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for sin.” The sufferings of Christ and brute matter, or the love of God's the salvation of men are connected heart must necessarily excel the power iogether as cause and effect. (2.) It of His hand, or the redemption of surgests also an important truth in the lost exceeds and surpasses the suprelation to the nature of those suffer- port of the living. (2.) The extent ings. “The travail of His soul ” would and intensity of His sufferings (3). seem to indicate that the mind of

For all those sufferings He is to be Messiah was more immediately the recompensed (John xvi. 21), but in an seat of His atoning agonies (a). (3.) infinitely higher degree. (3.) Consider Of those agonies the passage further i he period occupied, the care expended, depicts the intense and aggravated and the anxiety sustained in carrying character—“the trarail of His soul." on the process, the result of which is The pangs of “a woman in travail” to satisfy Messiah. In nature, that is a phrase sanctioned and employed which is of slow growth is always ayain and again by the Divine Spirit, distinguished by proportionate excel. as an image combining in itself all that lence. Among men, long - continued can be conceived of the extreme and and arduous labour is expected to be the terrible in human suffering. And followed by corresponding results, this image, among others, is here both in the effects produced and in employed to depict the mental sensa- the rewards enjoyed. But the work tions of the Son of God when “the of redemption abounds over history chastisement of our peace was upon

of all time. Nay, previous to the Him,” &c. “ Travail” is the peculiar birth of time, it occupied the thought suffering connected with the natural and councils of the Eternal. In actual birth of a human being; and as applied operation it stretches from the fall of to Christ it intimates that in the throes man to the restitution of all things. and pangs of His soul, He endured The reward will be proportioned to what was necessary to give spiritual the magnitude and costliness of the existence to the Church.

work performed. It was not what Christ was in His 4. Those things with which we may moral character, nor what He did as suppose the Saviour will be "satisfied.a prophet, "mighty in deed and in (1.) The inconceivable number of the word,” that constituted that peculiar saved (y). (2.) The equally inconwork by which He became personally ceivable perfection of their character, and alone the Saviour of men.

(3.) The love and adoration of the re3. The greatness of the results which deemed. (4.) The effect of the work are to flow from the Redeemer's sufferings. of redemption on the moral universe, Implied in the declaration, “He shall revealing God more fully to it, and be satisfied ;" the mind of Messiah helping to keep it loyal to Him. shall be filled with joy when He II. How WE WHO UNDERSTAND witnesses the effect of His sufferings AND BELIEVE THE MEANING OF THE in the salvation of the redeemed. TEXT OUGHT TO BE AFFECTED. That the results productive in Him 1. We should be moved to humility. of this feeling must be surpassingly The continued prevalence in the world and inconceivably great appears from of what grieves and offends Him ought several considerations. (1.) Messiah is to have disappeared long since, and the Creator of the universe (John i. 3). would have done so, had the Church All its vastness and magnificence was been faithful to her office and her Lord. needed to satisfy Him as such. How In the unfaithfulness of the Church we much sublimer must those spiritual have had our share. results necessarily be with which He 2. The declaration of our text should is to be "satisfied !” The new creation stimulate our fuith and missionary activity. may reasonably be expected to surpass “He shall see, &c." Christianity is as far the old and the earthly as the yet to be acknowledged and professed human intellect is superior to dead by universal mau (H. E. I. 979, 1166pp. 1-50.

1169). But this end, however con- spiritual, like the thing it touched ; and from fidently expected, even faith expects

that very circumstance it was the more terrible.

It was not that element that can become the not without the employment of appro

servant of man, and minister to his wrath, priate instrumentality. Among the and be made to seize upon and “destroy the means employed, there must be the body, and after that hath nothing more that sending forth of the Bible and the it can do ;” but it was fire which nothing but

heaven could furnish, something which God preacher, the letter of the message and

alone could inflict and which a spiritual nature the loving messenger.

alone could feel. It descended upon the soul 3. The subject ought to lead us, in- of the Redeemer, and (if I may so speak) dividually and personally, seriously to

consumed it, like the fire which descended examine whether we are contributing to

upon the altar of the prophet, “which con.

sumed the burnt-sacrifice, and the wood, and the Saviour's satisfaction,either by the stones, and the dust, and licked up the what we are, or what we are doing water that was in the trench." Sufferings (H. E. I. 4423-4428, 4446-4466). -

flowing from a source like this cannot but be 7. Binney, LL.D.: Sermons, second series,

felt to have been unparalleled and unspeakable; they necessarily transceud not only the power of language, but the power of thought.

Binney. (a) “The travail of His soulcarries us (v) Messiah, it is said, is to "see His seed," further than to what was physical ; it teaches “justify many,” and “the pleasure of the 18 to attach inferior importance to the bruis- Lord is to prosper in His band." This work ing and the piercing of the flesh-to the could not, I think, be said to "prosper” if the animal pain (ii I may so speak) which the

number of the lost should exceed that of the Redeemer endured, and which, whatever was

saved ; nor if the number of the lost and its extent, was probably surpassed in many of

saved were nearly balanced ; nor if the success the martyrs. “The travail of His soulwould of Messiah in rescuing from death were to be seem to explain that mysterious amazement

but little superior to that of His adversary in wbich overtook and overwhelmed the Lord seducing to destruction. The saved will, I Jesus previous to His public rejection by the

imagine, as to numbers surpass the lost to people, before the hand of man had touched a degree that shall destroy everything like Him, when alone with His disciples and in the

parallel or proportion between them. They attitude of prayer. If it be proper to use such

shall be brougit from all lands, and from an expression with respect to Him, with all under every dispensation ; they shall be "of reverence I would say that at that moment all nations, and kindred, and people, and He seemed destitute or bereit of the high tongues ;” they shall be of every class, and bearing, the calm serenity, the magnanimous

colour, and condition; and they shall consti. heroism, the contempt of danger, pain, death,

tute "a number which no man can number," which bave often illustrated the conduct of equalling or exceeding the sands of the sea, His followers, even women, under circum- or “the stars of heaven,” or “the grass of the stances siipilar or worse-worse, if the external field,” or “the drops of dew from the womb circumstances were all. Now, this is a fact of the morning."-Binney. in the history of Jesus eternally irreconcileable with the idea of His dying merely as a witness for truth, or an example to others; it can be

Christ's bodily travail was great. accounted for, with honour to His character, On this part of the Messiah's sufferings only on the ground of His sustaining as the prophet lays no particular emsacrificial victim, and sustaining in His soul,

phasis, because, though most visible, sufferings exclusively and pre-eminently His owli. - Binney.

it was not the main part of His aton(B) What the sufferings of Messiah really ing sufferings. He emphasizes the were in themselves, it is as impossible to say inward mental spiritual agony as that as i is to conceive of their magnitude and in which he chietiy bore our iniquities. their depth. They could not be literally the agonies of the damned ; literally the curse due

Let us reverently note some of those to sin, or the direct results on a spiritual things which we may conceive copstinature of the foul act of personal transgression. tuted for our Lord, “ the travail of His And yet if anything there be bearing any

soul” — first, during his life, and resemblance to them at all--- wbich probably there is vot-it must be found among the

secondly, in connection with His victims of retributive justice. The sufferings . death ; though this distinction is not of Christ, whatever they were, in fact were to be pressed, since the sufferings of those which resulted from the presentation of

the life and of the death overlap each Himself as a real sacrifice, the sacrifice of a living, sensitive Being in an offering made

other, and constitute together "the by fire unto the Lord.” The fire, iudeed, was

travail of His soul.”


I. IN LIFE. We must not limit nation, but of the race which He had Christ's atoning mental sufferings to come to save, and of which He was His actual endurance on the cross, or The fierce passions that raged forget what He endured before the against Him, His actual collision with last scenes of His ministry on earth. the world's evil, His suffering of its The whole period of His public ministry concentrated hatred of good must have was a “temptation,” and to Him caused Him, the only sinless One of the temptation was suffering, as He met race, unspeakable horror and anguish and fought it. 1. lle endured "the of soul. But there was also contradiction of sinners against Himself." 1. The human and natural shrinking 2 The sight and contact of human sin and from death as the dissolution of soul misery as they luy passive around Him and body; in His case peculiarly pain. must have deeply wounded His soul. If ful because of the perfection of His Lot could vex his righteous soul in human nature, the consciousness of His Sodom, what must Christ have en- own sinlessness, the fulness of His indured as He saw all that was debased dwelling power of life, the clear insight and repulsive in humanity with His He had into the dread connection beholy eye (see p. 476), as He sighed tween sin and death, and that His over human pains and sorrows, and death was by judicial murder. He made them in sympathy His own was not a Stoic. He was not ignorant (Matt. viii. 17; see p. 484). 3. His of what it involved, and had not the foresight of the doom coming on God's feeling that it was natural for Him to chosen people caused Him pain (Luke submit to the "common lot,” or die a xix. 41-44). 4. The shadow of the cross death of refined and wilful cruelty. projecting itself over His life cast a burden 2. Satanic temptation. The prince of on lis spirit as He anticipated the end this world came back to find someof His ministry (Mark viii. 31, &c.). thing in Him, and found nothing.

II. IN CONNECTION WITH DEATH. But the search was painful, as the The travail of soul during life culmi- devil did his last and worst, since all nated at death, assuming a distinctness temptation is suffering. It was the and bitterness peculiarly great as that hour and power of darkness for our crisis arrived. All the past was in- Lord when the seed of the serpent tensified and concentrated, and addi- bruised the heel of the seed of the tional elements of pain were experi- woman. The bruising of the heel enced. Thus His friends forsook Him might indicate only a slight injury in and fled. One denied Him. One comparison with the wounding of the betrayed Him. Did not this experi- head, but who can tell what in itself ence, to one who was so sympathetic it was to Jesus Christ; how manifold and social Himself, and who then and searching were the assaults of needed all the human sympathy and Satan, and how they intensified the society which His friends could give bitterness of Christ's sorrow of soul ? Him, cause sorrow of soul of no ordi- 3. His treatment as a sinner. Christ

His enemies, too, the realised sin in the, to Him, most painpeople He came to save, trampled His ful form of bearing it and suffering for love under foot, insulted, maligned, it. He was “made sin for us " -enCast Him out, and crucified Him, during for us, in some real but mysinflicting sorer wounds upon His terious way, the wrath of God due to generous heart and loving soul than us for our sins. Every view of His on His body by their shameful treat- death which ignores this wraps His ment of Him. The lifelong vision whole suffering in inexplicable mys and contact of sin came to a head in tery, and provokes men to despair, its most painful and repulsive form, not only of themselves, but even of and He would see more vividly and God. What pain for the Holy One to feel more acutely in His own maltreat- be treated, not merely by man, but ment the depravity, not only of the by God as a sinner, to feel in His soul

nary kind ?

Who can

the anger of God, to be forsaken for

ner that has been saved, from the a time by His Father !

beginning of the world, has been saved fathom the depth of soul-sorrow in by virtue of the death of Christ (Heb. the cry, “My God," &c., as it came ix. 22, x. 4). After His humiliation from the heart of the only-begotten and death, He was to see the fruit of and well-beloved Son ?

His sufferings (ver. 10). The death LEARN-(1.) The costliness of His of Christ was to be followed by the redemption. (2.) The evil and shame, rapid and extensive diffusion of the fulness of sin. (3.) The reality of our truth. Christianity widely spread in Lord's sympathy for all who are in the every direction. It took root in every world as He was, and follow in His soil-it visited every clime—and gained footsteps. (4.) The greatness of the converts from every rank in society. suffering of the impenitent. The Ilomi- 3. The moral disorders of our nature letical Library, vol. ii. pp. 78–82. reclified.

He came

to destroy the works of the devil, and to establish

an empire of righteousness, truth, and Throughout the chapter the Messiah joy in the Holy Ghost. . As the appears as a suffering individual. He doctrines of the cross extend, the is represented as bearing the punish- Saviour is “purifying to Himself a ment of sin, though not on His own people zealous of good works." This account, but on behalf of others, for process is going on in the world; the whom He appears as a substitute. The latter-day glory will consist in the expression, "travail of His soul," is wide and extended reign of holy prinelliptical, and evidently means, that ciples. The great mass of human He shall see the fruit of the travail of society will be pervaded by them. His soul. The nighty and benevolent Instead of wrath, hatred, envyings, objects He had in view wouli certainly covetousness, and all unrighteousness, be accomplished, and would be fully love, joy, peace, gentleness, meekness, satisfactory to Him.


THE SAVIOUR WILL BEHOLD THE AC1. Obstructions removed out of the way

COMPLISHMENT OF HIS PURPOSES. of the sinner's salvation. The apostasy 1. The completion of any great underand rebellion of man have subjected taking is accompanied with pleasure him to the curse of the divine law. and satisfaction. To see a wise and No offer of mercy can be made to him, mighty scheme of action working out while that law, by which God rules the anticipated results, cannot fail to all worlds, is trampled upon and dis- be gratifying to the projector. honoured. The substitution of the 2. The consciousness of having accominnocent for the guilty, was the great plished a work of infinite beneficence. moral expedient by which God deter- One of the purest and highest pleasures mined to save His apostate creatures, we can enjoy on earth is the consciand to preserve unsullied the honour ousness of having performed a disinof His governinent. The object of terested act of benevolence. To impart divine mercy was to save transgres- happiness is pleasurable to all virtuous sors, but the government of God re- minds, and our enjoyment will be in quired that sin should be condemned proportion to the magnitude of the in the flesh. The obedience of the blessing bestowed. Jesus Christ gives Son of God has magnified the law, eternal life--an infinite good, and His as law. God can now, as

a moral

satisfaction will be proportionably large governor, exercise mercy without doing and enduring. In the Saviour's conviolence to His character, or weaken- sciousness of having bestowed an ining the obligations of His law.

finite blessing, there is an element of 2. His own people saved. Every sin- happiness peculiarly His own. He





still retains the sympathies and affec- xii. 50). 2. From the temptations of th: tions of our nature in His glorified devil. These were sometimes presented state, We are to awake in His like through the unconscious agency of

There will, therefore, be others. But His severest temptations peculiarity in the satisfaction He en- were suggested by Satan in his own joys, arising from a community of person in the wilderness. 3. From feeling with us. There will be an sorrow at men's impenitence and lardness identity of feeling, a sympathy in (Mark vi. 6; Matt. xxiii. 37). 4. From happiness, which no one can feel who fear in the immediate anticipation of His has not tasted of humanity.

agony (Heb. v. 7; Matt. xxvi. 38, 39). IMPROVEMENT.–1. Let the subject 5. From a sense of Divine desertion. teach us that we all have a deep “He trod the wine-press alone.” interest in the travail of the Re- His sufferings and travail of soul were deemer's soul. It has a gracious as nothing compared with that sensaaspect to every one of us. This is tion of utter loneliness and destitution the glad tidings of salvation, the gos- which wrung from Him that exceedpel of the grace of God.

ing great and bitter cry, “My God," 2. How great are our obligations to &c. the Saviour !- Samuel Summers : Ser- II. WHAT WERE THE RESULTS OF mons, pp. 169-191.



The result to every one who

receives Him is Justification. “By the Were there no other evidence of the knowledge of Him shall My righteous true divinity of our Lord than that servant justify many,” implies a living which may be gathered from a com- faith in the Saviour. parison of this chapter with the 2. In reference to our Lord Himself. accounts of His life, sufferings, and One word expresses them.

“He shall death, as furnished by the four Evan- be satisfied.” Satisfied with what ? gelists, it ought to be abundantly (1.) With its effects upon individuals, sufficient to satisfy any reasonable leading them from the depths of sin mind. While Scripture is most posi- to the heights of holiness. (2.) With tive and frequent in its declaration on its efficacy for all mankind. (3.) With this great doctrine, there is no passage

the fulfilment of the Divine engagement or word, rightly understood, which to save every believing penitent. No favours a contrary opinion. If a firm poor guilty sinner coming in the way belief in the true divinity of the Lord of Gou's appointment has been rejected. Jesus Christ is necessary, a proper (4.) The salvation of sinners is Christ's notion of His real humanity is not less satisfaction. He does not regret His so. The doctrine of atonement requires mediatorial undertaking, His reproach, a distinct conviction of the true and and suffering, and death. He knows proper humanity of our Lord. Deity what our salvation has cost Hinn, and cannot suffer, &c. We shall contine is satisfied. ourselves to the consideration of our But He may see of the travail of Lord's sufferings of soul; because His soul and not be satisfied. He is general attention is directed rather to not satisfied when the backslider cruciHis sufferings of body, and because the fies Him afresh and puts Him to an text speaks expressly of the "travail open shame. He is not satisfied when of His soul.”

the open sinner “tramples Him under I. OUR LORD'S TRAVAIL OF SOUL.. foot," &c. We have all, I trust, given He had a travail of soul arising-1. some satisfaction to Christ; but which From an anxious desire to be engaged in of us has done so fully? How many His greut work. We know something defects and imperfections have marred of this feeling: How strong must our best services !-S. D. Waddy, D.D. : have been in the soul of Christ (Luke Sermons, pp. 43–61.

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