, and his zeal in to occupy their vast conquest.
observing all the precepts of the Koran, The first result of Clausel's extended until his aged father caused him to be victory was to deliver up the inhabi. proclaimed Emir by the inhabitants of tants of Algeria to complete anarchy. Mascara. He then began to preach a Some wished to submit to the cou- religious war, (djehad,) and both father querors, others to dispute the territory and son, having placed themselves at inch by inch. Some united themselves the head of ten thousand horse, in the under a revered Marabout, named Sidi- month of May, 1832, commenced the el-Hadji-Mahiddin, who persuaded them war by the assault of Oran. For three that it would be better to band together days they continued most determined for the extinction of a common enemy and furious attacks, but were repulsed than to indulge in an internecine war. with loss. In this, his first battle, This advice was listened to, and the Abd-el-Kader is said to have shewn an tribes who occupied the territory bor- almost extravagant amount of valour. dering on Mascara, wished to elect the Seeing the Arabs astonished and intiold Marabout their chief. This honour midated by the artillery, the young he declined on account of his old age, Emir turned his horse's head directly but whilst himself refusing, he offered against the grape and bomb-shells, in his place the third of his four sons, which he saw ricocher, and smiled as and declared that he was possessed of the bullets whistled past his ears. all the qualities necessary for the suc- The French general Desmichels cess of their enterprise, knowledge, appeared at first to wish to break activity, valour, and piety. He more through the system of inaction which over declared that in his journey to had been the rule of his predecessors. Mecca, an old fakir had predicted that He advanced against the Arabs, made he would become the Sultan of the a razzia against the hostile tribe of Arabs. This son was Abd-el-Kader, the Gharbas, and resolved to surprise born at the guetna of his father, a short Abd-el-Kader in his camp. Dissuaded distance west of Mascara.
from this, he contented himself with The Guetna of Mahiddin is a kind extending the French territory to two of college where the Marabouts as important posts, to Argen and to Mos. semble their young men for instruction saganeur (July 3rd and 29th, 1833). in literature, theology, and jurispru- Abd-el-Kader, on his part, determined dence. Here Abd-el-Kader became, at to centralize the Arab forces, and to an early age, versed in the study of the extend his power. He marched on Koran. His explanation of and obser- Tiemsem, reduced some hostile tribes, vations on the difficult passages, were placed over them a new Kaid, and said to exceed those of the most skilful returned to Mascara, where he learnt commentators. He had also studied with profound grief the death of his with eagerness the history of his own aged father. country, and was besides a perfect Proceeding in the tortuous line of master of oratory. But he did not policy of putting the natives of Algeria rest with the reputation of a distinto all sorts of inconvenience, and the