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beadle, the prototype of the immortal frequently adverted to. A fat, over-fed Bumble, pushes his elbow in the face footman, who picks his teeth with a of a too curious gazer; the footman nonchalant air, inquires of a butler, opens the carriage door, the coachman "What is taxes, Thomas?” The reply holds in two restive horses. The bishop shows the happy condition of the class, will no doubt be paid for preaching, “ I'm sure I don't know." for the subscription of the cut reads, In 1835 Mr. Cruikshank was struck "Thou shalt do no manner of work-by a happy idea of publishing a Comic thou, nor thy cattle.” The second quota- Memorandum Book, which, intending tion is, “The servant within our gates," at once to-carry out, he took to the late the cut representing the kitchen of a Mr. Tilt, to consult about publishing. nobleman who is evidently about to en- Tilt at once jumped at the idea, and tertain his guests magnificently: there in the course of a conversation, peris a perfect plethora of cooks; one fat suaded the artist to change the name fellow carries a roasted joint; another, to the “Comic Almanac," verbally a Frenchman, tastes with the air of a agreeing, at the same time, to bear connoisseur, something from a stewpan, part of the expenses and to share in which is intended for an entremêt. The the profits of the work. But by a Sunday" Soirée Musicale," the “Parks stroke of publishers' strategy, assisted on a Sunday," the “Gin Temple turn-by the fact that the name of the Comic out at Church time," and a plate called Almanac was Mr. Tilt's copyright, the the “Cordial workings of the Spirit," originator had not, from the very first wherein drunkards, male and female, issue, any participation in the profits maddened in their intoxication, are of the work, which were very great fighting with a demoniacal hatred, are indeed, but became merely the artist all deeply moral satires which leave sad- engaged to illustrate the production. dening, but improving, reflections in In this work, which has been carried our minds. We must not omit two cuts, on without cessation for eighteen years, the one a view of Primrose Hill, with are many of Cruikshank's happiest a crowd of pedestrian holiday makers, hits. Though not so carefully finished and another a pow in a very fashionable as his more elaborate productions, church, full of highly dressed and ex- there are here also some very refreshing ceedingly well-fed people, the fat renter plates, when, launching out from the thereof having his be-ringed hand dan- comic, the artist has given us some gling conspicuously over the door; the homely country scene. Such is “ Mayprint is entitled “miserable sinners." In- Day in the olden time." In an elabodeed the whole work is fruitful in pain- rato review in one of the quarterlies, ful but moral suggestions, and gives written by our greatest living author, rise to feelings which are sometimes Mr Thackeray, (then indeed not so " too deep for tears.".
much known,) great praise is very Cruikshank next worked upon Field- justly attributed to the designs in the ing's and Smollett's novels, some also Almanac. As we have mentioned Mr. by Defoe and Goldsmith; supplied Thackeray's review we may as well tell illustrations for the forty-eight volume a curious anecdote connected with it. edition of the “ Waverly Novels,” and The reviewer had declared Cruikshank twelve plates for Scott's“ Demonology.” to be so intensely national that he was Thomas Hood had about this perioda decided enemy to the French, and written a comic poem called “ The never let slip an opportunity to ridiculo Epping Hunt," and Cruikshank was them. This paragraph being seen by called upon to illustrate it, finding, a friend of the artist, who was a native however, that puns would not make of that country, and who was collecting plates, the artist gave illustrations of Cruikshank's works, he took an early his own to which Hood wrote additional opportunity of withdrawing his amity verses which were then dovetailed into from “le perfide" caricaturist. the poem. Next came “My Sketch When "Bentley” was first started Book" with two hundred groups, with Dickens as editor, Cruikshank was coloured; "Scraps and Sketches," com- engaged as illustrator, and furnished menced in 1828; “Illustrations of plates for “Oliver Twist.” Some of Phrenology” and “Illustrations of these he has never surpassed. “Fagin Time.” One of the caricatures therein in the Condemned Cell,” “Bill Sykes was very popular, and is even now and his Dog," and "The Death of Sykes," are wonderful in their dramatic remarkable plate, containing a view of effect and vividly personify the author's the world, with a multitude of people on writings. From his own face, in a it. There was also a creation of his mirror, charged with feelings which he own, a Mrs. Toddles, a little woman, imagined might be those of a con- who is never in time for the “Omdemned criminal, the artist drew the nibus," but who just rushes in as it is plate of Fagin. Its truth was at once full and about to drive off, which has a seen, and it has, besides, the popularity great deal of fun in it; and a wood-cut which it gave to the magazine (for who of deeper import, called a “Monument could look at the plates without a desire to Napoleon," wherein that Corsican is to read the text?) the honour of giving standing on a pyramid of human skulls, a sobriquet to the greatest living soldier. himself a skeleton, distinguished by his From his hook-nose, his fierce eye, and cocked hat, jack-boots, and sword. his general resemblance to the print, About this time, he furnished plates Sir Charles Napier is universally called, for a work, which contains some of his by his Indian officers, “ Old Fagin.” A happiest efforts in a serious style We determination on the part of Mr. Bentley, allude to the “History of the Irish Rewhich bore slightly upon the quality of li. bellion," by Maxwell. “ The Battle of berality—a quality not lacked by pub- Ross," with an insane rebel rushing lishers—made Mr. Dickens relinquish forward and thrusting his wig into the the conduct of a magazine which be, in mouth of the cannon of the military, conjunction with Cruikshank, had raised and shouting to his fellows, “Come on, to a large circulation For some time the boys, her mouth's stopped ; "the “ Camp publisher had probably no reason to on Vinegar Hill,” the “ Defeat of the repent the step he had taken, for Mr. Ains- Rebels," and one or two other plates, worth, who then became editor, wrote he has never, in our opinion, surpassed. his novel of “Jack Sheppard,” a work After the completion of the “ Omniwhich Cruikshank illustrated, con amore, bus," there appeared, in 1845, a similar and which the reading public so far magazine, the “ Table Book," edited by appreciated that it raised the magazine G. A. a'Becket, which had some very seven hundred copies in circulation fine plates in it, of a larger size, and above the number it had attained with perhaps more carefully finished than in Mr. Dickens. One may well doubt the the “Omnibus.” One was called, “A morality of the novel, but not the excel-Reverie,” wherein the artist, with a dog lence of the accompanying plates, they in his lap, is portrayed as sitting before are full of spirit, and wonderfully at the fire with subjects floating around tractive. Some them, such as “ Sir bim. The portrait was, at the time, Rowland Trenchard in the Well,” you striking. Another was called, the cannot easily forget. The smaller illus- “ Folly of Crime;" and a third bore trations of “Jack's Progress to Tyburn,” | heavily upon the insane railway specuand bis execution, with their multitude lations of the year. of figures, will bear comparison with The next important work which the etchings of Jacques Callot.
Cruikshank produced, by some deemed Another determination on the part the most important of his life, was of Mr. Bentley, led Messrs. Cruikshank brought out in 1847. It was intended and Ainsworth to set up a periodical for to set, in the strongest possible light, themselves; and “ Ainsworth's Maga- the folly of an addiction to what teezine” was started, which contained in totallers emphatically term, “ strong succession, the “ Tower of London,” | drink.” It consisted of a series of eight “ Windsor Castle," and the “ Miser's large plates, produced by glyphography, Daughter.” Cruikshank illustrated all and published at the remarkable price these ; and the effects of light and of one shilling! If the effect were equal shade, and the fine pointing in some of to the sale, it must have been immense. the plates, remind us of Rembrandt. We do not doubt the capability of the He still continued to work for Bentley, work in deterring sober people from his name being printed on the wrapper drinking, but we doubt reformed drunof that magazine; on ceasing to do so, kards; but there can be no doubt as to the artist started a periodical of his own, the excellence of the plates, or of their called the “Omnibus," which was edited perfect suitability to the class to which by the late Laman Blanchard. The they were addressed. From the first, title page, “De Omnibus rebus," is a wherein the decent young mechanic
brings out the bottle, and persuades his tion and the Royal Academy; many of wife to "take a drop," to the last, where these pictures possessed much humour, the “ Bottle has done its work; it has among which may be mentioned “ Disdestroyed the infant and the mother, turbing a Congregation,” “ Dressing for made the father a maniac, and brought the Day," "A New Servant and a Deaf the son and daughter to the streets,” the Mistress,” &c. interest excited is very intense and dra- ! The great success which has attended matically kept up; indeed the dramatic the career of the artist we have been turn of the plates was at once perceived, considering, is to be attributed not only and a piece was produced at the thea- to his genius, which in the particular tres, with tableaux of the plates. branch of art to which he addressed
The work made a very great sensa- himself, is undoubtedly great, nor to tion, and was so successful that in the a playful fancy and an imagination of following year the artist produced a almost exliaustless fertility, but in a sequel, in which the career of the son great measure to an industry which and daughter of the drunkard was fol- never tired, and a determined punctulowed up. One plate therein was re- ality which never failed. His immense markably appalling, the suicide of the industry would be testified even by the unfortunate girl, who in a fit of despair incomplete list of works which we have plunges from Waterloo Bridge. In given, but a perfect list is probably studying for these works, the scenes he unattainable, and a complete collection witnessed, together with the arguments equally so. One which is far from of some of the leading tee-total advo- perfect, and was advertised for sale some cates, amongst whom he was thrown, time ago, filled a good sized cart, when produced in the artist's mind a convic-taken to its destination ; the artist himtion that a total abstinence from intoxi- self has not prints of the whole of his cating drinks, is the sole effectual plan works, which certainly might have been for producing a reformation in the lower expected. Another great source of succlasses of society. He therefore joined cess is the dramatic effect and arrangethat cause, and has since become the ment of Cruikshank's productions; he leading and most noticeable advocate of himself, we believe, attributes a great the Tee-totalers. He is at present en- deal of popularity to this quality, in gaged in producing a pamphlet, called fact, he seems personally to have a great "The Glass," the vignette on the title deal of dramatic art, and when Mr. of which, a skeleton hand holding a Dickens and other littérateurs, for purglass, frothing with serpents, in allusion poses mentioned in the life of that gento the Scriptural motto underneath, is tleman (Biog. Mag., vol. 2) organized very appropriate and striking. The de- a corps of actors, Mr. Cruikshank was termination which led the artist to this recognised as one of the most capable step, must not, however, be deemed sud- and most successful. den; for in his earlier works a vein. It has been the habit of the artist to of moral reproof against the evils of relieve the lassitude occasioned by indrunkenness is traceable, in his“Sunday cessant application to his art by various in London," "The Gin Shop," "The athletic exercises, fencing, rowing, and Upas Tree," and "The Gin Juggernaut." even boxing. He used at one time to
Since the appearance of the “Bottle," make little of rowing up to Richmond and its Sequel, Cruikshank has illus- and back, and is generally skilful in trated several works--" The Greatest those exercises which he wisely indulgPlague in Life," “ How to Marry," and/ed in to keep in health. His appeara work bearing on the crowded state of ance is somewhat remarkable : of the London, during the Exhibition, called, middle height, and very broad shoulder" The Adventures of Mr. and Mrs.ed, a piercing eye, and a kind of fixed Sandboys," which was unsuccessful. He look, a fine forehead, and a face surhas lately furnished illustrations to an rounded with whiskers somewhat of the edition of “ Uncle Tom's Cabin," pub- wildest, give him "a presence which is lished by Mr. John Cassel, which, how- not to be put by." Mr. Cruikshank has ever, cannot be classed amongst his hap- been twice married, but has no chilpiest efforts.
dren. Although by no means a young He has latterly turned his attention man, the energy and determination to oil painting, and has contributed to of the artist, kept up no doubt by his the Exhibitions of the British Institu- excellent constitution and abstemious habits, have scarcely abated. He seeks he should offend none personally. He admission as a student to the Royal attacked the vice and not the men. He Academy, and determines, we believe, is no mere caricaturist, he is that and ardent as Cicero, when at sixty he something more; he has the higher learnt Greek, to turn his talents to a qualities of an originator and of an innew field.
ventor, and moreover is a moral teacher, The talent which he possesses has which Gilray or Rowlandson seldom or certainly never been abused. Whilst never attained to. His greatest praise he was making the people laugh, he was is that he seems ever to have worked generally teaching them. He has care with the knowledge that he must somefully avoided anything which could even day give an account for the use of the by implication sanction vice. He has power granted him; he has therefore assailed sin in the palace equally as in attained position, fame, and independ. the cottage, and it is great praise to say ence by the use, not abuse of his genius, that although in his younger days he and long may he live to enjoy that caricatured those in power, he has since which he has acquired. refused a great price for work which
Jas. H. F. would cost him little labour because
SIR ASTLEY COOPER. To all who feel a curiosity about emi- sympathies of the general reader, there nent men of their own country and is much in our opinion to be educed time, in whatever department they may therefrom in the way of instruction. have attained their celebrity, the pre-1 Sir Astley Cooper was born at Yelsent brief outline of the history of one, verton, in the county of Norfolk, on the who has left behind him a reputation 23rd of August 1768. The gentleman, as a successful practical surgeon, sur who has furnished the reading world passed by none who has been reckoned, with his“ Life,” in a couple of somewhat and not unjustly, one of the most in- formidable looking volumes, gravely structive surgical teachers the world assures us, that Astley's father, the Rev. has ever seen, cannot, there is abundant Samuel Cooper, D.D., was wont to drive reason to believe, fail to be acceptable. to the parish church of Yelverton aforeThe subject, however, which occupies the said, of which he was the incumbent, few following pages, has been selected, every Sunday morning, in a coach in preference to others, --which proba- drawn by “ four powerful, long-tailed, bly on strictly professional grounds, black horses?" This equestrian display may have superior claims upon our was no doubt excessively magnificent attention, not, because it can be af- in its way, and must have hebdomadally firmed with any degree of correctness, impressed the Yelvertonians with a ponthat Sir Astley Cooper was a man of derously solemn sense of the official genius, or even, in a high sense of dignity and ecclesiastical importance of the term, a man of science, or worthy | their parson-but it is highly questionof being classed with the great lumina- | able that their piety was very much ries of his own branch of the medical improved by the exhibition. As deprofession; but simply for the reason scribed, however, the Rev. Doctor's that his career affords, probably, one of weekly cavalcade and appurtenances the most striking instances on record thereto attached, partakes so largely in of what indefatigable industry, coupled its character of the style and taste of the with merely a more than ordinary modern undertaker, that it is perhaps amount of professional skill and intelli- worthy of a passing notice, if only to gence, can sometimes accomplish for its show that “there is nothing new under possessor, in the shape of worldly fame, the sun." Most of our readers doubtwealth and honours. If, therefore, there less, like ourselves, will be still more is but little to be found in the career of surprised to learn, on the same authority. this remarkable man to command the that the mother of Sir Astley Cooper was admiration, and still less to enlist the I the veritable authoress of several novels, which are reported to have enjoyed no friend and companion, is ascribed the small reputation in her own time, and selection of Sir Astley's walk in the -it might perhaps have been added— business of life. From Sir Astley himamongst her own friends. Be that as self, however, we have it, that at Norit may, we fear it is beyond dispute now, wich, two or three years later, he chanced that, as far as the ungrateful world is to visit the hospital, where he saw a Mr. concerned, all memory of her works, Donee successfully perform the difficult however meritorious they might have operation of lithotomy; "and it was been, has been cruelly suffered to perish this,” he says, " which inspired me with long ago. We believe her, however, to a strong impression of the utility of surhave been both an amiable and accom-gery, and led me to embark in it as my plished lady; but whatever literary profession.” An opportunity soon pretalent she may have possessed, Sir sented itself for his so doing. Astley, when a boy, seems to have in- In 1784, his uncle, Mr. William Cooherited not a particle of the maternal per, an eminent London surgeon, and love for letters. He was, like a good lecturer in Guy's Hospital, paid his many other boys, who have afterwards annual visit at Dr. Cooper's parsonage, turned out clever men, much fonder and a proposal that the nephew should of bird's-nesting than book-reading. be articled to himself, and accompany Blessed with an abundant flow of ani- him to town, was unanimously approved mal spirits, he was celebrated amongst of by the family party. To London, his village compeers, only for the greater Astley, now in his seventeenth year, acvariety of puerile tricks, scrapes, and cordingly travelled, where, we gather, feats, in which he alternately played the that, during several months, there was part either of hero or delinquent—and a pretty constant succession of squabis said to have found favour with no bling in the uncle's establishment, in teacher, except a poor dancing French-consequence of the nephew being more man who included the vicarage in his smitten with the freedom and gaieweekly journey. It is not necessary to ties of a metropolitan life, than with the our present purpose to inquire what charms and attractions of anatomical proportion of the success of great men science, in after-life, is to be attributed to im- At this period, indeed, the youth appulses or predilections which grow up in pears to have been quite of the “ Bob their boyhood, suffice it to say merely, Sawyer” order of students, and his that it is customary in modern biography pranks were sufficiently numerous and to assert, that most of those who have indecorous, to have entitled him to the become distinguished, either in litera-highest honours of that particular school. ture, science, or art, have in early life with a staid, business man, like the given strong and unmistakeable indi- lecturer of Guy's Hospital, however, cations of their destiny; and that Mr. such a state of things could not possibly Bransby Cooper, in strict accordance endure, and the connection with his with this stereotyped theory, traces in uncle received its finishing stroke from his “Life of Sir Astley Cooper,” his an occurrence which is thus related :uncle's choice of calling to the following “One day he had obtained the uniform incident. When Astley was but thir- of an officer, and in this disguise was teen years of age, he happened one walking about town, when, on going evening to call at his foster-mother's along Bond-street, he suddenly observed cottage, just after her son, the play his uncle advancing towards him. Not fellow of his childhood, had met with having time to avoid meeting, he dea bad accident in the reaping field. termined to brave out the affair, should The femoral artery had been cut; the his uncle recognise him. Mr. Cooper poor people knew not how to arrest the for a few moments could not decide in his hæmorrhage; life was ebbing fast away, mind whether it was his nephew or not; when young Astley took a silk handker- but soon convinced that it was he, and chief from his neck, and bound it so this, one of his pranks, he went up to adroitly round the limb that the flow of him, and commenced a somewhat angry blood was stopped until a medical man address about his idleness and waste of reached the spot. To the praise which time. Astley, regarding him with feigned this presence of mind and cleverness of astonishment, and changing his voice, hand brought him, and still more to the replied that he must be making some pleasure he felt in saying bis humble mistake, for he did not understand to