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seif lay? Shall we fear to be consigned grave is the forerunner of the unparalto the place in which He, who is the leled brightness of the resurrection resurrection and the life," reposed ? life. Come, see the place where the Shall we doubt that He will bring us Lord lay," and learn to view without forth in triumph from the dominion of fear your own final resting-place, and the

grave; that He will clothe us with rejoice in the assurance that His resura body all beauteous and immortal like rection is the pledge and earnest of His own, &c. ? The darkness of the your own.-A. Tucker.

EXPIATION.

liii, 10. Thou shalt make llis soul an offering for sin. Both Jews and Gentiles knew pretty deserves punishment, and his answer well what“ an offering for sin ” meant. will be quick, sharp, and decisiveThe Gentiles had been in the habit of “Deserve it? Ay, indeed ; and the offering sacrifices. The Jews, how- wonder is that I have not suffered it. ever, had by far the clearer idea of it. I feel that if God should smite me What was meant by a sin-offering?... now, without hope or offer of mercy, This was always the idea of a sin-offer- to the lowest hell

, I should only have ing—a perfect victim taking the place what I justly deserve; and I feel that of the offender.

if I be not punished for my sins, or if Christ has been made by God an there be not some plan found by which offering for sin, Oh, that we may be my sin can be punished in another, I able to do in reality what the Jew did cavnot understand how God can be in symbol! May we put our hand just at all. How shall He be the upon the head of Christ Jesus; as we Judge of all the earth if He suffer see Him offered up upon the cross for offences to go unpunished ?" There guilty men, may we know that our has been a dispute whether men have sins are transferred to Him!

any innate ideas, but surely this idea I. SIN DESERVES AND DEMANDS is in us as early as anything, that PUNISHMENT.

virtue deserves reward, and sin deSome say that there is no reason in serves punishment. Add to this, that sin itself why it should be punished, God has absolutely declared His disbut that God punishes offences for the pleasure against sin itself (Jer. xliv. 4; sake of society at large. This is what Deut. xxv. 16, &c.). There is nothing is called the governmental theory- more clear in Scripture than the ruth that it is necessary for the mainten- that sin is in itself so detestab to ance of good order that an offender God that He must and will put fu.ch should be punished, but that there is His tremendous strength to crush it, nothing in sin itself which absolutely and to make the offender feel that it is requires a penalty. Now, we assert, an evil and a bitter thing to offend and we believe we have God's warrant against the Most High (H. E. I., 2281, for it, that sin intrinsically and in itself 2282). demands and deserves the just anger The other idea, that sin is only to of God, and that that anger should be be punished for the sake of the comdisplayed in the form of a punishment. munity, involves injustice. If I am to To establish this, let me appeal to the be damned for the sake of other people, conscience, not of a man who has, by I demur to it. If my sin intrinsically years of sin, dwindled it down to the deserves the wrath of God, and I am very lowest degree, but of an awakened sent to perdition as the result of this sinner under the influence of the Holy fact, I have nothing to say. Conscience Spirit. Ask this man, who is now binds my tongue.

But if I am told really in the possession of his true that I am only sent there as a part of senses, whether he believes that sin a scheme of moral government, and that I am sent into torment to impre-s It is no act of grace for a person to others with a sense of right, I ask that accept a pecuniary debt on my behalf some one else should have the place of of another person. If I owe a man preacher to the people, and that I may twenty pounds, it is no matter to him be one of those whose felicity it shall who shall pay the twenty pounds, so be to be preached to, for I see no long as it is paid. But it is not so reason in justice why I should be in penal matters. If a man be conselected as the victim. Really, when demned to be imprisoned, there is no men run away from the simplicities of law, no justice which can compel the the Gospel in order to make Jehovah lawyiver to accept a substitute for more kind, it is strange how unjust him. If the sovereign should permit and unkind they make Him.

another to suffer in his stead, it must The reverse of this doctrine, that sin be the sovereign's own act and deed ; demands punishment, may be used to he must use his own discretion as to prove it, for it is highly immoral, whether he will accept the substitute dangerous, and opens the flood-gates or not, and if he do so, it is an act of of licentiousness to teach that siu can

grace.

In God's case, if He had said, go unpunished. If sin deserve not to in the infinite sovereignty of His absobe punished, what is Tophet but in- lute will, “ I will have no substitute, justice on a monstrous scale? Go and but each man shall suffer for himself, preach this in hell, and you will have he who sinneth shall die,” none could quenched the fire which is for ever to have murmured. It was grace, and burn, and the worm of conscience will only grace which led God to say, “I die. And then come to earth, and go, will accept a substitute." like Jonah went, though with another This grace of God is yet further message than Jonah carried, through magnified in the providing of such a the streets and thoroughfares of the substitute as Christ—on Christ's part exceeding great city, and proclaim that that He should give up Himself, the sin is not to be punished for its own in- prince of life, to die; the king of glory trinsic desert and baseness. But, if you to be despised and rejected of men. expect your prophecy to be believed, Think of the unexampled love which enlarge the number of your jails, and shines in Christ's gift of Himself. But seek for fresh fields for transportation the Father gives the Sun (John iii. 16). in the interests of society ; for if any To give your wealth is something, if doctrine can breed villains, this will. you make yourself poor, but to give

It is written clearly upon the con- your child is something more. I imscience of every one of us, that sin plore you, do not look

upon

the must be punished. Here are you and sacrifice of Christ as an act of mere I brought into this dilemma-we have

vengeance on the Father's part. Never sinned, and we must be punished for imagine that Jesus died to make the it: it is impossible, absolutely, that Father complacent towards us. Jesus' sin can be forgiven without a sacrifice: death is the effect of overwhelming God must be just, if heaven falls. But and infinite love on the Father's part. God, in His infinite wisdom, has de- Never indulge the atrocious thought vised a way by which justice can be that there was justice, and justice only satisfied, and yet mercy be trium- here; but magnify the love and pity phant. Jesus Christ, the only begotten of God in that He did devise and of the Father, took upon Himself the accomplish the great plan of salvation form of man, and offered unto divine by an atoning sacrifice (H. E. I. 390, justice that which was accepted as an 2319-2321). equivalent for the punishment due to III. JESUS IS THE MOST FITTING all His people.

PERSON TO BE A SUBSTITUTE, AND HIS II. THE PROVISION AND ACCEP- WORK IS THE MOST FITTING WORK TO TANCE OF A SUBSTITUTE FOR SINNERS BE A SATISFACTION. IS AN ACT OF GRACE,

Consider what sort of a mediator was needed. He must be one who it adds a special force to the substituhad no debt of his own. If Christ tion, and thus one bleeding Saviour can had been at all under the law natur- make atonement for millions of sinful ally, if it had been His duty to do men, and the Captain of our salvation what it is our duty to do, it is plain can bring multitudes unto glory. He could only have lived for Himself; One other condition needs to be and if He had any sin of His own,

He fulfilled. The person so free froin could only have died for Himself, see- personal service, and so truly in our ing His obligations to do and to suffer nature, and yet so exalted in person, would have been His just due to the should also be accepted and ordained of righteousness and the vengeance of God. Our text gives this a full soluGod. Jesus Christ was perfectly ex- tion, in that it says, He shall make empt from service, and therefore could His soul an offering for sin.” Christ volunteer to undertake it for our sake. did not make Himself a sin-offering

There was needed, also, one of the without a warrant from the Most same nature with us. Such was Jesus High: God made Him so.

“ The Christ. For this purpose He became Lord hath laid on Him the iniquity of man. Made in all points like unto us,

us all.being a man, and standing exactly in IV. CHRIST'S WORK AND THE EFFECTS a man's place, becoming a real Adam, OF THAT WORK ARE NOW COMPLETE. standing quite in the first Adam's Christ has made an atonement so place, He was a fit person to become a complete that He never need suffer substitute for us.

again. The death-knell of the penalty The dignity of His sacred person rings in the dying words of the Saviour, made Him the most proper substi- “It is finished.” Do you ask for a tute, A mere man could at most proof of this ? Remember that Christ be a substitute for one other man. rose again from the dead. If he had Crush him as you will, and make not completed His work of penaltyhim feel in his life every pang which suffering, He would have been left in flesh is heir to, but he can only

the tomb till now. More than that; suffer what one

would have He has ascended up on high. Think suffered. He could not

then you He would have returned thither have suffered an equivalent for that with unexpiated sin red upon His eternal misery which the ungodly garments? Do you suppose He would deserve; and if he were a mere man, have ascended to the rest and to the he must suffer precisely the same.

A reward of an accomplished work? difference may be made in the penalty, Complete also in its effects. There when there is a difference in the person, is now complete pardon for every soul but if the person be the same, the which believeth in Christ. You need penalty must be exactly the same in not do anything to make the atonedegree and quality. But the dignity ment of Christ sufficient to pardon of the Son of God, the dignity of His you. It wants no ekeing out-pardon, nature, changes the whole matter; it full and free, is now presented in the puts such a singular efficacy into every name of Jesus, proclaimed to every groan and every pang, that it needs creature under heaven.-C. H. Spurnot that His pang should be eternal, geon : Metropolitan Tubernucle Pulpit, or that He should die a second death ; No. 561.

man

even

THE ATONEMENT.

liii. 10. When Thou shalt make His soul an offering for sin, &c. I. THE SOUL OF THE MESSIAH The word here used (OVX, asham) WAS TO BE MADE AN OFFERING FOR signifies either guilty,-or, by a figure, SIX.

an offering for guilt. We may coue sider it in both senses. He was not By the Father; "when Thou," &c. in Himself guilty, but innocent and (vers. 6, 10). It was done by His perfectly so (2 Cor. v. 21; Heb. vii. • determinate counsel” (Acts ii. 23). 26). But our sins were imputed to This does not excuse those who beHim, or “laid upon Him;” that is, came the instruments of His death. they were laid to His charge, and It was God who required an offering He was made accountable for them for sin ; His purity, His justice, His (Isa. liii. 6; 1 Pet. ii. 24); “male a truth, the authority of His law, the curse” (Gal. iii. 13). Hence He was rights of His government required it made an offering for guilt. Two things His glory demanded it, as a considerawere to be done, that the glory of God tion on account of which He might might be fully displayed, in the re- pardon sin, and save the sinner with demption of man. Sin must be par- honour to Himself (Rom. viii. 3; iii. doned, otherwise the sinner could not 25, 26). God provided it in mercy be saved. was necessary also it and love to mankind (John iii. 16; 1 should be punished; otherwise, its John iv. 9, 10; Tit. iii. 4). He proevil could not appear, nor the Divine vided even His own Son to be made attributes escape impeachment; the flesh, to be poor, despised, afflicted, to law of God, which had forbidden sin, die in ignominy and torture, for men must be magnified, or the equity of who were sinners, enemies, rebels ! His government asserted. Sin must, (Rom. v. 6-10). therefore, be pardoned in a way that III. THE EFFECTS WHICH SHOULD marks and publishes the evil of the BE PRODUCED. offence. The sacrifice of bulls and 1. “He shall see His seed,”—a goats, or of any creature inferior to numerous race of sons and daughters man, was insufficient for this purpose begotten by the Gospel among Jews (Heb. x. 4). Nor could any man and Gentiles (ch. liv. 1; liii. 8, Psalm atone for his own sins, or suffer a cx. 3). punishment adequate to their demerit, 2."" He shall prolong His days.” without suffering eternally, and to the His resurrection, ascension, and exaltautmost extent of his capacity, much tion are here alluded to, whereby He less could one man atone for many, or obtained an everlasting life at God's many for all. It was necessary, there right hand (Psalm xxi. 4). The end fore, one should suffer, who, although of it is threefold : (1.) For a recompossessed of human nature, yet had pense of His own labours and suffera nature superior to man, who could inys (Phil. ii. 9). (2.) For the salvabear unlimited sufferings-sufferinys tion of His seed, whose Prophet, Priest, adequate to the demerit of all human and King; whose wisdoin, righteousoffences, in a limited time. This the ness, sanctification, and redemption; Messiah did, whose Godhead supported whose Saviour, Protector, Judge, Ro. His manhood, and enabled Him to warder, &c., He thus becomes (Matt. bear, partly in His body, and especially xxv. 34). (3.) For the judgment, in His soul, an anguish so great as condemnation, and punishment of those might give not only men, but angels, that reject Him, and are not His seed a proper view of the evil and bitter- (Matt. xxv. 41; Psalm. cx. 1; Heb. ness of sin, and the purity, justice, and x. 13; 1 Cor. xv. 25). wrath of God, in hating, condemning, 3. “The pleasure of the Lord shall and punishing it. No mere bodily prosper in His hand.”. By “the pleasufferinys could do this, and, therefore, sure of the Lord” is intended the “ His soul” was made “an offering progress of truth and goodness, of for sin.” (See Matt. xxvi. 36-45. wisdom, holiness, and happiness in the Comp. Mark xiv. 34-36; Luke xxii. world, the advancement of God's glory, 41-44).

and the salvation of mankind, the II. BY WHOM IT WAS TO BE MADE felicity of the righteous, and the deAN OFFERING.

struction of the wicked.

4. Hence we need not wonder that I. A DOCTRINE OF THE CHRISTIAN “He sees of the travail of His soul, SYSTEM THAT NEEDS TO BE EXPLAINED. and is satisfied.”

1. Christ died in the room of sinners. INFERENCES.—1. Was it necessary

Not as the death of an individual may that Christ should be made “an offer- be the occasion of benefit to others, ing for sin ?” How great, then, is its but by a legal substitution. 2. He evil! How dreadful its effects! It is died to satisfy Divine justice. Not to of so heinous a nature that its guilt satisfy any thirst of vengeance in the could not be expiated, so that it might Father, but to satisfy His justice, which be pardoned, consistently with the requires Him to punish sin as sin, and Divine perfections, without the sacri- not merely for its consequences. 3. He fice of so glorious a person.

How died to expiate human guilt. Man is great, then, will be the punishment guilty or liable to punishment for sin. of those in the other world, who, by He has a sense of guilt latent or awakrejecting or neglecting this sacrifice, ened. The death of Christ is intended are not saved from sin ? 2. Are God's to deliver him from his guilt, and to holiness and justice so inviolable, and remove the sense of guilt from his conHis law so honourable, and the rights science. 4. He died to propitiate the of His government so sacred, that such Divine favour. Wrath against sin is a sacrifice was required for the mani- not incompatible with love. It is festation of His glory? Then, what a infinite abhorrence of sin, and an powerful call and motive have we here inflexible determination to punish it. for reverence and fear, solemnity and It is displayed in the cross of Christ. awe! 3. Did God judge it proper that The death of Christ averts it from all such a price as this should be paid for who believe in Him. man’s redemption? Then, how im- II. AN EXPEDIENT OF THE DIVINE portant, how valuable are the souls of GOVERNMENT THAT NEEDS TO BE VIN men! 4. Has the Father provided such DICATED. an atonement ? And is it actually 1. It is said that God, as a being of made? Then, how great, how aston- infinite love, might forgive sin without ishing, His mercy and love! What a atonement. Perhaps He might, if sin foundation is laid for confidence in were a personal insult or a debt. It is Him, and love to Him in return (Rom. a crime, a violation of law, rebellion viii. 32; v. 9, 10). 5. Has God been against legitimate authority. It must thus kind and bountiful? Then what be punished before it can be pardoned. a loud call upon your gratitude! 6. 2. It is said that atonement involves Shall the pleasure of the Lord prosper the substitution of the innocent for in His hands? Then, if it be your the guilty, which is cruel and unjust. anxiety to know, experience, and do Admit that Christ was innocent, and the will of the Lord, you may commit His death presents a problem of which your cause to Him. 7. Are you His the doctrine of the atonement is the seed? If so, rejoice; for He has pro- only satisfactory solution. It was volunlonged His days for your benefit. If tary. 3. It is said that atonement is not, tremble; for He is your Judge. inconsistent with grace. 8. Does He see of the travail of His to the sinner. 4. It is said that atonesoul, and is He satisfied? Then, sym- ment is subversive of the interests of pathise with Him in His sufferings and morality. It has a man-ward as well His satisfaction. Being conformed to as a God-ward aspect. It exercises a the motives and ends for which He moral influence. It supplies the strongsuffered and died on our behalf, let us est motive-power that was ever brought become instances of the efficacy of His to bear on the formation of character gracious undertaking and objects of (H. E. I., 396–398). His joy, in consequence of it (Tit. ii. III. A REMEDY FOR THE ILLS OF 14).-Joseph Benson : Sermons, vol. i. MEN THAT NEEDS TO BE APPLIED. p. 236-243.

1. The atonement unappropriated

All is grace

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