« НазадПродовжити »
The immediate management of these exbibitions is intrusted to a board of twenty-two persons, composed partly of members of the two academies of sciences and of the fine arts, and partly of manufacturers and of persons eminent in commerce. This board is called the Jury Central; it selects its own president, but acts under the general superintendence of the minister of the interior; and, through him, is placed in direct connexion with the local authorities in the several departments.
The local authorities are enjoined to point out the advantages afforded to the manufacturing classes by the exhibition, to stimulate their enter. prise and encourage them to prepare objects for competition,-to remove any obstacles wbich may impede these efforts,—to prepare a suitable depôt for all articles offered for the exhibition,--to appoint a jury of skilled persons to inspect the objects offered, and judge whether they are worthy and proper to be sent to the exhibition, (where, without such sanction, they cannot be received,) and to see that in the exercise of this scrutiny the jury do not reject articles of a coarse and ordinary nature, provided they display either increased utility, or diminished cost in production. The exbibition is not confined to articles of novelty, but extends to every display of increased proficiency in matters of national industry,
All expenses for the transmission and return of the articles are defrayed by the board. Every object must have a number and local mark attached to it, to be entered in a schedule circulated in the provinces for that purpose, and returned to the board prior to the transmission of the articles collected. The exhibitor has likewise to forward a written detail of his transmissions, which he may accompany with some account of his manufactory, and any observations he may desire to promulgate: all which is printed and circulated at the expense of the board. He is further invited to state any means of encouragement which he thinks might be beneficially extended to his particular branch of manufacture.
When the arrangements for the exbibition are concluded, small committees of the board are appointed to inspect the different classes of objects, and to give in their report suggesting the objects most deserving of commendation, and the persons to whom honorary medals of different values, or sums of money, ought to be awarded. The selected objects are distinguished by a ticket, and the exhibition is thrown open to the public, under regulations which sufficiently ensure the safety of the ar. ticles exposed, and their convenient inspection.
In the exhibition of 1834, the distinctive appropriation of the four great saloons was as follows: Saloon, No. 1. Machinery of all kinds.
Agricultural instruments; and the description and illus.
tration of agricultural processes.
of all sorts.
Paper hangings, and paper of all kinds.
of improvements and new processes in engraving.
- gauze - embroidered silk — taffetas — bobbin-net
— ribands-fringes, &c. Linen yarn and linens, . from sail-cloth to the finest
cambric, including damask,
embroidery, in all its varieties.
A notice of the exbibition of 1827 (the eightb) will be found in the Appendix (No. 1) to the first Report on Arts and Manufactures, in a letter from Mr. Skene to Lord Meadowbank. The historical part of this statement, however, is not altogether accurate. An elaborate account of tbat of 1834 will be found in the work of MM, De Moléon, Cochand, and Paulin-Desormeaux, entitled, Musée Industriel.-Description complète de l'exposition des produits de l'industrie Française faite en 1834;' and a more popular and amusing account of it, in a series of five papers, by M. Jules Janin, in the 5th vol. of the Revue de Paris, new series. The official account, admirably drawn up by the Baron Charles Dupin, Vice President and Reporter of the Central Jury, has been published under the title of Rapport du Jury Central sur les Produits de l'Industrie Française exposés en 1834.* This, as might be expected, is beyond comparison the most valuable.
In the introduction to this Report, M. Dupin alludes to the apparent carelessness of England to avail herself of the advantages of such an exhi. bition, and contrasts it with the readiness with which it has been imitated by most of the other states of Europe. I think the passage significant, and give it in the author's own words :
......" Ainsi,” says M. Dupin, t « l'éclat toujours croissant des expositions de notre industrie a frappé les états étrangers. Presque tous, en Europe, ont voulu suivre ce brillant exemple, même ceux qui semblent le moins progressifs. L'Autriche et l'Espagne, le Piémont et le Portugal, les Deux Siciles et les Pays Bas, la Prusse et la Bavière, la Hollande et la Danemarck, la Suède et la Russe, ont établi des expositions nationales dont elles ont reconnu l'avantage, et que,, pour ce motif, elles ont rendue périodiques.
“L'Angleterre seule, en Europe, se croit trop riche et trop supérieure, pour avoir recours à de semblables stimulants. Elle déprécie, elle dédaigne ces efforts ; elle semble fermer les yeux, mais elle les ouvre profondément sur des tentatives propres à diminuer l'inégalité des industries nationales; et, par conséquent, à faire disparaître la suprématie d'une seule sur toutes les autres."
Note E. Picture and Sculpture Galleries, their construction and
arrangement, p. 126. On the construction and arrangement of the GLYPTOTHECA and PinaCOTHECA of Munich, the Baron von Klenze, their architect, thus expressed himself:-" In the galleries of Munich I thought it was essential to separate the statues and the pictures, because they differ so much in the light and other circumstances which they require, that it is difficult to unite them in the same building without sacrificing the one to the other.
“The gallery of sculpture I thought it desirable to arrange historically. There were two modes of arrangement bitherto pursued; the one mythological or ideal, the other historical. I thought it right to follow the historical plan. I began with the Egyptian, because from the Egyptian the Greek art sprang. Then, after the Egyptian room, the hall for the
• 8vo. Paris, 1834-5.
+ 3 tom. 8vo. Paris, 1836-7.
Tom. 1, p. ix.
ancient Greek or Archaic sculpture, which is the second room. The third room is the school of Egina; here we have the famous Egina Marbles. Next comes the room for the school and times of Phidias. Then two rooms for the most beautiful Greek epochs; after that, three rooms in wbich there are no statues, but which are richly painted in fresco, with the history of the ancient gods and beroes, to refresh the eye, after having seen the Egyptian and Greek sculptures, with the sight of colours again.
“ After these rooms we enter the second gallery of sculpture, beginning with a room in which there are heroes and other celebrated persons. Here we begin the Roman art, which is contained in two very large rooms. Then we come to the last room in which are placed some modern statues from the revival to our own times, in order to show how ancient art has entered into modern art. With respect to the collection of the statues, my object has been to light them all from one side only; and the principle on which I have differed from all the museums hitherto constructed, is in the employing of colour as a ground for the statues, instead of a dirty grey wall. I have put the deepest and richest colours, so that all the statues have the appearance of being new and fresh, being relieved by the depth of the background. The ceilings also are very rich being decorated with gilded stucco; and the floors too are very ornamental. In arranging the works of antiquity, you must not hesitate to show them in contrast with richness of colour. In the Roman hall, where the sculptures are all of deep-coloured marble, the walls, on the contrary, are of a light colour.
“ The gallery of paintings (or Pinacotheca) is destined to receive all those objects of art which are represented on a plain surface, that is, those which have no relief, as pictures, drawings, engravings enamels, glasspaintings, mosaics, &c. Tbe first floor contains the pictures, and the entrance or ground floor, the other objects.
“The pictures are placed according to the schools. I wished to allow the possibility of arriving at any particular school without passing through another, and for this purpose I have a corridor running the whole length of the building, which communicates with each separate room. The large pictures are in very large rooms lighted from above; the smaller pictures are in small rooms, lighted with a side light from the north; such is the general disposition. The rooms are so arranged that the spectator is not annoyed by reflected lights, but wherever be stands he sees the pictures without any reflection.
“With regard to the classification of the pictures, there is first a large ante-chamber which is very richly ornamented, but only with white and gold. It contains six large portraits of the founders of the gallery. There
• A plan wbich within the last few months has been imitated in the Elgin Gallery at the British Museum.
is a room attached for restoring pictures, and for copying, on special permission being given to take down a picture from the walls of the gallery for that purpose. It serves also for the exhibition of pictures newly acquired. The first large room is for the ancient Flemish school, with three smaller rooms attached for the smaller pictures; after that, a great room for the ancient German school, with four small rooms; then, three large rooms for the more recent Flemish school, with ten small rooms; then, a room for the French and Spanish schools; then, three large rooms-one of them 93 feet long, for the several Italian schools, and three small rooms for the smaller pictures. There are other rooms attached for the subordinate purposes of the gallery.
"On the entrance floor, there is a gallery for engravings; another for original drawings of the great masters; there is a considerable space for ancient paintings, such as the terra-cotta vases, and the mosaics; and the other rooms are for paintings executed by means of fire, as glass, porcelain, enamels, &c.”
I conclude this account with a few lines from the accomplished pen of Mrs. Jameson, who has described the Pinakothek as she saw it prior to its completion.
“ The corridor or loggia,” she says, " is four hundred feet in length, and lighted by twenty-five arched windows, which, by the way, command a splendid prospect bounded hy the far-off mountains of the Tyrol. The wall opposite to these windows is divided into twenty-five corresponding compartments, arched, and each surmounted by a dome; these compartments are painted in fresco with arabesques . . . While every arch and eupola contains (also in fresco) scenes from the life of some great painter, arranged chronologically: thus, in fact, exhibiting a graphic history of the rise and progress of modern painting, from Cimabue to Rubens.
of the series of frescos, a few only are finished, from which, however, a very satisfactory idea may be formed of the whole design. The first cupola is painted from a poem of A. W. Schlegel, Der Bund der Kirche mit den Kiinsten. [The alliance between the church and the arts.] The second cupola represents the Crusades, because from those wild expeditions ... arose the regeneration of art in Europe. With the third cupola commences tbe series of painters. In the arch, or lunette, is represented the Madonna of Cimabue carried in triumphal procession through the streets of Florence to the church of Santa Maria Novella ; and in the dome above, various scenes from the painter's life. In the next cupola is the history of Giotto ; tben follows Angelico da Fiesole, who, partly from bumility and partly frem love of art, refused to be made Archbishop of Florence ;* then, fourtbly, Masaccio ; fifthly, Bellini, who in one com
• The conclusion of this anecdote in the life of a prince among painters but too little known in England—is so honorable to his memory, that I am tempted to supply Mrs. Jameson's omission. Nicholas V. (for whom Angelico had painted in fresco the chapel of the Holy Sacrament at Rome),