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of the second lever is in the most favourable spontaneously occurred to each individual, is a position to be operated upop powerfully by the question that can only be satisfactorily solved connecting-rod proceeding from the handle N. by the former. Thus much is certain, that Mr. When the impression is produced, two balance König's labors were the first which produced weights act in concert to return the handle N, any fruit; and, surely, more is due to him who, and raise up the platen.

after years of persevering toil, succeeds in the The testimonies in favor of this press, by al- application of hitherto unapplied principles, than most every master-printer who has used it, prove to one of whom we can only say that he was simit to be the most complete press now in use; and ply the first to suggest ideas, since no evidence at present appears scarcely susceptible of much is offered of their ever having been acted upon. improvement.

M. König, by birth a Saxon, and by occupaSeveral other presses are now in use, particu- tion a printer, many years ago conceived it poslarly the Albion press; but as they are somewhat sible to print by steam, though he then expected similar in construction to the Columbian, though no more than to be able to give accelerated not so well approved, a particular specification speed to the common press; to which end his need not be given. The Ruthven or horizontal first efforts were bent. As from the nature of press, invented by Mr. John Ruthven of Edin- such an undertaking, considering the state of burgh, differs materially from all others, in the scientific pursuits in his native land, he could platen being moveable, and the types stationary. calculate on little success unaided by others, But, as it requires that a workman should almost and failing in his application for encouragement learn his business over again to work at it, it is and support at the hands of the most eminent now seldom used. A beautiful and well-made printers in several ot the continental capitals, he press has lately been introduced into use dy Messrs. turned his eyes towards England. Arriving in Newman and Gillson, of Newark. Its power is London, about 1804, he submitted his scheme to produced by the use of inclined planes, and, several printers of repute, who, not being disthese being fixed in a box which is well supplied posed to incur the risk of property which a series with oil, the usua! inconveniences experienced of experiments were sure to entail, and perhaps, in that mode of obtaining pressure are in a great placing little confidence in a successful issue, measure obviated. For all light work this press received bis overtures very coolly; and it is properhaps equals any press in use; but it is not bable his applications in this country would have adapted for large and heavy forms.

shared the fate of similar attempts abroad, had Several attempts have been made to apply a he not finally been introduced to Mr. Bedsley, self-inking apparatus to the common press, senior, who, attracted by M. K.'s plans, speedily and numerous patents have been obtained to this entered into an arrangement with him.

After a purpose; but as nothing has to this day been short course of experiments on the fabrication of produced at all likely to succeed, however lauda a press which should have accelerated motion, ble and ingenious the attempts, we shall not sup- and at the same time render the work of the ply any description of them.

man who inks the type unnecessary, the above Of machine printing.– Previous to the intro- gentlemen were joined by Mr. G. Woodfall and duction of machines into the business of print- Mr. R. Taylor, the former of whom, however, soon ing, the press department was one of great labor retired; the remaining three, in no wise discouand difficulty, and the number of copies of a raged by the tediousness and expense which all newspaper, which could be printed within the who are conversant with the progress of any inhour, seldom exceeded 750, even with extraor- vention in machinery well know to be unavoiddinary exertion. The consequence was, that in able, persevered amidst unforeseen perplexities, newspaper offices, where the circulation was ex- which were doubtless not diminished by the partensive, it was found necessary, in order to get ty's deficiency in practical mechanical knowledge. the paper published in time, to compose two or It was at length discovered that the intended more copies, so that by going to press at the improvement of the common press could not be same time, the demands of the public might be brought to bear, and that much labor and prodicomplied with; thus occasioning an enormous gious expense would be thrown away, unless increase of expenditure both in the compositors' some radical alterations were invented." Cylinand press departments. In a newspaper circu- DRICAL printing was now thought of, and, after lating 7000 or 8000 copies, this expense, annu some two or three years of renewed exertion, a ally could not have been less than £2000; all small machine was brought forth, the characterof which has been saved by the introduction of istic of which was, that instead of the printing machines, which are worked by steam or hand. being produced by a flat impression (similar to

The cylindrical mode of printing, which, in con the press), the sheet passed between a large roller tradistinction to the old process, is called machine and the types still flat; and, in lieu of the oldprinting, was invented by the late Mr. Nicholson, fashioned balls, used by hand to beat over the well known in the scientific and literary world, types, and to communicate the ink to their surwho took out a patent in the year 1790, though face, skins were strained round smaller rollers on it does not appear that his plans and experiments which it was contrived to spread the ink, and ended in any actually practical result. "Whether under which the form, i. e. the frame in which M. König, who at a later period more success- the types are fixed, passed in its way to the fully attempted to print by machinery, was in- pripting cylinder. Considerable promise of sucdebted to Mr. Nicholson for his elementary cess attended this production; and, after contiprinciples, or whether almost the same ideas nued experiments, it was deemed practicable to

extend the general principles to a more powerful only partially damaged, was reinstated, and machine. To print a newspaper was considered worked for some time : it has now, however, highly desirable; and on exhibiting to Mr. given place to two large and admirable machines Walters, proprietor of the Times newspaper, the built on the improved plan, which, when inmachine already erected, and showing what further spected by a judicious eye, can create only improvements were contemplated, an agreement wonder at the heretofore circuitous manner was entered into with that gentleman for the adopted to attain ends so apparently within easy erection of two large machines for printing his reach. The original machine contained upwards journal. So secret had been the operations of of 100 wheels; whereas the new machine, with the patentees that the first public intimation of about ten wheels, accomplishes, in point of their invention was given to the reader of The quantity, exactly the same object, with a Times on Monday, the 28th of November, 1814, marked advantage in regard to the quality of who was told that he then held in his hand one the printing. Another important point respectof many thousand impressions thrown off bying the new machine is, that it occupies scarcely steam. At this time but few persons knew of half the space of the original one. any attempt going on for the attainment of the This machine, notwithstanding the improveabove object; whilst, among those connected ments which had been made upon it, has lately with printing, it had been often talked of, but been replaced by one made by Augustus Appletreated as chimerical.

garth, esq., several of whose machines are at The machines at the Times Office, cumbrous present in use in the metropolis; and recently and complicated as subsequent improvements several have been exported to the continent. All have made them appear, were yet in many respects the machines of his construction are worked by admirably adapted to the purpose for which they steam; but there are others which have for some were erected.

years been brought into use which are turned by The next advance in improvement was the a fly wheel ; and of course have the advantage manufacture of a machine for Messrs. Bensley, of being far less cumbersome, and more applidistinguished from those before mentioned by cable to the general purposes of the trade. One the mode of perfecting (or printing on both was invented by Mr. W. Nicholson, of London, sides), so that the sheet of white paper is placed for which a patent was obtained 29th April, in the feeder and delivered from the machine 1790; a second by Mr. Bacon of Norwich, and printed on both sides ! In addition to the essen made by Bryan Donkin, esq., of, London ; anotial differcnce between this machine and those ther was the invention of the late Charles previously made, it came forth with many obvi- Brightly, esq., of Bungay, and executed by the cus improvements, though still unquestionably same engineer; none of them, however, have complex :—and for the first attempt at effecting been brought into practical adoption, though register (causing the pages to fall precisely on they each possessed a considerable share of the back of one another), a greater degree of suc merit, and were constructed at a very great excess than might have been expected was attained, pense. subsequent experience showing the many diffi The adoption of printing machines rendered culties to be surmounted in the accomplishment necessary a new mode of distributing the ink of this object. Deficiencies were now detected upon the type, and which is now transferred to in the inking : the strained skins were found un the common press. The original mode was to even in their surface; and attempts were made moisten sheep-skins in liquor, to fasten them to clothe the rollers with an elastic preparation round a ball of wool, and then, having procured of glue, treacle, &c., which has at length attained two of them, the ink was distributed on the surperfection.

face of each by working them together. This By this time the invention had attracted the is now entirely superseded by the use of rollers. attention of various individuals, who thought These rollers are a composition of glue and the manufacture of printing machines an easier treacle, which, when heated into a liquid state, task than they afterwards found it to be; and are cast in a mould, round a cone of hard wood; far the greater number of attempts, we believe, and, when cold, are extracted from the mould, failed almost as soon as undertaken. A machine, and are soon fit for use. This method of inking however, similar in its capacities to that last forms one of the most valuable improvements mentioned, but much more simple in its con in modern printing ; as it not only affords construction, has been brought out, under the direc- siderable ease to the workmen, but is calculated tion of some eminent English engineers. It was to perform the operation with much greater regunot long before these gentlemen were requested to larity and certainty. apply their inking apparatus to Messrs. Bens The machines worked by hand now most in leys' machine, and at one stroke, as it were, repute are those manufactured by Mr. D. Napier. forty wheels were removed—so great was the sim- They print both sides the sheet at one operation; plification : and at the same time the defects of and are calculated to do the work of about six the former system, of communicating the ink to or seven presses. This ingenious mechanist is the types, were most effectually remedied. Mas now contriving one for printing newspapers, sive and complicated as it was, yet as an im- which is estimated to take off 300 impressions mense expense had been incurred in its erection, per minute,-a speed almost incredible. As this Messrs. Bensley went on using their machine with some other machines for printing by the until the destruction of their establishment by same engineer, are not yet completed, we must fire in 1819. And, even after the rebuilding of refer a minute description of them to the article the premises, the machinery, which had been TYPOGRAPHY, which see.

PRINTING, COPPER-Ptate, requires some consists in 'dyeing cloth with certain colors or notice, though we hardly know a modern art or figures upon a ground of a different hue. The 'trade that has been so little improved in the colors are usually fixed by mordants that have mode of conducting it. It is performed by a various degrees of chemical affinity for the body 'machine called the rolling-press, which may be to be employed. divided into two parts, the body and carriage. The art of calico printing is of considerable

The body consists of two cheeks of different antiquity, and we have seen some Egyptian cotdimensions, ordinarily about four feet and a half ton dyed by figured blocks many hundred years thigh, a foot thick, and two and a half apart, old. A similar process has long been resorted joined at top and bottom by cross pieces. The 'to in the Sandwich Islands, though they usually cheeks are placed perpendicularly on a wooden employ a large leaf as a substitute for the block. stand or foot, horizontally placed, and sustaining A popular view of the process of printing the whole press. From the foot likewise rise calicoes may, however, be furnished prior to a four other perpendicular pieces, joined by cross more scientific analysis of the various processes, or horizontal ones, which may be considered as Some calicoes are only printed of one color, the carriage of the press, and as serving to sus- others have two, others three or more, even to tain a smooth, even plank, about four feet and a the number of eight, ten, or twelve. The smaller half long, two feet and a half broad, and an inch the number of colors, the fewer in general are and a half thick; upon which the engraven plate the processes. is to be placed. Into the cheeks go two wooden One of the most common colors on cotton cylinders or rollers, about six inches in diameter, prints is a kind of nankeen yellow, of various borne up at each end by the cheeks, whose ends, shades, down to a deep yellowish brown, or which are lessened to about two inches diameter, drab. It is usually in stripes or spots. To and called trunnions, turn in the cheeks between produce it, the printers slightly coat a block, two pieces of wood, in form of half moons, lined cut out into the figure of the print, with acetate with polished iron to facilitate the motion. The of iron, thickened with gum or four; and apply space in the half moons left vacant hy the trun- it to the cotton, which, after being dried and nion is filled with paper, pasteboard, &c., that cleansed in the usual manner, is plunged into a they may be raised and lowered at discretion; potash ley. The quantity of acetate of iron is so as only to leave the space between them ne- always proportioned to the depth of the shade. cessary for the passage of the plank charged with For yellow the block is coated in a similar way the plate, paper, and blankets. Lastly, to one of with acetate of alumina. The cloth, after receivthe trunnions of the upper roller is fastened a ing this mordant, is dyed with quercitron bark, cross, consisting of two levers or pieces of wood and then bleached. Red is communicated by traversing each other. The arms of this cross the same process; only madder is substituted serve in lieu of the handle of the common press; for the bark. The fine light blues which appear giving a motion to the upper roller, and that to so often on printed cottons are produced by apthe under one; by which means the plank is plying to the cloth a block covered with a comprotruded, or passed between them.

position, consisting partly of wax, which covers The printing is performed nearly as follows:- all those parts of the cloth which are to remain The workmen take a small quantity of the ink white. The cloth is then dyed in a cold indigo on a rubber made of linen rags, strongly bound vat; and after it is dry the wax composition is about each other, and with this smear the whole removed by hot water. Lilac, flea brown, and face of the plate as it lies on a grate over a

blackish brown, are given by means of acetate charcoal fire. The plate being sufficiently inked, of iron; the quantity of which is always prothey first wipe it over with a foul rag, then with portioned to the depth of the shade. For very the palm of their left hand, and then with that deep colors, a little sumach is added. The of the right; and, to dry the hand and forward cotton is afterwards dyed in the usual manner the wiping, they rub it from time to time in with madder, and then bleached. Dove-color whitening. In wiping the plate perfectly clean, and drab, by acetate of iron and quercitron bark. yet without taking the ink out of the engraving, When different colors are to appear in the same the address of the workman consists. The plate print, a greater number of operations are necesthus prepared is laid on the plank of the press; sary. Two or more blocks are employed, upon over the plate is laid the paper, first well moist- each of which that part of the print only is cut, ened, to receive the impression, and over the which is to be of some particular color. These paper two or three folds of flannel. Things thus are coated with different mordants, and applied disposed, the arms of the cross are pulled, and to the cloth, which is afterwards dyed as usual. by that means the plate with its furniture passed Dr. Ure furnishes the following important through between the rollers, which, pinching observations on calico printing, for which he very strongly, yet equally, press the moistened states that he is indebted to a much esteemed paper into the strokes of the engravings, whence friend, who unites scientific knowledge to pracit licks out the ink.

tical skill. It occurs in the second volume of Printing of Calico. The art of printing Berthollet's Art of Dyeing. in colors is intimately connected with many of To bleach cloth for printing, it is first of all the chemical processes we have already described to be singed, and then steeped in warm water under the article Dyeing; we shall therefore (sometimes with an addition of spent ley) for a avoid any unnecessary repetition of those de- day or two. It is then well washed and boiled tails by occasional references to the various in potash ley, five different times. sections of that treatise. This ingenious art For 2000 lbs. (original weight) of cloth, 1000

As soon

gallons of water, and forty to forty-five lbs. of more expeditious, and more generally practised potash are employed each time. The boiling is now, they are winced a short time in a warn: continued eight or ten hours.

but weak solution of chloride of lime. Betwixt each operation the cloth must be well For indigo blue. A strong solution of caustic washed, and after the third and fourth boil it potash is made, in every gallon of which, by the must be spread upon the grass, or steeped for a aid of as much orpiment, twelve or sixteen night in a weak solution of chloride of lime. ounces of good indigo is dissolved. This soluAfter this it is winced a few minutes in a warm tion, when clear, is thickened with gum. This dilute sulphuric acid, well washed, and dried. being printed upon the cloth, nothing more is

The principal processes, or rather styles of necessary than to wash it when dry. work, as they are called, are the following : For Prussian blue. The same mordant is 1. Single colored plates.

used as for black; but, after cleansing, the piece 2. Ditto ditto grounded.

is winced in a solution of prussiate of potash, 3. Light or dark chintzes.

in which the prussic acid has been set free by 4. Dark grounds, with a white discharge. means of sulphuric acid. 5. Blue grounds with a white resist.

For gold. Five pounds sulphate of iron and 6. Blue grounds, with a red and white resist one pound and a half acetate of lead are distogether.

solved in a gallon of water : the solution, thick7. Chemical or spirit colors.

ened with gum, is printed on the cloth; and, 1. Single colors are called plates from their after eight or ten days' age, is winced in a solubeing generally printed with the copper plate. tion of potash made thick with lime. This process consists generally in printing a as the black oxide of iron, which is precipitated, mordant upon the cloth; which mordant attracts commences to redden, the piece is removed to a a coloring matter when the cloth is dyed. The vessel of water, and then washed. mordant is different, according to the color that 2. A second, and sometimes third color, is is wanted.

grounded or printed in with a small block, geFor black. An acetate of iron is used of the nerally after the first has been dyed. specific gravity 1.040.

Bark yellow. A mordant is used, the same as For purple. An acetate of iron, specific gra- for red. The piece, when slightly dunged, is vity 1:12, with six, eight, or twelve times its dyed about an hour with one pound of quercitron volume of water, according to the shade of color bark, the infusion being gradually heated during required, and the mass to be printed.

that time to 130° or 160°. For red. A solution of three pounds alum in Berry yellow. A decoction of French, or a gallon of water, one half of which is decom- Turkey, or Persian berries, with half a pound of posed by acetate of liine or lead.

alum per gallon, is thickened with four or gum; For chocolate. Mixtures of acetate of iron, and the piece, when dry, is passed through a specific gravity 1:12, with red mordant, in the weak alkaline carbonate, or lime-water. proportions of one to two, four, six, according to Verdigris green. A solution of sulphate and the shade.

acetate of copper is put on cloth, which is then Each of these mordants is thickened with passed through a strong solution of potash, in which flour, or in some cases with gum, and printed some protoxide of arsenic has been dissolved. upon the bleached cloth. After being exposed Drab. The same mordant as is used for purto the air for a few days, in a warm room, the ple. Bark, the dye stuff. goods are taken down and passed through the Olive. The chocolate mordant dyed in bark. dung copper at a heat of from 150° to that of Both these very much diluted, and thickened boiling water. They are then washed, and with gum. winced in another clean dung copper, at a lower Buff

. A weak acetate of iron is applied, and degree of heat than before, and then washed washed in water. again. They are now ready to be dyed.

3. Chintzes.-A number of different colors All the colors last mentioned, viz. black, pur- printed upon cloth together, viz. black, red, one ple, red, and chocolate, are dyed with madder or two pale reds, purple, blue, green, and yellow. and sumach, except purple, in which the sumach The black, red, and blue, are the same as in No. is omitted. Different quantities of madder are 1; the purple as No. 1 thickened with gum ; used, according to the quantity of color on the the two pale reds are weaker solutions of alum cloth, from one pound per piece of twenty-one and acetate of alumina, thickened with gum; square yards, to three and even three and a half the yellow is berry yellow, applied after the other pounds; the sumach about one-eighth of the colors are finished; the green is formed by the madder. The goods are entered when the cop- yellow falling upon the blue; and all the varieper is cool, and the heat is brought up gradually ties of orange, olive, &c.,

by its falling upon the during two or three hours, and sometimes the pale reds and purple. The dyeing and subseebullition is kept up for a quarter of an hour; quent bleaching are the same as has been dethe pieces all the while being turned over á scribed in No. î, with madder only. wince, from the one side of the copper vessel to 4. A dark ground discharged. --When the the other. They are then washed, and boiled in discharge is printed before the mordant, it bran and water ten or fifteen minutes. If they consists of concentrated lime juice alone, thickhave much white, they must be branned a second ened with gum. The mordant, which is also and a third time, washing between each opera- thickened, is blotched over the whole piece, tion. To complete the whitening, they are and dried off it as quickly as possible. When spread upon the grass for a few days; or what is the mordant is applied first it is not thickened,

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and the acid has an addition of one pound bi- added. The mixture is to be carefully stirred sulphate of potash in each gallon. They are for some time, and, when the liquor -begins to dunged and dyed like other single colors. clarify, the potash is put in, then the chalk, in Blacks, instead of madder, are generally dyed small portions at a time, to avoid too great an with logwood and galls.

effervescence. The whole must now be stirred 5. Blue grounds. - To make a blue paste for for an hour and left to settle. The clear liquor dark blues, three or four pounds sulphate of is used as occasion requires. copper are dissolved in a gallon of water, with For strong reds (full reds) the above mordant a pound or a pound and a half of acetate of lead. is thickened with starch. This is called first red. The clear solution is thickened with pipe-clay If reds of a weaker tone be wanted, the morand gum. The pieces printed with this paste dant is thickened with gum. are hooked upon a frame, and dipped in a weak For the second red, three pints of the mordant blue vat five or six times ; then taken out and are thickened with two pounds and a half of kept in the air till they become blue. Alternate gum dissolved in a pint of cold water. The immersions and airings are thus continued till whole is well mixed by due agitation. the requisite shade has been obtained. The For the third red, two litres (a pot) of mordant goods are then washed and dipped in a weak are mixed with the solution of five pounds of sulphuric acid, to dissolve the oxide of copper. gum, dissolved in three pots of cold water The blue vat, as is well known, is made by one The above red mordant serves also for weld fus. part of indigo, with two parts sulphate of iron, and tic and quercitron yellows, with all their shades. about two and a half parts hydrate of lime. Mordant for blacks. Twelve pints of iron

6. A mordant for red, to resist the blue vat, is liquor (pyrolignate of iron). Four ounces of made by dissolving about four ounces acetate of copperas. copper in a red mordant, made from four pounds Dissolve the copperas in the liquor; and, after of alum, and two pounds and a half acetate of having decanted the clear, mix in gradually four lead per gallon, and thickening the solution with pounds of starch. Heat in a boiler, stirring pipe-clay and gum. When this is printed upon continually, and take it out when the starch is the cloth, and dipped in the blue vat, it resists the well boiled. blue, and a white is left, which, when dunged and Another black mordant. For eight pounds of dyed in madder, becomes red.

iron liquor, take about two pounds and a half of A white called neutral is made by dissolving superfine wheat flour, which is to be gradually sulphate of copper in concentrated lime juice, mixed up with a portion of the liquor; then add and is used along with this red. It must possess the remainder of this, and leave at rest for twelve the three following properties :—1. Resisting the or twenty-four hours, or even longer. Then boil blue; 2. Remaining white after dyeing, when for half an hour, or till the mixture has acquired the red happens to go over it; 3. To leave no the consistence of a paste. The boiler is then to oxide of copper upon the cloth.

be removed from the fire, and the mordant is to A berry yellow is grounded in after the blue, be stirred till it becomes cold. It is now to be white, and red, in this style, are finished. passed through a sieve, and used in printing.

7. Chemical colors.- This name has been given These mordants give a beautiful black with to those colors which are applied topically; logwood, and especially madder. most of them are fugitive.

Under the Chemical Black, in Rees's CycloBlack. A decoction of logwood and galls, pædia (article Color), we have the following thickened with flour, and, when cold, nitrate of recipes :iron mixed with it.

To a decoction of Aleppo galls, in five times Red. A decoction of Brasil or peach wood, their weight of water, made into a paste with with the protomuriate or permuriate of tin. flour, add a solution of iron in nitrous acid, of

Purple. A decoction of logwood with muri- specific gravity 1.25, in the proportion of one ate of 'tin.

measure of nitrate of iron to eighteen or twenty Blue. Ground Prussian blue is soaked in of the decoction, and a black will be formed fit muriatic acid for a day or two, and then as much for almost all the purposes of calico printing, of it mixed with gum tragacanth water as is suf- and possessing the chief requisites of this color, ficient to give it the desired shade.

namely, tolerable fixity, and a disposition to Yellow. A decoction of fustic with muriate work well with the block. of tin.

When a nitric solution of iron is added to a Green. A mixture of the blue and yellow. decoction of the galls, the solution is decomposed, All these colors are stmply washed off in water. the oxide of iron unites with gallic acid and tan

M. Vitalis gives the following prescriptions in ning principle, while the nitrous acid is disencalico-printing :

gaged. This appears from the blackness which Mordant for reds. 240 litres of boiling water; the solutions assume immediately on being 150 pounds of pure alum; fifty pounds of acetate mixed. The disengaged acid, however, re-acts of lead; six pounds of commercial potash or in a short time on the new compound, the blacksoda; six pounds of chalk; three pounds of ness gradually disappears, and, if the nitrate of ground Brasil wood.

iron has been added in proper quantity, the Into a vat capable of holding 400 litres, and paste in a few days becomes, from a black, of a partly filled with the 240 litres of boiling water, dirty olive green. When the proportion of nithe alum in powder is put, and then the decoction trate of iron is greater than one-eighteenth, this of Brasil wood. After stirring till the alum is change takes place sooner; and, if it amounts to dissolved, the acetate of lead in powder is one-tenth, the paste, when applied to the cloth,

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