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John Bull is frequently represented as other; Mr. Pitt, in fact, although he taking a “ fricassee à la Nelson," com- puts on a bold countenance, is repreposed of a course of French ships; and sented as almost sinking to the ground Buonaparte, mostly if not always in a in his fright. In other prints, however, ridiculous attitude and costume, appears the conqueror of the greater part of disputing the world with John Bull. Europe was represented as a mere The Irish union, which took effect on pigmy compared to King George and Jan. 1, 1801, is chronicled by Gilray in his valiant Britons. In one, King a print called the “The Union Club,” George holds the Lilliputian hero in wherein Britannia and Hibernia, dis- his hand, and looks at him with a magtinguished by their Shield and Harp, nifying glass; the print bears the name give each other the kiss of peace. I of "The King of Brobdignag and Gul.
The fashions of the day may be seen liver." Our readers will recollect that in all their elegance or monstrosity by Mr. Leech repeated the idea in Punch reference to some of the works of Gilray, some two or three years back, by rebut we can but refer to them, as they presenting the Duke of Wellington, would not be understood, unless accom- looking at General Tom Thumb dressed panied by illustrative cuts. Ballooning as Buonaparte; the print was called the figures as “Folly in a new shape" in " Giant and the Dwarf.” 1785, and the rage for masquerades, From this period to his death, the and the inordinate passion for gaming great majority of the works of Gilray which some ladies of title indulged in, satirize the Emperor Napoleon; one of such as Lady Buckinghamshire, Lady them, published towards the latter end Luttrell, and Lady Archer, were severely of 1803, is called the “ Hand-writing on and justly dealt with by the carica- the Wall," and predicts the approachturists. Other subjects which we meeting downfall of Napoleon ; his empress, with, thereby commemorated are, the his sisters, and his generals are bitterly “ Infant Roscius," the management of satirized by its forcible drawing, and it Drury Lane, the 0. P. riots, and Boy- is said that few things annoyed the dell's Shakespere Gallery. A glimpse great conqueror so much as a copy of into the passing follies of the day, is by this print which was shewn to him. no means the least instructive or amus. Pitt in opposition, the new coalition, ing lesson which may be gathered from the volunteers, and other events make the pages of the caricaturists.
up subjects of the numerous plates of ROWLANDSON, an artist of eccentric the indefatigable artist. The approachpower, but notorious for a vulgar and ing death of Fox did not shield that almost Dutch freedom of drawing, had great statesman from these pictorial made his appearance on the field of attacks; a plate, called “ Visiting the politics, in 1799, but Gilray for some Sick,” published on the 28th July, years afterwards bore off the greater represents Fox on the bed of death, share of work. In 1802 the peace mourned over by few, and insulted by which took place between France others. The 13th of September found and England was celebrated by that that great man no more; he was sucartist, as "The First Kiss these ceeded as foreign secretary by Lord Grey, ten years :" a French citizen is em- then Lord Howick. The name of that bracing a fair English dame, and statesman, and of Sir Francis Burdett, saying, “Madame, permit me to seal in the field of politics, and of the elder on your divine lips everlasting attach-Cruikshank, and of Rowlandson in the ment." This caricature enjoyed vast field hitherto so industriously occupied popularity, many copies were sent by Gilray himself, brings us down to to France, and Buonaparte was, it is comparatively recent times. said, highly amused by it. In 1803, Gilray's labours to the last turned the first consul again declared war with against Napoleon, representing him as England, and prepared to invade her. entering into the “ Valley of the Shadow Gilray's print on the question repre- of Death" in his struggle with the sents Pitt on one side the Channel and northern powers ; how truly and clearly Buonaparte on the other; the latter foreseen, we need not here remark; as distinguished by his immense sworri bound in chains to the triumphal car and enormous cocked hat. The print is of Great Britain; and as suffering every called, “ Armed Heroes," and both the possible misfortune which the artist personages are terribly afraid of each could invent. In 1809, the pencil of the caricaturist ceased from its labours. elevation of his countrymen, That Sayer had already given over, and man is others were rising, but none with the GEORGE CRUIKSHANK. graphic force of Gilray; he would have still monopolised the field, had not his The name, the reader will at once own acts destroyed him. He had an perceive, is Scotch. A generation of the almost insatiate thirst for spirits, and Cruikshanks flourished in the '45, and left his own publisher with whom he the grandfather of the present artist lodged, iu Bond-street, frequently, to went out with Charles Edward, and, sell plates to Fores, in Piccadilly, for like that once popular prince, finished the purpose of procuring ardent drink his campaigns on Drummossie Moor. with the money. His last work is Tradition states that members of the dated 1811, after that he sank into a artist's mother's family, were also active state of mingled delirium and imbecility, in aiding the young fugitive, and in and attempted suicide, by endeavouring shielding and hiding him in his many to throw himself out of window. For perilous escapes. These circumstances four years he lingered in this state, and no doubt impoverished his family, and finally died on the first of June 1815, the father of Isaac came from Edinburgh and was buried in the churchyard of to London, like hundreds of his countrySt. James's, Piccadilly, near the rectory men, bent upon trying his fortune. He house.
| left his son an orphan in London, and James Gilray had occupied the public there, in the parish of Bloomsbury, his almost incessantly with his plates from son George was born, in the year 1794. the year 1779 to the year 1811. His He was the second son of Isaac Cruikdrawings have force, great skill, and shank, caricaturist and engraver, having display an immense power of invention. for an elder brother Robert, a follower of He lived in a stirring political time, and the same art, and once known popularly seems to have hit upon popular subjects as the illustrator of Coleridge's "Devil's with an unerring sagacity. His poli-Walk," and of “Monsieur Tonson," tics were most probably liberal, but as about the eccentric author of which he sold the efforts of his pencil, and Jerdan discourses pleasantly in his reperhaps cared most for the side which cent autobiography, paid best, it is somewhat difficult to In that art in which he was to gain judge. He was a man who had, how distinction, George Cruikshank had litever humble some may deem his wea- tle or no instruction. He picked up his pon, an immense influence on his fel- knowledge by seeing his father work, low countrymen, and through them on and once in his early life made a drawthe world, and in looking over, even ing from a cast, as a specimen to obtain casually as we have done, his numerous his admission as a student of the Royal works, we cannot but endorse the Academy, under the superintendence of opinion of Croker, expressed in his Fuseli, a learned professor, who with "New Whig Guide," *that political his nine languages, might well claim to caricatures are parts of political history. be classed amongst those who are acThey supply information as to the per- credited sonal habits, and often as to the motives and objects of public men, which cannot
Well versed in Greek, deep men of letters. be found elsewhere."
The classes of such a professor were To trace the lives of Rowlandson and sure to be well attended, and when Fuof Isaac Cruikshank, to give each par- seli received the drawing of Cruikshank ticular of Woodward and of Bunbury, the room was crowded. He examined would be no easy task, neither, it must the drawing, was well pleased with it, be confessed, would it be a grateful one. and sent down the following characterBut there is one man whom we must istic message to the draughtsman, “Tell not omit, and whose works are the most him, he may come up, but he must universal of any caricaturist who has fight for a seat." The young artist did yet existed, one whose works and name fight for room that evening, but engageare a synomyn for popularity, andments which brought in money, occuwho has exercised the very great pied his time fully, and he neglected to talent he possesses, not alone in creat-go any more. While upon the subject ing laughter and dispersing care, but we may as well mention that the second also for the moral improvement and drawing for admission to the Royal life.
Academy as a student, was made a few and being a thorough liberal, which weeks ago, by the indefatigable artist, embraced at that time the worst quali. who mindful of the time of life at which ties of the present free-thinker, he deterCicero acquired Greek, seeks for admis- mined to make a short road to fortune, sion to the schools of the Academy by publishing what he thought would for the purpose of studying from the be extensively popular; namely, paro
| dies on the liturgy of the Church of Cruikshank was soon after this well England. No churchman himself, (his known, and he with the enthusiasm of father was a presbyterian,) but yet havyouth was bitterly satirizing the then ing that respect for the religious opinions ministry, whom he believed in his ar- of every sect which every sensible and dent attachment to liberty to be some of deep thinking man has, Cruikshank the worst men under heaven, whilst was hurt and alarmed at this, proceedthe demagogues of the day were the ing, and remonstrated with the pub. best, when he applied to Fuseli. The lisher. “Take my word for it," said he Orders in Council, Lord Castlereagh, to Hone, "you will be prosecuted for and Mr. Perceval were objects of his this, withdraw it." "I do not care," artistio ire, but above them all, the was the reply, “the children must have giant of his hate, towered Buonaparte. bread to eat," and the remonstrance For some years, the artist has himself failed, and the book appeared. It was told the writer, he lived upon that great soon seen how truly Cruikshank had usurper Buonaparte; one feat in which spoken. A notice came from the attorhe at the time particularly delighted, ney-general, for Hone to prepare for his was that he buried the Corsican in snow, arraignment for blasphemy, and the this was on the outset of the Russian bookseller repented bitterly of his rejecexpedition. The prophecy was a shrewd tion of his friend's advice. He conone. Not so successful, however, was sulted Cruikshank, who dictated a letter one wherein he had left the emperor to the attorney-general, begging him not dead with cold, and about to
to commence proceedings, which he Fatten all the region kites.
sent by one of his little children to
his private house. The boy found that He also made caricatures for a satiri-crown officer but just arisen from cal publication called “The Scourge;"| bed, and was admitted to him whilst and before he had attained his twen- he was shaving. He opened and tieth year published, in conjunction with read the letter, and said, "Tell your a literary friend of the name of Earle, father, my boy, that I'm very sorry a half-crown publication called “The for him, but the action must go Meteor." The negligent habits of his on." literary friend, habits which on account. The action proceeded. Cruikshank of the uncertainty of the profession aro did not desert his friend; in his studio too often acquired by the littérateur, led he rehearsed Hone's trial, and the two to the failure of this work after an ex-together concocted the defence. The istence of some few months. . l government were astonished to find * The main characteristics of his etch that they had prosecuted a man who ings at this time Cruikshank has re-was deeply read in all that related to tained; they were distinguished by the particular subject in hand. Hone boldness and power, free drawing, and appeared to be deeply shocked at the an excellent knowledge of the use of bare accusation of being blasphemous; the etching point. His works were and his defence, full of curious reading very popular, and he supplied in him and learning, was listened to with deep self the place of H. B. and Punch ; attention. The result of three separato consequently when Mr. Hone, the pub-trials was that he was acquitted ; no lisher, approached George Cruikshank, jury would convict him, and by a chance, he did it with the respect which pub- that which should have crushed the lishers know how to use towards a suc- bookseller, brought him the notice of cessful artist, either of the pencil or pen. thewhig opposition, and made him, from Hone was decidedly an original, a man an unknown man, one of the most of talent, and moreover somewhat ec- popular in England. No sane man centric, and our hero and himself soon can now applaud Hone's conduct, or became friends.
that of his partizans, and as a proof of Hone, at the time, was not very rich, how much the taste of our countrymen
has changed, we are happy to point to of these pamphlets was equal to their the fact, that the once popular Three merit, upwards of a quarter of a million Trials of William Hone for Blasphemy," of copies were sold, some ran to the has fallen into the hands of one of those thirtieth edition. The tail piece of booksellers who prey on garbage, a man “Non mi ricordo," represents truly the who has dealt so largely in the indecent feelings of the subject of these satires. and immoral that his name has become The King is represented as on a gridpollution, and the very street in which iron, literally grilled by the fires of crosshe lives a synomym for every thing de- examination, his contortions are at the grading.
same time painful and ridiculous; the From Hone himself, now the com- print is called “The Fat in the Fire." panion and gossip of Sir Francis Bur- After 1822, when the broad sheet called dett and the reformers, Cruikshank did “ A Slap at Slop” was published, Cruiknot, however, separate. Dining one day shank retired almost completely from with him in the Dog chop-house in political caricaturing, and no more Holywell-street, Cruikshank proposed
To party gave up what was meant for mankind. to Hone to publish a sort of comic newspaper interspersed with caricatures, and In the year 1821, the artist contemconsisting of all sorts of curious and plated a work which should shew the eccentric paragraphs. The idea was a evils which result from that process happy one, and was acted upon at once. which young men call “ seeing life.” The paper appeared entitled, “ A Slap In this undertaking he was assisted by at Slop," and sold enormously. About his brother Robert, the story being told two years before this Hone had pub- in a series of plates, in the same manlished a series of political squibs, which ner as the “Progresses," &c. of Hogarth. did much injury to the government, but | To these a story was written by Pierce which were beyond the pale of prose- Egan, but the author entirely lost sight cution. Exhibited in the windows of of the moral aim of the artist, and beHone on Ludgate Hill, they drew crowds fore the work was completed George of admirers and purchasers. They Cruikshank had retired from it in disbore the titles of “The Political House gust. It was called “Life in London ; that Jack Built," "The Matrimonial or, the Day and Night Scenes of Jerry Ladder,” in allusion to Queen Caroline's Hawthorn, Esq., Corinthian Tom, and unhappy union, “ The Man in the Bob Logic, in their rambles through Moon," “ The Political Showman at the metropolis.” The plates illustrating Home,” and “Non mi ricordo.” These it were coloured, and the work had an were published during the years 1819- amazing popularity. How it could have 20. For the thirteen cuts which graced gained this we may well wonder now; the “ House that Jack Built,” Cruik- the letter-press was silly, vapid, and shank was paid half-a-guinea each, and vicious, yet people actually scrambled as above one hundred thousand copies for the book at the booksellers' shops, of the work were sold, it is to be pre- the theatres dramatized it, and it was sumed that the publisher pocketed by pirated in America, where it had an exthe transaction nearly three hundred traordinary sale. It was followed by pounds. “Non mi ricordo” was founded another entirely facetious work, called on the convenient memory of Theodore “Life in Paris, but this latter had not Majocci, one of the principal witnesses a tythe of the popularity of its protoagainst the Queen, who, when cross-type, which, as a literary composition, examined touching some actions of the it far exceeds. King, which bore very much against Next comes “Illustrations of Italian his majesty, pleaded that he “ did not Tales of humour and romance," and remember.” The satire conveyed in “ Tales of Irish Life," drawn to illusallusions and questions in this tract are trate a volume by Mr. Whitty, at preof the bitterest kind; the towering false sent editor of a provincial newspaper. hair of the king, the whiskers, tbe pad. This was published in 1824, and in the ded garments, and the enormous bulk, same year appeared a work called were rendered ridiculously real by the “Points of Humour,” which is one of cuts. The affectation of youth by the the most meritorious of the artist's "dandy of sixty who bows with a grace," works. The illustrations contained in were obvious, ludicrously obvious, to that volume to Burns's Merry Beggars, the meanest capacity, and the popularity are excellent. In 1824 also Cruikshank published his illustrations to Peter which it illustrates is told simply and Schemilbl a German story of one who is of itself deeply pathetic. sold his shadow to the Prince of Dark Illustrations to “Hans of Iceland," ness. One illustration wherein the Evil a wild story by Victor Hugo, and some One detaches and wraps up the shadow few plates to the Dublin Magazine, which he has purchased, is full of excel- an extinct periodical, formed the occulence; the chuckle upon the face of the pation of Cruikshank during 1825. In fiend seems at the same time to denote the next year he illustrated a book calthe worthlessness of the purchase, and led “Greenwich Hospital," a collection yet the inconceivable misery which the of sea stories, by Lieut. Barker. want of the shadow would occasion to In 1830, he produced the plates of a his victim.
work which has survived to this day, In 1825 Cruikshank illustrated“ Popu- and which is worthy of more reputation lar German Stories," and a book called than it has. This was “ Three Courses “ Mornings at Bow Street." The latter and a Dessert.” The three Courses conwas in some sort the offspring of Life sisted of west country, Irish and legal in London." The young men of the stories, and a mélange of prose and day had taken it into their very empty verse by way of Dessert. The book was - heads that to imitate the actions of Corin. written by a Mr. William Clark, a sothian Tom and Bob Logic was very licitor, which would account for his exgreat and glorious, and to carry out this cellent legal stories. He came from ideal they began assaulting the watch- the west of England, and we should men, in their slang, the Charleys, at a presume from the excellence of the Irish very great rate. A Mr. Wight, who had stories had spent some years in that been, we believe, a merchant at Liver-country. It is high praise to the illuspool, was at that time the reporter to trations and the text to say that they the Morning Chronicle, and used to head were worthy of each other. The cuts, his reports of these assaults with the in number more than fifty, exhibit & words MORE“ LIFE.” It says, perhaps, lightness of fancy and imagination little for the taste of the age, that these which have never been excelled; the were read eagerly, and that by them the head and tail pieces are especially to be circulation of the Chronicle was raised commended. from 600 to more thair 7000. Mr. In quick succession after this book Wight obtained the editorship of the Cruikshank illustrated " Tales of Other paper, and a promise of a partnership Days," from the pen of a Mr. Akerman; from Mr. Thwaites, which the latter and “the Gentleman in Black," a novel gentleman did not live to fulfil. Of the by one of the writers in Blackwood's reports themselves we must in justice Magazine. The illustrations of both say that they were often humorous and these are very good. The tales are of seldom vulgar, but readers of the pre- diablerie, and of wild German faney, sent day, accustomed to a more refined and the cuts which illustrated them of and polished wit, will find in them a very different calibre to the later little to amuse or even to repay pe- works of the same artist. Next came rusal. The sale of the paper being so illustrations to Fielding's"Tom Thumb," effectually improved, Mr. Wight natu- so excellent that they should never be rally presumed that the reports pub- separated from that work, and as a penlished separately and illustrated by the dant to them, the like number of cuts to first artist of the day, would be no bad the Burlesque of “Bombastes Furioso." speculation, a selection was made, and The artist was then engaged upon published under the title of “ Mornings “Sunday in London," a fine work which at Bow Street," and the sale of the book with one or two plates re-drawn, for the answered the expectations of the pro- fashions have somewhat altered in more prietors. The illustrations of the work than twenty years, would do good ser. are excellent, and some of them were vice if reprinted now. The parts of the the best that Cruikshank had at that decalogue therein illustrated are turned time done. Those bearing the titles of to bitter satire : a bishop just alighted “A Cool Contrivance," “ Jonas Tunks," from his coach (the mitre glitters on “ Bundling up," and "a Dun at Dinner the hammer-cloth), is about to enter a Time," are perhaps the best. There is fashionable church, to preach no doubt one also of a very pathetic nature called a charity sermon; tho inferior clergy "A Distressed Father." The report wait at the porch to bow him in, and a