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heart and conduct is incalculable- This is what we need within ourselves indeed so great that many regard only —this healing grace; and this is what these sides of it and neglect the Divine the prophet declares Messiah will beaspect altogether, and refer to this as stow, for “with His stripes we are a result and outcome of the former. healed.”

The elevation of our Lord's nature, With these thoughts, let us surround especially as it comes out in the midst the holy table of the Lord. Here is of His sufferings, would of itself have the broken body and the shed blood. been a mighty force for the ameliora- Here are we reminded of the sufferings tion of all who contemplated it. All which yet glorified law and obtained greatness ennobles, and when it is the forgiveness, and are evermore the greatness of the good and the gentle, power of the love which heals and the heroism of love and the power of strengthens and at last completely self-sacrifice, the soul of man not only saves.—Ll. D. Bevan, D.D. admires, but is inspired, emulates the example and joins in a holy fellowship. But Christ's death was the death of These sufferings constituted the price one who loved men, and whose love is which the incarnate Son of God had revealed to us by that wisdom which voluntarily engaged to pay for human alone could fathom it, as being per- redemption: they were the atonement sonal and individual. Christ was not due for the accumulated sins of a guilty a mere philanthropist, but before His world, and were required by “the deinfinite intelligence every man stood terminate counsel and foreknowledge separate and alone; in His infinite of God.” heart every man had a place. Hence 1. THEIR NATURE. His sufferings were sufferings for me, To form an adequate conception of for you ; His death was in my place, our Redeemer's sufferings, we must in yours (P. D. 456).

contemplate Him as forsaken and unWe find that in Him there ga- supported, save only by the consciousthers not only goodness, patience, all ness of perfect innocence; surrounded the virtues of which man is capable, by a whole nation of implacable enethere exhibited through hostility and mies; betrayed by His own treachereven unto death, but there is love-a ous companion; insulted and beaten personal, direct, and individual love- by a ferocious multitude; dragged, on such as would have been equal to all the a perjured accusation, before the judg. claim made upon it, to all the burden ment-seat; affixed to the accursed which it had to bear even if there were tree, where, for six tedious hours of only one soul in the world to be re- mortal agony, He hanys suspended deemed, and that mine or yours. Let from His own quivering flesh. Bitter, this be realised by each man, and see however, as were the physical sufferhow his spirit will be affected by that ings of our Lord, the peculiar agony of love of Christ. What a price for His passion did not result solely from righteousness! What a hindrance to

It was the mental anguish sin! What a discipline, a culture, is that He endured during that awful here! How life will be inspired, period; the overwhelming consciousaction directed, victory assured for ness of God's anger ; the total absence him who lives with the ever-present of all aid or consolation from above; thought of the love of Christ! Thus the feeling of utter desertion both by will the sinful character be changed, God and man, when He approached the wounds be healed, a new heart the tremendous conflict with all the given, and by the grace of the Holy powers of darkness ;-it was the presSpirit who applies these "things of sure of that enormous mass of transChrist,” the soul is regenerated, sanc- ferred sin which, as the representative tified, and at last glorified in the per- of mankind, He had undertaken to fect blessedness and holiness of heaven. bear. Physically, His sufferings did not differ materially from those of that this purpose but llis only Son, who noble army of Christian heroes who assumed the nature and liabilities of followed His steps to martyrdom and those whom He desired to rescue from glory ; but they had no desertion of destruction. The object for which He the Divine grace and favour to lament came into the world was to redeem --no load of imputed corruption to mankind -- by undergoing the full weigh them down. The Prince of amount of punishment that had been Martyrs felt the unnatural load of His incurred; by rescuing all that might polluted burden ; He tottered under believe on Him from the dominion of its enormous weight, but no assisting sin and Satan; and by opening a hand stretched out to help ; alone He fountain for sin and uncleanness, had to undergo the tremendous ordeal, capable of removing pollution from without support from His Father, the entire human race. without the comfort and companion- These merciful purposes had long ship of the Holy Spirit.


been intimated by Divine revelation, Thus was the “Messiah cut off, but and the expectation kept alive by a not for Himself.” He owed no sub- series of prophecies. The necessity of mission to death, having never fallen a real expiation was prefigured by the under the dominion of sin. The early institution of blood offerings, in punishment which He underwent was which an innocent victim became an due to us; they were our iniquities atonement for the sins of the sacrificer, for which He was wounded and slain; and was supposed to draw down the for our sakes He became as it were divine wrath upon itself, and to avert the paschal lamb, “sprinkliny His it from the offender. Corresponding blood ” for our salvation ; for us He intimations were made in all the other consented to be treated like the scape- types and ordinances of the law, goat in the wilderness, and to bear in especially in the driving forth of the His own person the iniquities of us sin-laden scapegoat into the wilderall. How bitter the ingredients of ness, and in the entrance into the holy the cup of which He drank ! The of holies of the priestly intercessor annals of mankind can furnish no bearing the blood of sacrifice (Heb. parallel to the immensity of His ix. 7, 11, 12). sufferings.


The entire value of our Redeemer's Mankind had been created perfect, mediation, the whole efficacy of His but had fallen from their original up- atonement, depended on His total rightness into a state of degradation freedom from sin. The smallest demost offensive to the holiness of God. viation from the perfection of righteHe could not behold His creation, ousness would have entirely disqualionce so happy and sinless, thus cor- fied Him for the office of a Saviour, by rupted and depraved, without just degrading Him to the very condition indignation. Yet in the miilst of His of those whom He purposed to save. wrath He remembered mercy; and, He would have become in His own because mankind were too widely person a debtor to Divine justice, and alienated from Himself ever to be thus would have required a surety for rescued from the lamentable conse- Himself, instead of becoming a surety quences of the Fall by any exertions for others. But the spotless holiness of their own, He devised the wonderful of the expiation was secured by His expedient of vicarious atonement, by inseparable relation to the Deity; and, which, through the personal interven- for the same reason, a redundancy of tion of some friendly mediator, full merit accrued to Him which rendered and perfect satisfaction might be the atonement He made abundantly offered, in man's behalf, to the offended efficacious for the redemption of the holiness and plighted truth of Heaven. world (1 Pet. ii. 22-24; H. E I. No one could be found sufficient for 377–381).

The surest proof of the entire suf- soul of His sufferings.” II. In His ficiency of our Lord's sufferings and

earlier and in His later years. Of the death as an offering for sin consists in babe-boy-man. III. In personal enHis resurrection from the dead. This durance and by sympathy. Sympathy was the sign to which He had pre- with all the ills of humanity, and with viously referred the Jews as an evidence the woes of individual sufferers. 1V. of His divine power (John ii. 19-21); From all orders of being. Men-friends, and it was, doubtless, essential that foes, neutrals ; devils; God-withHe who claimed a victory over death drawal, infliction of penalty. should exhibit in His own instancə CONCLUSION.—Can the sufferings of the first fruits of that victory by rais- Christ be explained apart from the ing Himself from the dead. Had He doctrine of the atonement ? Ought failed in rescuing Himself, His ability not the sufferings of Christ for us to to save others might reasonably have draw forth our faith and love ? Should been questioned; but having exercised not the sufferings of Christ lead us as that power in His own case, much believers to confide in His sympathy? more is He able to raise others from -G. Brooks : Outlines, p. 79. the death of sin to the new life of righteousness and glory. The sufficiency of our Lord's atonement is still further evident in His public and

(Sacramental Sermon.) triumphant ascension into heaven, and

There is nothing else which ought in His subsequent fulfilment of the

so to affect our hearts as the ordinance promise that after his departure He

of the Lord's Supper. It brings to would send the Holy Spirit unto them.

mind all our misery, all our salvation, - George Pellew, D.D.: Sermons, vol. i.

It places before us the august emblems pp. 107–124.

of our crucified Master, and calls us to pronounce over His broken body and

shed blood the sacramental vow. It Consider I. THE NATURE OF THE

is, therefore, one of the most affecting REDEEMER'S SUFFERINGS.

Physicalsolemnities in which we shall ever be but not chiefly so. The physical suf- engaged till we get to heaven. Let us ferings of many of the martyrs were

endeavour to prepare our hearts for it, greater than His. Mental, and these while we attend to the two great ideas are harder to endure than physical

of the textsufferings. Minds differ in their capa

I. It is proper to enter fully into city for suffering ; the more capacious

the consideration of our sins, for unand sensitive they are, the greater that

less we come to this sacrament as capacity (H. E. I. 915). II. THEIR

sinners - penitent, emptied of self SOURCE: our sins, which He had taken —we shall fail of entering into the upon Himself. III. THEIR ENDS. 1. meaning of our ordinance, or holding That a way of salvation might be

communion with our Saviour. opened for all who believe. 2. That 1. The number of our sins. Go back a complete triumph over the powers

to the years of your childhood and of darkness might be achieved, by the youth. Let busy memory call up from setting up of a kingdom that will never forgotten years the thousand sins which be destroyed (see outlines on vers.

time has almost worn from the brain. 10-12).-C. B. Woodman: The British As we look back on our life, recollecPulpit, vol. iv. pp. 384-393.

tion fails us, and well may we say with the Psalmist, “Who can understand his errors ?” Surely our hearts should

be affected with the number of our I. In His body and in His soul. sins.

Had we sinned but once, the Heartache is worse than headache. law of God would have condemned us, “The sufferings of His soul were the and we could not have justified our.



selves. But we liave sinned times

situated in human society without number! eternity alone can that we cannot avoid holding an incalculate their amount !

fluence over one another.

Had we 2. Their enormity. The undisturbed destroyed ourselves only, the evil sinner, moving on in his career of would not have been so lamentable. carelessness, does not realise the great But we have dragged others into the evil of the sins he commits. He thinks same gulf wherein we have so thoughtof transgression against God as a trifle, lessly precipitated ourselves ! (H. E. I. &c. We should measure the enormity 4565). of our sin by the evil of it; and the II. Penitently consider the sufferevil of it by the majesty of the Deity ings of Jesus Christ to atone for men. we have offended, and by the eternity “ But He was wounded for our transof punislıment which God pronounces gressions.” Jesus Christ helped us over it (H, E. I. 4477-4490).

when we could not help ourselves. 1. 3. The motives which induced us to In the sacrifice of Christ the pardon of sin. Surely the small motives there sin is secured. 2. The justice of God are to sin, contrasted with the immense is satisfied. 3. An everlasting rightmotives to holiness, manisest a guilt of eousness is procured for the sinner. the heart which ought to fill our souls 4. That grace which subdues the heart with the deepest contrition.

has been obtained.Ichabod S. Spencer, 4. The effect our sins have had on D.D.: Discourses on Sacramental Occa others. Sin is a contagious evil; “ sions, pp. 178-196. sinner destroyeth much good.” We


VICARIOUS SACRIFICE. liji. 5. But He was wounded for our transgressions, &c. It is generally admitted that this Scripture, but is also everywhere prophecy refers to Christ, and if so, manifest in the universe. the vicarious nature of His sufferings 1. The vicarious principle is a law of and death cannot admit of reasonable physical being. (1.) The mineral kingdispute. If language has meaning in dom suffers forthe sake of the vegetable; the text, this must be acknowledged. for the vegetable eats upon the mineral, But there is a previous question started and lives upon its destruction and by scepticism, to which it is proper to conversion. (2.) The vegetable kingreply. We maintain then

dom, in its turn, suffers for the susI. That the principle of vicarious tentation of the animal. (3.) Herbsacrifice is consistent with the Divine feeding races of animals die to support perfections. It has been urged that the life of carnivora. And geological the sufferings of the innocent for the researches show the laws of prey and benefit of the guilty, is utterly incon- death were in commission among anisistent with perfect justice. This we mals before sin was introduced by our deny. In doing so we are under no first parents. (4.) Again, vegetables obligation to satisfy human scruples, and animals alike labour and suffer, for our ideas of what Divine justice and die for the benefit of their offreally is must necessarily be very par- spring.

spring. (5.) How beautifully is the tial and imperfect, so that dogmatically vicarious principle evinced in the to affirm what may or may not be har- voluntary cheerful sufferings of the monised with it, beyond what we learn human mother for the sake of her expressly from Divine revelation upon child (H. E. I. 393-396). the subject, is impudent presumption. 2. T'he vicarious principle is a law of It would be sufficient to know, as a intellectual being. (1.) The enjoyment matter of fact, that the law of vicarious experienced by a reader of a masterly suffering is recognised, not only in treatise, as its profound and brilliant thoughts successively rise, as by en- (2.) Man is too depraved of himself to chantment, is the purchase of the repent (H. E. I. 4250). wearisome vigilance, and sustained 4. The only remaining source is in the and often painful effort of the author's vicarious principle

. (1.) The vicarious mind. (2.) The repasts upon which person must be able to suffer the many a Christian congregation are penalty of human sin. (2.) He must Sabbath after Sabbath delighted, are have sufficient merit to procure the the sweat of the preacher's brain. (3.) enlightening and sanctifying agency of The civilisation we inherit with our a Divine worker. birth, is the result of an incalculable III. The requirements of the vicaamount of anxious, laborious, and dis- rious principle are met in the sacri. tressing thought on the part of millions fice of Christ. now sleeping in the dust. (4.) What 1. His merits fully realize the Divine privations do parents voluntarily suffer ideal. (1.) He was pure through the in order to secure the education of miracle of His birth. (2.) He was their children!

righteous in the fulfilment of every 3. The vicarious principle is a law of requirement of law. (3.) In His official moral being. (1.) It is the very soul of capacity He was approved by celestial sympathy. Without sympathy society voices, at His baptism and transfigurawould lose its charm-a community of tion, and with reference to His sufferstoics. (2.) The philanthropist facing ings at Gethsemane and Calvary. (4.) the horrors of disease and wretchedness, Hence His exaltation (John xvii, 1–5; &c. The missionary! (3.) It is virtue Phil. ii. 9–11). which gives value to sacrifice.

2. Those merits were devoted to our A principle thus universally obtain- redemption and salvation. (1.) This is ing cannot but harmonize with the the great doctrine of the text. (2.) justice of the Universal Ruler. The The marrow of the Gospel. (3.) They vicarious sacrifice of Christ is the most have made provision for the renewal marvellous and stupendous exemplifica- of our nature-God cannot change, tion of a law everywhere exemplified. and therefore we must be changed.

II. A vicarious sacrifice of infinite The Holy Spirit helps us to repent merit is indispensable to human sal- and believe the Gospel, &c. vation.

CONCLUSION.-1. Learn the absur1. Man is found in the attitude of dity of seeking salvation by works rebellion against God.

2. Learn the obligation to aim at 2. Divine justice cannot be sacrificed Christian perfection. (3.) Learn the to mercy (H. E. I. 376).

necessity of the vicarious principle to 3. Man has no means by which to the Christian life (Matt. xvi. 24-26; commend himself to the mercy of God. 1 John iii. 16–17). —James Alex. Mac(1.) Repentance of no value without donald : Pulpit Analyst, vol. i. pp. an atonement (H. E. I. 4225–4228). 702-705.


liii. 5. With His stripes we are healed. The two great things which the port of them all to be that “ Christ Spirit of Christ in the ancient pro- ought to have suffered, and then to phets testified beforehand, were the enter into His glory." But in no part sufferings of Christ, and the glory that of the Old Testament are these two should follow (1 Pet. i. 11, 12). And things so fully exhibited as in this when Jesus, afier His resurrection, chapter, from which many passages ex!ounded to His disciples, in all the are quoted and applied to Christ in Scriptures, the things concerning Him- the New Testament. selt, He showed the scope and pur- I. THE SUFFERINGS OF THE MESSIAH. VOL. II.



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