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The aim and intention of this glossary is a concentrated survey of whatever, being scattered in several voluminous and costly works, seemed yet necessary to the illustration of the immortal poet. Its contents therefore are traditional learning and own studies. The former belongs to the crowd of commentators, whose endeavours, although not seldom wearisome, absurd and rather obscuring by pedantic encumbrance, than clearing by plain good sense, claimed nevertheless attention, should it even be only for allowing a better success, or for presenting a lively dramatic picture, as it were, of motley scholars caroling and capering on the sunny top and at the flowery foot of this lofty mountain. Here then we meet both with critics, philologers and antiquaries, whose frowardness indeed makes not superfluous the warning repeated by Douce, “to alter the text of the poet as seldom, as possible, hy conjectural emendation. The actual state of this same text, however, seems still to crave, or to justify some transgression of this precept. For, in truth, its history, as well as its result, is a lamentable one (owing to the great modesty of the unparallel'd poet and man, and to the saucy ignorance of many an aukward uncalled for mountebank) from the old “stolen and surreptitious copies maimed and deformed by the frauds and stealths of injurious impostors,' Heminge and Condel not excepted, down to the forgeries of ope Ireland and the lately published Trundell-Hamlet of 1603, suited, as it seems, by a hand unknown, to the want of some theatre, or other. Undoubtedly even the most enthusiastic admirer of Shakspeare must confess after all, that a triumphal song of criticism on account of his plays might yet be a little too forward and preposterous, as long as a misproud indiscreet zeal, (in spite of whatever may crave time, tradition *), appeal to a style well weighed and disposed in periods, probability of a double handling of one and the same subject by our poet, traces of later alterations, wrongs and maims, caused by stage-players, stage-managers, or hired poetasters, with other inward tokens evident enough for those, who will and can see,), don't hesitate to expose and reject many plays, whose adoption is a very benefit for the deeper understanding of the uncontestedly genuine ones; as long as blunders by old spelling's mistake, or mishearing of thoughtless transcribers, or untimely corrections and conjectures, as well as confusion of prose and verses, acts, scenes and persons, are judged to present the true and genuine text of Shakspeare; as long lastly, as 'the poems of Venus and Adonis, and of Tarquin and Lucrece appear like a couple of icehouses, as hard, as glittering, and as cold,' and 'the subject of the sonnets seems to be somewhat equivocal.' So then, although we can't but applaud Dr. Lewis Tieck, who just now is preparing a new collection of those plays, called doubtful and rejected as spurious, which are nevertheless of great interest, in as much as they mark the poet's apprenticeship; although it were to be wished, that likewise the authentical and genuine plays might have experienced the fate of the spurious ones, (viz, to have been by gentlemanlike neglect more preserved from fastidious criticism, like that of Johnsun taxed by Hazlitt): the result, however, will always be, that the hope of getting easily a thoroughly clean and authentical text of the poet is rather too sanguine, unless Fortune please to detect a new Alexander's narthex. Meanwhile then it will avail, to note, judge and choose occasionally with unprepossessed discretion and modesty, whatever may alleviate at least past hope passages, even on risk to see misconstrued and wryed into peerish pedantry, what originally and in itself was but fondness to hear distinctly the unaltered charining melodies of this 'sweet swan of Avon.'

With respect to the antiquarian elucidations of our author, unquestionably much has been performed by Douce, Drake, Nares and others, though not enough, we think, chiefly in what depends on a closer inquiry into the single moments of the poet's life, and his soft and gentle allusions to the dramatic and other literature

*) With this we hint chiefly at Gerard Langbaine's Account of the engl. dram. poets etc. (Oxf. 1091, S. 453. $8.

of his own time - a province, where again Dr. Tieck, the german poet, devoutly and with due love, feeling and inspiration imbued and immersed in the inmost centre of this genius and his time, will yet earn the thanks of the literary world by his long promised work. For our own parts, though not absolutely unbooked, or unversed in this range, yet not pretending to enter those lists, we have unscrupulously and conformly to our above mentioned purpose made use of what Nares likewise had gathered from the commentators of Shakspeare and his contemporary authors, although we did partly abridge it duly, partly dissent sometime. This previous and due mention of a worthy scholar, made once for all in this place, will no doubt remove every suspicion of an intentional disparagement of his true deservings, or of a surreptitious employment of his property. For, the own philological studies and observations of the author will show in the same time, that he was at least no mere thoughtless transcriber, or compiler. He foresees, indeed, that chiefly his etymological and analogical combinations and endeavours will not be all-hailed by those who, out of a fashionable, unjust and unallowable contempt of etymology, as a too fallacious science, abhor every parallel, that is not of a cheap and striking evidence, as pater and father, and the like. And yet we think, that the bold structure and frame of languages, the oscillatory, loose and changeable nature, particularly of mongrel-tongues as well, as the analogy and the uncontestable laws of changing letters, the erroneous and perverse association and concatenation of ideas, till to the utmost undiscernibleness, whence originated not seldom fables and superstitious conceits, should perplex not a little those antagonists of etymological inquiries, and defend sufficiently what perhaps might amaze at first sight. Now suchlike too fearful, overdelicate and mincing minds, that are perhaps afraid to see the poet's light winged and ethereal nature in this way overwhelmed, or the coloured powder of his wings wiped away, unless they will let manum de tubula, meanwhile may tranquillize themselves by considering, how useful notwithstanding have been occasionally, even to our poet, the endeavours of Horne Tooke, Todd and others; how quite a different ihing it is in general, to learn by rote in a mechanical and empirical manner the significations of words, or to know the mode, law and teniper of their shape, to conceive their connexion and affinity as well, as their varieties, and how much more preferable and availing is the latter kind of knowledge; how little after all they themselves understand the theme and task of philology, whose pith and moment is to evince the identity of all languages. Why then should we not make use of this method even in "Skakspeare? 'The prepossession against him and his language, as a wild wood-note, or as rough accents of a drunken savage, has happily vanished in our time. A deeper valuation of his age so rich and fertile in various exertions, performances and accomplishments of life and mind, that it may be called the verge and confine of a new one; a just rating of him, who characterizes so inimitably the true poet, saying "The poet's eye, in a fine frenzy rolling, Doth glance from heaven to earth, from earth to heaven, And as imagination bodies furth ''he forms of things unknown, the poet's penn Turns them to shapes and gives to airy nothings A local habitation and a name', has now proved and will prove still further, that he was, what is pronounced in the mottos of this glossary. In truth, Shakspeare belongs so eminently to the productive period of english poctry, that he is its representative, in the like manner as, on the other hand, Ben Jonson, his contemporary, is top and standard of the critical bent of the same; that Irony, that deep counterfeit selfderision and frenzy of human mind, straggling and swerving from the harmony of God and the universe with a selfconscience willingly concealed of human dignity and highness; that pert unsettling of the world, Ilumour, ground and source of all comical exertions, so exclusively proper to Englishmen, is yet again so peculiarly framed and tempered in Shakspeare, that scarcely but in Aristophanes he might find his congenial mind. His language is as far distant from our time and language, as strange and particular, as different in the different periods of his improvement, as it is nearer to its origin, more numcrous, fresh and creative, more youthful, bold and energetic, more pregnant, pliable and made subservient by a mighty spirit to the most tender and the most tempestuous melodies of the soul. It could not therefore be our end and inten

tion, to condemn it by the customary partial ostracism as an obsolete, rongh and licentious one, but rather only to understand and know first of all its rank, dignity and authority in the history of the english language, and so to evince, that even a beloved and current terseness and chaste jejuneness' of language, how near ever perhaps to a general level and standard, don't yet produce a praise orthy style, but rather flatten and mince by and by all stout and sound individuality and originality. In order to prevent this deep rooted prejudice, a deeper tracing of the origin and relation of languages, with respect to a creative poet, seemed to be the best expedient.

For all those reasons, and for the unfathomable, inexhaustible pregnancy and depth of Shakspeare, the author is rather afraid of having done too little, than too much, and laying not an extraordinary stress upon his book, he doubts not, but a rich gleaning on this field may have been left to other persons more endowed, and to other happier times. Meanwhile he wishes at least to see acknowledged his application and tendency to contribute something to the revived serious study of the most excellent and most lovely man and poet.

What remains, no book is undoubtedly more entitled to the forbearance of a gentle reader, than such a one, which by an infinite mass of quotations and minutest details, by the utmost indispensable brevity and conciseness, by hurry of printing without author's review, is the more liable to human lapses, mistakes and inadvertencies, that notwithstanding, says Brown, being judged by the capital matter, admit not of disparagement. Thus, craving pardon for such moles and warts, we anticipate forthwith a list of additions and corrections to be noted beforehand.

Some errata , which have crept into this Glossary, corrected, however, in the subsequent list, may be attributed to the Editor's absence for some months, who therefore could not altend himself to the revises.




P. 88. col. a. l. 45. after 11. 2, 2. add: 'where it'p. 99. b. 17. read: liable to be.

alludes to the children of the revels, who, ib. 35. read : got in a thievish.
supported and instructed chiefly by Ben'p. 98. a. 26. read : pepraga.
Jonson, performed entire pieces and formed ib. 48. read : icel
an opposition in the dramatic, or historical' p. 100. a. 28. read: country.

S. Malone's hist, of the engl. stage. ib. after Callıng add : Cmlyses. aHd. , 4. p. 42. Lewis l'ieck's Vorrede zu Shk's Vor I must weep in king C.'s vein is an allusion schule, I, 82. ff.'

to a ridicule tragedy of this name by The p. 89. b. 14, read known.

Preston , pablished about 1570. Drake's ib. 57. read studied, conceited.

Shk. II, 236. p. 911. a. 15, read falconer.

ib. 60. del. were p. 91, a. 36.

p. 101. - 41), read : chor.; behaviour. ib, b. 5. from below read: enough; an.

31. read : mode. p. 92. a. 20, read into the net,

10. from below read: it means. ib. b. 33. add: 'or of different other forms de ib. b 2. from below read: the steps of which vised by fantastic fops, as spadebeards, tile

were regulated beards, daggerbeards etc. 'S. Gifford's Ben p. 104, a. 24. read : empty. Jons. IV, 414.

p. 105. a 22, read: engl. clinch. p. 93. a, 7. read: On this account.

ib, 25.

connected. ib. after Benumbed. add: to Berattle, to slander,

18. fr. below, after: 471, add : Otherdefame, decry. H 2, 2. So to ratlle Dodsl. wise Drake I, 20C. 0. PI, IV, 149. Gr. rhaző, rhasso, rhoizo, p. 108. after Counterpoint add : Countrymatters rhyző, brysso

II. 3, 2. is the vulgar reading, to which p. 94. a. 9. read to stay, or.

Johnsuu substituted c. manners, rejected by ib. 32. after Hh. 1, 1. add: 'S. Ascapart.

Malone. The. Trundell - edition of 1603 p. 95. b. 24. read: thēpā, thopo.

has contrary matters, by easy confusion, p. 96. a, 25. read: to what,

countre and country being the fr. contre. ib. 39. read : our indenture,

But Hamlet retructing and excusing himself

p. 103, p. 103.


p. 113. p. 114.

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p. 118. p. 121. p. 124.


on account of his sarcastical word: Shall{p. 148. a. 13. read: prefect, tenant, arose,
I lie in your lap? explained already by p. 145. - 33. read: school. Lily's etc.
I mean, my head upon your lap, now, with

ib. b. after Missingly insert: 'to Mistake. H. a seeming rebuke of Ophelia, meaning rather 3, 2. Su you mistake your husbands is perhaps the fashion of his time, adds: Do Farmer's and Steeveus's correction for tho you think, I meant country matters; i. e. old reading : So you must take your

huscoarse, illbred, rude, illmannered things? bund, adopted also by Johnson, and earlier p. 110, b. 26. read: girdle. To draw cuts.

by Theobald. The former reading would ib. 31. knife.

mean either : in this manner you misinterpret ib. 63. add: where Arthur's show is an ex men's characters; or, in a more ludicrous

hibition of archery by the fellowship of sense explained in Gifford's Ben Jons. IV, Arthur's knights, a society of archers. s. 409.: so you miscouceive, misconstrue by Nalone. Drake's Sh. 1, 562.

pretended mistake your husbands (the meanp. 112. a. 2. from below, read : of a part.

ing would not differ very much); the latter 8. read: mitan.

would say: you must take your husband 31. molten,

for latter, for worse. Either of those reib. 9 from below, read: Now as.

partees is not without

preguancy, whether p. 115. b. 86. add: “The Trundell edition has it be a reproof, or an admonition. There

also vessel, that is said to mean the Weser, fore the choice will be difficult, unless we a river,

would say, that with the first reading the p. 116. b. 32, read: a Hd.

jest evaporates by degrees.
22. read: to dellght.

p. 146. a. 49. read: Mason.
from below, read : e horned man. ib. b. 22. from below, read: Much.
23. dele: like,

p. 148. A. 31. from below, read: is made.
p. 126. a. 28. from below, read : Sometimes it was, ib. b. 15. read: having the hair close.
b. 13. read: shield by.

p. 151,

30, from below, read : Malone pale. fr. below read: an ar.

P. 152.

19. from below, read: paltry stuff. P. 131. - 4. from below, after AC. 2, 2. add: H. P. 153. a. 27. read : dei, a flawn.

1, 2. where Pope contrarily to all old edi-p. 130. 27. fr. bel. read: out.
tions corrects hooks.

P 157, b. 3. fr. bel. read : of. p. 137. b. before Lane insert: 'Landless is p. 159.

24. read: ciuffo.
Steevens's unnecessary correction of lawless p. 160. a. 19. fr. bel. add: 'germ. Rekel.
in lawless resolutes H. 1, 1. confirmed also ib. b. 21. fr. b. read: mends so.
by the Trundell edition.


fr. b. ribible. p. 138. a. 17, from below read: close,

p. 103. a. 25. read: Robin. 44. read: slander. Ib. b. 1. from below ib. b. 16. fr. bel. add: It was related, that if and. 140. a. 1. equinoctial.

heffind a man or woman dead, he will cover p. 141. a. before Lost and won insert: Lost in: all his face with moss. S. Drake's Sh. I,

that father lost, lost his 11. 1, 2. is unne S9+. s.
cessary alteration of the old reading: that p. 164. b. 2. fr. bel. read: in the noble style.
father dead, lost his.'

p. 172. a. 6. fr. bel. before the word Sphered p. 142. b. 21. read : was published.

insert : Sphere. H.2, 1. the common readp. 149. a. 6. add: The table was divided into ing is a prince out of thy sphere, for

upper and lower messes by a huge saltcellar, which the second folio, the Trundell-edit.,
and the rank and consequence of the visi Steevens and Malone read star,
tors were marked by their seats above and p. 177. a. 8. fr. bel. read one's self.
below the sultcellar; the wine frequently, p. 179. b. 4. fr. bel. read he lifts
circulating only abore the saltcellus. S. p. 180. a. article tire add: Drake's Shk, II, 94.
Drake's Sh. and his time, 74.

26. read by two hands

p. 128.


P. 139.

p. 184

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