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mer parliament, proposed a tax upon two court candidates with placards of servant maids. This was a point not a virulent nature, and with caricatures to be neglected, and innumerable satiri- of a humorous and of an insulting kind. cal plates represented “ Judas," as Wray In one Wray was represented as driven was called, from his desertion of Fox, away by a maid-servant's broom, and a as obnoxiously interfering with our do- pensioner's crutch ; in another, he was mestic concerns; in the songs the ladies, flying from a crowd, bearing on their who in this extraordinary election were banners, “ No tax on maid-servants ;" no less active in their endeavours than in a third, he was riding a race, mounted the men, are warned not to solicit votes upon a slow and obstinate ass, whilst for Sir Cecil,

the successful candidates upon spirited For though he opposes the stamping of notes,

horses are far in the distance. 'Tis in crder to tax all your petticoats ;

The other side were not idle. Their Then how can & woman solicit our votes, caricatures came forth sheet upon sheet, For Sir Cecil Wray ?

holding up to scorn gambling, the besetThe exertions of the Court against ting sin of Fox. And we now first perFox seem to have been of a very extra- ceive the unhappy difference which took ordinary kind. The King received in- I place between the Prince of Wales and telligence of the progress of the elec- his father. Incensed, it is said by Pitt's tion several times a day; and the royal haughty bearing towards him, the young name was used very freely to secure Prince became a warm partizan of Fox, votes for Wray and Hood. On one and a most determined opponent of Pitt. occasion 280 of the household troops An early caricature by Gilray, represents were sent to vote in a body, as house the heir to the throne “Returning from holders, and all dependents of the Brookes's," in a state of drunkenness, Court were ordered to vote on the same and supported on one side by Fox, and side. Not satisfied with this, the minis- on the other, by“Sam House," an ardent terial party showed that they were not admirer of the latter. This “Sam House,” backward in creating a popular disturb- was a publican, and a character of his ance when such a measure could serve day. During the election, he kept open them. Lord Hood brought up a party his house for Fox's supporters at his own of sailors, who interrupted the liberal expense, and was gratified by the comvoters and were the occasion of much pany of many of the Whig aristocracy. disturbance. On the other hand, the He was remarkable for a clean, a perpartisans of Fox met them by a nume- fectly bald head, on which he never rous band of chairmen, chiefly Irish. wore hat or wig. He dressed in nanOn the third day the sailors surrounded keen breeches, and brightly polished the tavern where Fox's committee had shoes and buckles. His waistcoat he their meetings, and began shouting at, wore open, displaying remarkably clean jostling, and even striking the gentle and fine linen. His legs, often bare, men who were proceeding to join that were, when clad, covered with the finest body. Annoyed by this the committee silk stockings. When asked who he was, sallied out and beat the sailors. Next at the canvassing booth, he answered, day the chairmen also beat those aggres- as he gave his plumper for Fox, “a sors, who marched off to St. James-street, Publican and a Re-publican." He was with the idea of breaking up the chairs remarkably successful in his canvassing, belonging to their opponents, but they and his figure is therefore a prominent were again met and defeated, and here one in the caricatures of the day. heads, arms, and legs, were broken. But the most successful of Fox's parThe guards were at length called out tizans was the very beautiful Georgiana and put an end to the disturbance, and Spencer, Duchess of Devonshire. As the next day special constables were active and generous as she was handsworn in. These latter did more harm some and accomplished, she entered than good. They were so decidedly with spirit into the contest, and attended anti-Foxite, so much inclined to the by several beautiful ladies of title, went Court party, that they interrupted and and personally solicited votes for Fox. insulted all voters who were not on The success she had greatly irritated their side.

the Tories, and their papers and caricaBesides meeting Sir Cecil Wray and tures were most insulting to the DuLord Hood with armed force, the poli- chess. In one, she is represented (acticians on the side of Fox opposed the cording to a current report of the day)

as bribing a butcher with a kiss. In Orleans, old Egalité, father of Louis another, she is feeing a cobler's wife Philippe. Dissuaded from this, he dewith gold, whilst the husband mends termined to commence a life of economy, her shoe. In a third, Fox is represent-suppressed the works at Carlton House, ed as the successful candidate carried shut up his state apartments, and sold triumphantly upon the back of the Du- his race horses, hunters, and even coach chess. The papers were even less civil.horses, and, at the same time, invested Hints and inuendos were thrown out, £10,000 per annum, out of an income which are no less disgraceful to the writers of£50,000, for the payment of his debts. than to the time in which they appeared. This determination rendered the prince In fact, few can look back upon the po- far from unpopular, and his friends litical features of the age, the faction, trumpeted the action far and wide, but hatred, bribery, and intimidation mani- the Government caricaturists published fested at an election, without feeling scenes of his promiscuous amours in not thankful that we have, if not quite, yet very decorous prints. In one, by Gilray, in a great degree, escaped the conta- he and his friends are pictured as “The gion,

Jovial Crew; or, the Merry Beggars;" The election of 1784, which made the in another he is shown as having just caricaturists so busy, threw out no less arrived at Botany Bay; he is carried on than 180 of Fox's most staunch sup-shore by two convicts, and supported porters, who, on this occasion, received on either side by Fox and North. These the burlesque title of Fox's Martyrs." | attacks were continued from time to The number of members entirely new time, just as particulars of the licento the House gave rise to some ironicaltious life of this Prince came before the observations from Fox, and Pitt, in public. In 1787, Gilray represents him defending his supporters, grew angry as “The Prodigal Son," he is seated on enough. The prints of the time give the ground by a hog trough, and the us the portrait of Fox as “Catiline re- animals are devouring the Prince's prehended," sitting, with his face almost feathers. There is fine satire in the hidden by his hand and hat, listening touch which shows us the Prince's garto one of these Philippics. Pitt, ofter all but devoured, of the motto only course, being the eloquent Cicero. The the word "honi" is visible. In another, print is by Sayer. A companion to it we see him pictured as receiving money shews us the philosophic Burke sending from the Duke de Chartres. With a the whole house to sleep by his rather bitter satire, the Prince is represented too discursive harangues. The print is as fat and bloated, but the motto under a voucher for the truth of Goldsmith's the feathers is “Ich starve." assertion, that Burke

In 1787, on the recommencement of ... Kept on refining,

the parliamentary session, Burke again And thought of convincing, whilst thoy thought brought forward his impeachment of of dining.

Warren Hastings. It is not my proIt is entitled, “ .. on the Sub-vince to enter upon that to me) very lime and Beautiful."

theatrical trial. We want some new The thoughts and attention of the and uninterested historian to write an nation were now again turned on the account of an affair, which made so much thoughtless extravagance and riotous noise at the time, and was so eagerly living of the Prince of Wales. Se seized upon by Burke and Sheridan parated from the family of the King, and for oratorical display, let it suffice for surrounded by such bon vivants as my present purpose to say that neither Captain Morris, and others of the same the pencils of Gilray or of Sayer were stamp, the Prince's natural impulses idle. One of the most celebrated prints to vice received an impetus which he of the former represents“ The political had little wish or power to resist. The Banditti, assaulting the Saviour of In. caricaturists of the day let us know dia," the person designated by that something of his private life at this title being Warren Hastings. Burke period. He is frequently represented fires a blunderbuss at him in front, and with Fox, Sheridan, Burke, Lord North, Fox endeavours to stab him from beand Captain Morris. In the summer hind, while Lord North robs him of of 1786, his debts had become so great his money-bags. Hastings, however, that he was on the point of borrowing defends himself with the “shield of a large sum of money from the Duke of honour.” On the other side, the Go

vernor-General was represented as Ver- | the war-spirit thus infused, and these res, and the eloquent Sheridan was the sentiments ripened into a deep hatred modern Cicero who impeaches him. / of the French and of France. The truth seems to be that both Hast-/ In September, 1792, the French Conings and his opponents spent money vention elected two English members freely amongst the artists and writers to their body. They were, Thomas of the period. Those who wish to see | Paine, and Dr. Priestley. Henceforward some proof of this, will find an interest- nothing was too bad or too abusive to ing memorial, in the trial of “Pasquin be said of the English liberals. Dr. v. Faulder," attached to Gifford's “ Bæ- Priestley's house, in Birmingham, was viad."

attacked and burnt, and Paine fled to To chronicle every single work of France. In calling this behaviour atroartists so notoriously fertile and industri- cious, I do not seek to defend the pecuous as those we are contemplating, forms liar religious tenets of either of these no part of the plan of this work; I must men; but their political belief should therefore let appear & huge hiatus, have been held as sacred from mob vionot perhaps valde deflenda, and hasten | lence, as was their religious creed. to the busiest period of the life of the Younger and better men than they, principal caricaturist, James Gilray. world-famous now, drank eagerly of the

This was about the time of the terri- same draught of liberty: Southey the deep ble first French Revolution, when the scholar, Wordsworth the poet of naminds of the English were kept at al- ture, and Coleridge, philosopher, metamost a fever-heat, by various appeals to physician, and bard ; than whom postheir loyalty, their patriotism, or their sibly flourishing at one period, three fear. Mr. Cobden's recent pamphlet greater cannot be found, had imbibed has shown very successfully, I think, these doctrines, and were at that time that the French nation did not seek at ardent republicans. Yet Sayer could that period to quarrel with, and revolu- produce plates, representing the belief tionise Great Britain. But there were no of these men as demoniacal; and Fox doubt violent propagandists who would and North, clad in shirts and boots, but have gone any length to have established veritable sans-culottes, force obnoxious their unripe doctrines of Republi- liberty down the throat of John Bull. canism over the world. The opinions Gilray, whose continued drunkenness of these, evidently a contemptible mi- had by this time produced fits of insanority, were promulgated by the English nity, seems to have gone mad for the ocministry and aristocracy as those of casion, and his plates, wild, bloody, and the whole French nation. The aristo- fiery, exhibit some of the worst scenes cracy of England were fearful lest their which took place in the worst days in fate might be that of those of France; Paris. The guillotine, the pike, the and the wild and insane speeches of the bleeding and severed head, the firebrand, injudicious partizans, but worst enemies and the extempore gallows (la lanterne), of an ideal republic, were weapons in bloom in hideous profusion all through their hands which they well knew how the series. One side of the Channel to use.

presents of course a flattering contrast Both the ministry and the opposition to this noise and turmoil; a plate by seemed of one mind in regard to the Sayer of the 10th of December, 1792, new government, the Convention of represents the soldier and sailor as the France. The recent and brilliant work only defence of England against the of Burke, “ Reflections on the French horrors of Republicanism. Revolution," full of glittering phrases, Gilray, eccentric in every thing, apwritten evidently ad captandum, made pears for a moment to have had a gleam a great impression upon the young and of sense, and published a deep satire on generous minds of the English youth. the alarmists, in opposition to one of Upwards of 30,000 copies were sold be- Sayer'sprints. It represents Pitt as workfore the first demand was satisfied. The ing upon John Bull's fears, as in truth he picture of Marie Antoinette, the pause, did; he has John by the arm, and preand theatrical apostrophe to that un- tends to descry through a telescope the fortunate Queen, made the swords of enemies of his country. A clever the young volunteers ready, indeed, to burlesque of Pitt's speech at the openleap from their scabbards for her rescue. ing of parliament shows both his own Those in power took care to cultivate | alarm and that of his protegé. "There, John! there! I see them, get your arms upon a flaunting flag, are all we have ready, John! there's ten thousand sans to show for what we might have done. culottes on their way, and there! the The caricaturists began the attack by Irish and Scotch have caught the itch, ridiculing Fox, Paine, and Priestley. and have began to pull off their breeches." | The author of the “ Rights of Man," who John is terribly alarmed, but his com- had been a stay-maker at Thetford, was mon sense whispers a better way than by no means a pure or unassailable subfighting. “Where's the use of firing ject. Gilray brought out a print, on now? What can us two do against the 10th Dec. 1792, called "Tom Paine's them hundreds of millions of thousands Nightly Pest,” which represents the of monsters? had we not better try if they English republican stretched upon his won't shake hands with us and be friends?" pallet of straw, dreaming of judges' wigs, The nation was too alarmed to take this and all sorts of horrors and punishhint. The aristocracy and the young ments. On the 2nd of the following farmers rushed to militia bands, felt January, another print by the same proud of their uniform, and clumsy hand, represents Paine fitting Britannia leather fire-man's helmet, and the land with a pair of French stays. The lady bristled with bayonets, and the coasts objects to the republican tight-lacing, of Kent were white with tents. Church, and clings to the British oak for protecking, and laws were appealed to; a king tion. Meanwhile, the object of these whose hot and ungovernable temper bad pictorial satires had, by advocating lost us America; a church, pure in doc- leniency to the unfortunate king, incurtrine, but corrupt and persecuting in her red the odium of his fellows, and was practice; and laws which permitted Old at Paris, thrown into a dungeon by Sarum, and pocket-boroughs, and legal- Robespierre and his associates. In priized judicial murder for a petty theft. son he wrote the most blasphemous of

his books, the “ Age of Reason." All Ye Britons be wise, as you're brave and humane, I readers know the strange accident, which You then will be happy without any Paine; We know of no despots, we've nothing to fear, looks almost like the interposition of And this new-fangled nonsense will never do here. | Providence, which saved him from the

guillotine; but neither prison nor the Then stand by the church, the king, and the laws, The old lion still has his teeth and his claws; | strange escape taught him humility or Let Britain still rule in the midst of her waves, veneration, he went to America, and And chastigo all those foes who dare call her song slaves,

there lived, publishing harmless slanDerry Down.

ders against religion and his native

country, till death put an end to the The success of these song writers and strange freaks of “ Citizen Paine." caricaturists was complete. Britain " The Republican Soldier,” “False strove to chastise France, but in the Liberty rejected, or no fraternizing with struggle suffered too. In turning over the French cut-throats," and others mark the crimsoned productions of mad old the temper of the nation at the time; Gilray, we are reminded that for some meanwhile Fox's affairs were getting time we are to undergo the saddest pro- more and more involved, and the great vince of the historian, and to contem- statesman was reduced to a condition plate, like the shipwrecked wretch of of absolute poverty. His friends held Lucretius, the mad turmoil, the blood, a meeting at the Crown and Anchor, the tears, and wounds, occasioned by and the popularity which he still enthat saddest of all infectious diseases, joyed was proved by a large subscripthe martial fever of nations. The thou- tion, by which an annuity was pursand gentle charities broken off, the chased. This Gilray ridiculed as “Blue sweetintercourse interrupted, the flowers and Buff Charity,” in a print wherein of peace uprooted, the industry of the Fox is receiving aid from Priestley, merchant thwarted, hisruined family and Horne Tooke, Michael Angelo Taylor, bankrupt state, the scholar unheard Earl Stanhope, and Mr. Hall, the son. amongst this din of war, and more than in-law of that eccentric nobleman. Mr. all these the sharp calls of the weakest Hall had been an apothecary in Long and poorest of mankind forjustice, reform Acre, and is represented as ragged and and progress neglected and passed by, I poor, with a phial in his hand. Stanstart up and haunt these plates like hope had sincerely embraced republican ghosts. Some millions slain, and a few | principles, and had married his daughter names broidered in glistering tinsell to a plebeian to prove his sincerity.

Rank, character, distinction, fame, But this caterpillar has another phase

And noble birth forgot, Hear Stanhope, modest Earl, proclaim of existence as a chrysalis in Holland, Himself a sans culotte.

and at last bursts into existence as a

glorious butterfly in republican France. Of pomp and splendid circumstance The vanity he teaches;

This hint is significant enough; but the And spurns, like citizen of France, people, pressed for bread and irritated Both coronet and breeches.

with loss of work through the stoppage These ideas of freedom were enough of factories, were at last tired of war, in the then state of opinion to render did not care for glory, and little thought him obnoxious to the mob. In June of patriotism. When George the third 1794, his house was attacked and fired in went to open parliament on the 29th several places by bands of ruffians, and of October 1795, his carriage was sura gentleman or nobleman was seen to rounded by an infuriate mob, who cried, distribute money to them from his car- "Down with George, no peace, no king, riage windows; if the people could be down with him;" thewindow was smashworked up to such outrages, what won-ed, and the panel perforated by a bullet, der if they could be persuaded reform it is presumed, from an air gun, the was odious, and that economy and liberty, populace all the while crying, “Bread, were but so many synomyms for rob- bread! Peace, peace!" The arrival of bery, spoliation, and murder? The the guards rescued the King, and on the English were hurried into a war, the 1st of November, Gilray gave a burDuke of York was dispatched to Flan- lesque version of this attack, wherein ders, to co-operate with our German the ministry are attacked by Fox, Stanallies, but for a time did nothing but hope, and other Whig leaders. commit a series of mistakes. Gilray În December, 1796, ISAAC CRUIKhimself went over there on a sketching SHANK, the father of the present caricatour, and has given us a plate of “ The turist, came before the world with a plate Fatigues of the Campaign in Flanders,” bordering upon servility to the triumwhich is a picture of drunken revelry phant minister. Pitt is represented and licentiousness. Whilst the duke as the royal extinguisher, putting was commanding in his gallant way, out the flame of sedition. Bitter his mistress, the celebrated Mary Anne prints on the other side represent that Clarke, was selling commissions in the minister as feeding (in consequence of army at a very reduced rate,* and di- the scarcity of bread) on gold; and verting the money of the nation to her others represent him as indulging in own pocket; for this the lady was his favourite vice of the bottle. Gilray brought to the bar of the House of represents him as Bacchus, and his Commons, a trial which Gilray has per- friend Dundas as Silenus. petuated.

To carry on the war new taxes were neThese incidents made the "swinish cessary, and an additional land tax was multitude,” as Burke politely termed imposed. The people, smarting under. the lower orders of our countrymen, their old burdens, resented this by namlittle satisfied with the war. New taxes ing Pitt · Midas,' and saying, by their made the householders equally against newspapers and caricatures, that he it, and the caricaturists, who turned wished to turn everything he touched into their satires to profit, took advantage gold ; this idea is probably re-echoed by of what they themselves had contributed | Cowper :to occasion, and pictured John Bull as

Ten thousand casks reduced to a state of beggary. The King Touched by the Midas finger of the state, was represented as the Horse of Hanover Bleed gold for ministers to sport away. riding over the swinish multitude, in We must pass over some years now; the shape of a drove of pigs, in one new taxes, new complaints, riots in the print; and in another as a “state cater- manufacturing districts, and the death pillar,” the ring of the body composed of Burke, marked the passing years, of state offices, pensions and other and gave rise to caricatures more or less sources of extravagant expenditure. powerful. The Irish rebellion, and a

perpetual and carefully stimulated fear * Some idea of which may be formed from the of invasion occupied the English narew figures subjoined

tion, which grew at last quiet under the Clarke. Government. For a major's com. .. 900 guineas .... 2,600 do.

continued war, and now and then hilarFor a company ...... 700 .... 1,500 ,, Tious at thò naval victories of Nelson,

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