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At our heels all hell should rise,

We are in a merry world, laughing is our busiWith blackest insurrection.

Id. ness; as if, because it has been made the definition of The stars of morn shall see him rise

man that he is risible, his manhood consisted in noOut of his grave.

Id. thing else.

Government of the Tongue. He affirmeth that tunny is fat upon the rising of Whatever the philosophers may talk of their risithe Pleiades, and departs upon Arcturus.

bility, neighing is a more noble expression than Browne's Vulgar Errours. laughing

Arbuthnot. Your author always will the best advise,

RISK, n. s. & v. a. I Fr. risque ; Span. ricsFall when he falls, and when he rises, rise.


Hazard; danger;
To rise i' the world,

chance of harm: to place in danger; risker corNo wise man that's honest should expect. Otway.

Indeed you thanked me; but a nobler gratitude He thither came, t'observe and smoak
Rose in her soul; for from that hour she loved me. What courses other riskers took.

Some run the risk of an absolute ruin for the gain-
Phæbus! stay ;
ing of a present supply.

L'Estrange. The world to which you fly so fast,

When an insolent despiser of discipline, purtured From us to them can pay your haste

into contempt of all order by a long risk of licence, With no such object, and salute your rise

shall appear before a church governor, severity and With no such wonder, as De Mornay's eyes. resolution are that governor's virtues. South,


Who would hope new fame to raise, Upon a breach with Spain, must be considered the Or risk his well-established praise, present state of the king's treasure, the rise or fall That, his high genius to approve, that may happen in his constant revenue by a Spa Had drawn a George, or carved a Jove ? Addison. nish war.


By allowing himself in what is innocent, he would With Vulcan's rage the rising winds conspire,

run the risk of being betrayed into what is not so. And near our palace rolls the flood of fire. Dryden.

Atterbury. The hill submits itself

An innocent man ought not to run an equal risk In small descents, which do its height beguile; with a guilty man.

Clarissa. And sometimes mounts, but so as billows play, Whose rise not hinders, but makes short our way.

RITCHIE (Joseph), an English traveller, Id.

one of the unfortunate victims of the passion for Bullion is risen to six shillings and five pence the African discovery, was born at Otley in Yorkounce ; i. e. that an ounce of uncoined silver will shire, and obtained a situation in the office of exchange for an ounce and a quarter of coined silver. the English consul at Paris, where he first be

Locke. came acquainted with the plans of the African Ash, on banks or rising grounds near rivers, will association. In conjunction with captain G. F. thrive exceedingly. Mortimer's Husbandry. Lyon he went to Tripoli; and, in March 1819,

All wickedness taketh its rise from the heart, and the party set out for Mourzouk, in Fezzan, under the design and intention with which a thing is done, the escort of Mukni the bey. They resided at frequently discriminates the goodness or evil of the Mourzouk some months in distress, arising from action.


the want of funds, and the treacherous conduct From such an untainted couple, we can hope to of the bey. To this hardship and vexation Mr. have our family rise to its ancient splendour of face, Ritchie fell a sacrifice in November of this year. air, countenance, and shape.

A thought rose in me, which often perplexes men Captain Lyon returned to England, and in 1821 of contemplative natures.

Spectator. published A Narrative of Travels in Northern Numidia's spacious kingdom lies

Africa, in 1818, 19, and 20, accompanied by Ready to rise at its young prince's call. Addison. Geographical Notices of Soudan, and of the

The great duke rises on them in his demands, and Course of the Niger, 4to. will not be satisfied with less than a hundred thou RITE, n. s. 2

Fr. rit; Lat. ritus. sand crowns, and a solemn embassy to beg pardon. RIT'UAL, adj. & n. s. Solemn act of religion;

Id. on Italy. Rit'ualist, n.s. external observance : Those, that have been raised by some great minis. ritual is solemnly ceremonious; a book of solemn ter, trample upon the steps by which they rise to ceremonies : ritualist, he who is skilled in ririval him.


tuals, If two plane polished plates of a polished lookingglass be laid together, so that their sides be parallel,

The ceremonies, we have taken from such as were and at a very small distance from one another, and before us, are not things that belong to this or that then their lower edges be dipped into water, the wa- sect, but they are the ancient rites and customs of the ter will rise up between them.


Hooker, No more shall nation against nation rise,

Is is by God consecrated into a sacrament, a Nor ardent warriours meet with hateful eyes. Pope. holy rite, a means of conveying to the worthy re

The bishops have had share in the gradual rise of ceiver the benefits of the body and blood of Christ., lands.


Hammond's Fundamentals.
The archbishop received him sitting ; for, said he, When the prince her fun'ral rites had paid,
I am too old to rise.

Earl of Orrery.
He ploughed the Tyrrhene seas.

Dryden. RISIBLE, adj. Fr. risible ; Lat. risibilis. than these several pieces of antiquity in the particu

A heathen ritual could not instruct a man better Having the faculty or power of laughter, or of lar ceremonies, that attended different sacrifices. exciting laughter.

Addison's Remarks on Italy. How comes lowness of stile to be so much the Instant I bade the priests prepare propriety of satyr that without it a poet can be no The ritual sacrifice, and solemn prayer.

Prior. more a satyrist, than without risibility he can be a If to tradition were added certain constant ritual man ?

Dryden. and emblematical observances, as the emblems were

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expressive, the memory of the thing recorded wouid his notes upon many eminent authors having been remain.


inserted in the best editions of them. He died RITSON (Joseph), a celebrated antiquary, in 1613. was born in 1752, at Stockton-upon-Tees, in the RITZEBUTTEL, a bailiwic belonging to county of Durham, and was brought up to the Hamburgh, containing the harbour of Cuxhaven, profession of the law. But his literary enquiries and lying near the North Sea, between the Elbe were by no means confined within the limits of and the Weser. Its area, without including the his profession; and he was, perhaps, the most small island of Neuwerk, is twenty square miles, successful of those persons by whom the investi- and its population 4000. It is very fertile. gation of ancient English literature and antiqui RITZEBUTTEL, the chief place of the above ties was cultivated in the latter part of the eigh- bailiwic, is a neat small town, with 1500 inhabiteenth century: He died October, 1803. The tants. Fifty-four miles W.N.W. of Hamburgh, following is a list of Mr. Ritson's publications :— and one south of Cuxhaven. 1. Observations on Johnson's and Steevens's Edi

RI'VAGE, n. s. French rivage. A bank; a
tion of Shakspeare; 2. Quiss Modest, in defence coast. Not in use.
of ditto; 3. Cursory Criticisms on Malone's

Edition of Shakspeare; 4. Observations on

You stand upon the rivage, and behold
Warton's History of English Poetry; 5. Descent

A city on the inconstant billows dancing ;
of the Crown of England, in a large Sheet; 6.

For so appears this fleet.

Shakspeare. Spartan Manuel; 7. Digest of the Proceedings of the Savoy Court; 8. Office of Constable ex

RI'VAL, n. s. v.a. & Lat. rivalis. A complained ; 9. Jurisdiction of the Court Leet; 10. Rival'ity, n. s. [v.n. petitor; one who is in A Collection of English Songs, 3 vols.; 11. Ditto


pursuit of the same of Scottish Songs, 2 vols.; 12. English Anthology,


thing which another 3 vols.; 13. Minot's poems, 2 vols.; 14. Metri

man pursues: to oppose ; be competitors : the cal Romances, 3 vols.; 15. Bibliographia Poetica;

noun-substantives corresponding. and, 16. Treatise on Abstinence from Animal She saw her father was grown her adverse party, Food.

and yet her fortune such as she must favour her RITTBERG, a small principality of the go- rival.

Sidney. vernment of Minden, belonging to Prussia. It

France and Burgundy,
lies on the Enes, contains an area of sixty-five Great rivals in our younger daughter's love.
square miles, and has about 12,000 inhabitants,


Had I but the means
chiefly Catholics. A number of these are spin-
ners and weavers; and the district requires an

To hold a rival place with one of them,
I should be fortunate.

annual import of provisions.
RITTENHOUSE (David), an eininent Ameri- We first address'd toward you, who with this king,

Burgundy, can mathematician, was the son of a farmer in Have rivaled for our daughter.

Id. Pennsylvania. His parents put him apprentice Oh love! thou sternly dost thy pow'r maintain, to a watch-maker; and astronomy became the And wilt not bear a rival in thy reign; object of his enquiries; and, by procuring a few Tyrants and thou all fellowship disdain. Dryden. books on the subject, he soon made great pro

You bark to be employed, gress in the science. The first public display While Venus is by rival dogs enjoyed. Id. he gave of his ingenuity was in 1768, when he Ambitious fool! with horny hoofs to pass completed his New Orrery, which gave universal O'er hollow arches of resounding brass ; satisfaction; and the trustees of the college of To rival thunder in its rapid course,

And imitate inimitable force.

Id. Æneis. Philadelphia confered on him the honorary de

Those that have been raised by the interest of gree of M.A. Not long after this he cominunicated, by his friend Dr. Smith, to the American they rise, to rival him in his greatness, and at length

some great minister, trample upon the steps by which Philosophical Society, a Projection of the transit step into his place.

South. of Venus, calculated from Halley's Tables; in

It is the privilege of posterity to set matters right consequence he was appointed by them, with between those antagonists, who, by their rivalry for several others, to make the necessary prepara- greatness, divided a whole age.

Addison. tions for observing the transit at his house at Your rival's image in your worth I view; Norristown. This transit happened on the 3d of And what I lov'd in him, esteem in you. Granville. June, 1769; and Mr. Rittenhouse obtained the O thou, too great to rival or to praise, applause of the astronomers of Europe, who es. Forgive, lamented shade, these duteous lays. teemned his observation of this singular phenome Lee had thy fire, and Congreve had thy wit; non extremely accurate and ingenious. After But none possessed thy graces, and thy ease ;

And copyists here and there, some likeness hit ; the American war he successively filled the offices in thee alone 'twas natural to please ! Harte. of treasurer of the state of Pennsylvania, and director of the national mint. He succeeded the A man truly zealous for his fraternity, is never so venerable Franklin as president of the American irresistibly Aattered, as when some rival calling is

Johnson. Philosophical Society, which office he filled with mentioned with contempt. high reputation. He died in June 1796.

RIVE, v.a. & v. n., preter, rived ; part. riven.
RITTERHUSIUS (Conrad), a learned Ger- Sax. nýft, broken ; Fr. river, to rivet. To split;
man civilian, born at Brunswick in 1560. He cleave; to divide by a blunt instrument: to be
was professor of cis law at Altdorf, and pub- split.
lished a variety of works, particularly as a civilian;

At his haughty helmet
together with an addition of Oppian in Greek So hugely struck, that it the steel did rire
and Latin: he was moreover an excellent critic; And cleft his head.


This man,

Through riven clouds and molten firmament,

The armourers accomplishing the knights, The herce three-forked engine making way,

With busy hammers closing rivets up, Botla lofty towers and highest trees hath rent. Id Give dreadful note of preparation. Shakspeare. O Cicero!

You were to blame to part with I have seen tempešts, when the scolding winds A thing stuck on with oaths upon your finger, Have rived the knotty oaks ; but ne'er till now

And rivetted with faith unto your flesh. Id. Did I go through a tempest dropping fire.

Shakspeare. If all our fire were out, would fetch down new Ten thousand French have ta'en the sacrament, Out of the hand of Jove ; and rivet him To rive their dangerous artillery

To Caucasus, should he but frown. Ben Jonson. Upon no christian soul but English Talbot. Id.

What one party thought to rivet to a settledness, The neighbouring forests, formerly shaken and by the influence of the Scots, that the other rejects. riven with the thunder-bolts of war, did envy the

King Charles. sweet peace of Druina. Howel's Vocal Forest.

Thus hath God not only rivetted the notion of himAs one he stood, escap'd from cruel fight, self into our natures, but likewise made the belief of Sore toiled, his riren arms to havock hewn. Milton.

his being necessary to the peace of our minds and Had I not been blind, I might have seen

happiness of society:

Tillotson, Yon riven oak, the fairest of the green. Dryden. The verse in fashion is, when numbers flow Let it come;

So smooth and equal, that no sight can find Let the fierce lightning blast, the thunder rive me. The rivet where the polished piece was joined. Rowe.

Dryden. Freestone rives, splits, and breaks in any direction. Till fortune's fruitless spite had made it known,

Wooduard. Her blows not shook but rivetted his throne. I. RIV’EL, v.a. Sax. gericles; Belg. huyselen, Where we use words of a loose and wandering sig. rumpled. To contract into wrinkles. Not in use. nification, hence follow mistake and error, which Then drooped the fading flowers, their beauty fled, tions, wherein the terms stand for undetermined

those maxims, brought as proofs to establish proposi. And closed their sickly eyes and hung the head, And, riveled up with heat, lay dying in their bed.

ideas, do by their authority confirm and rivet.

Locke. Dryden. Alum stipticks, with contracting power,

In rivetting, the pin you rivet in should stand upShrink his thin essence like a riveled flower. Pope.

right to the place you rivet it upon; for, if it do not

stand upright, you will be forced to set it upright RIV'ER, n. s. Fr. riviere; Lat. rivus. after it is rivetted.

Moron. RIV'ER-DRAGON, N. S. A land-current of water;

They provoke him to the rage Riv'ERET,

a considerable stream of fangs and claws, and, stooping from your horse, Riv'ER-GOD, running into the sea: a Rivet the panting savage to the ground. Addison, RIV'ER-HORSE, river-dragon is a poeti

Rivet and nail me where I stand, ye powers ! Riv'ULET. cal name for the croco

Congrere. dile: riveret and rivulet diminutives of river:

A similitude of nature and manners, in such a deriver-god, the tutelary deity of a river: river- gree as we are capable of, must tie the holy knot, horse, the hippopotamus.

and rivet the friendship between us. Atterbury.

This instrument should move easy upon the riget. It is a most beautiful country, being stored through

Sharp. out with many goodly rivers replenished with all sorts

RIVINA, in botany, American nightshade, a of fish.

Bringing all their riverets in,

genus of the monogynia order, and tetrandria There ends; a new song to begin. Drayton.

class of plants. The perianth is four-leaved, Thus with ten wounds

colored, and permanent, the leaflet oblong-egged

and obtuse: Cor. none. There are four or eight The river-dragon, tamed at length, subunits To let his sojourners depart.

filaments, shorter than the calyx, approaching by Milton's Paradise Lost. pairs, permanent: the antheræ are small. The Rose,

germ is large and roundish; the style very short; As plants ambiguous between sea and land, the stigma simple and obtuse. The berry is The river-horse and scaly crocodile. Milton. globular, sitting on the green reflected calyx, By fountain, or by shady rivulet,

one-celled, with an incurved point. There is He sought them.


one rugged seed. This plant is called solonoides The first of these rivers has been celebrated by the by Tournefort, and piercea by Miller. It grows Latin poets for the gentleness of its course, as the naturally in most of the islands of the West other for its rapidity.

Addison on Italy. I saw the rivulet of Salforata, formerly called Al will stain paper and linen of a bright red color,

Indies. The juice of the berries of the plant bula, and smelt the stench that arises from its water, and many experiments made with it to color which Martial mentions.

The veins, where innumerable little rivulets have flowers have succeeded extremely well in the their confluence into the common channel of the following manner : the juice of the berries was blood.

Bentley. pressed out, and mixed with common water, His wig hung as strait as the hair of a river-god putting it into a phial, shaking it well together rising from the water. Arbuthnot and Pope. for some time till the water was thoroughly

I would have a man's wit rather like a fountain, tinged; then the flowers, which were white and that feeds itself invisibly, than a river, that is sup- just fully blown, were cut off, and their stalks plied by several streams from abroad.


placed into the phial ; and in one night the RIV'ET, n. s. & v.a. Fr. river, to rivet; Ital. Howers have been finely variegated with red: the ribato. A fastening pin clenched at both ends: flowers on which the experiments were made to drive in or clench a rivet; fasten with a rivet; were the tuberose and the double white narfasten strongly.


RIVOLI, a town of Piedmont, Italy, at the he might easily ride on the beaten road way, should foot of the Alps, on the great road which leads trouble himself with breaking up of gaps ? over Mount Cenis into Savoy. It has some

Suckling. manufactures of linen, woollens, and silk. On

To God's eternal house direct the way, an eminence stands a castle, in which Victor

A broad and ample road.

Milton. Amadeus II. of Sardinia, after having abdicated

He from the east his faming road begins. Id. his throne in favor of his son, and endeavoured

The liberal man dwells always in the road. Fell. to resume it, died, in 1732, a state prisoner.

To be indifferent whether we einbrace falsehood The prospect from this eminence, and in par

or truth is the great road to error.

Locke. ticular the view of Turin, through a spacious al- when we climbed as when we descended them, we

In all our journey through the Alps, as well ley of trees, is most imposing. Population 5100. had still a river running along with the road. Nine miles west of Turin.

Addison. Rivoli, a small place in the north-east of Could stupid atoms, with impetuous speed, Lombardy, on the Adige, twelve miles north-west By different roads and adverse ways proceed, of Verona. It is only remarkable as the scene That there they might encounter, here unite. of one of Buonaparte's victories. At Arcole, in

Blackmore, the preceding November, his plans had been re Some taken from their shops and farms, others peatedly baffled by the Austrians; but here they from their sports and pleasures; these at suits of law, had complete success (14th and 15th January, those at gaming tables ; some on the road, others ai 1797) both on the field and in the pursuit.

their own fire-sides.

Law, RIZZIO (David), an Italian musician, who Road, in navigation, a bay, or a place of about 1563 attended the Piedmontese ambassa- anchorage, at some distance from the shore, dor to Scotland, where, by his professional skill, whither ships or vessels occasionally repair to he obtained great favor with Queen Mary. She receive intelligence, orders, or necessary supappointed him her French secretary, and showed plies; or to wait for a fair wind, &c. The exhim such marks of distinction as gave offence to cellence of a road consists chiefly in its being lord Darnley and other nobles, who, with great protected from the reigning winds and the swell brutality, assassinated him in her presence. See of the sea ; in having a good anchoring-ground, Mary and ScoTLAND. Tradition assigns to and being at a competent distance from the shore. Rizzio the amelioration, not to say the invention, Those which are not sufficiently enclosed are of the Scottish music; and it is unquestionable termed open roads. that his skill in the performance of the national A Road is an open way, or public passage, melodies on the lute tended not a little to their forming a communication between one place and general improvement and popularity ; but many another. Of all the people in the world, the Roof the airs which have been ascribed to Rizzio, mans took the most pains in forming roads; and the as Cowden Knowes, Gala Wąter, and others, labor and expenses they were at in rendering are easily traced to more remote periods. them spacious, firm, straight, and smooth, are

ROACH, n. s. From Lat. rulilus, red-haired. incredible. They usually strengthened the ground A river fish.

by ramming it, laying it with flints, pebbles, or A roach is a fish of no great reputation for his sands, and sometimes with a lining of masonry, dainty taste : his spawn is accounted much better rubbish, bricks, &c., bound together with mortar. than any other part of him: he is accounted the In some places in the cidevant Lionnois, F. water sheep for his simplicity and foolishness; and Menestrier observes that he has found huge clusit is noted that roaches recover strength, and grow in ters of flints cemented with lime, reaching ten or a fortnight after spawning. Walton's Angler. twelve feet deep, and making a mass as hard

If a gudgeon meet a roach,
He dare not venture to approach !

and compact as marble; and which, after resistYet still he leaps at flies.

ing the injuries of time for 1600 years, is still Swift.

scarcely penetrable by all the force of hammers, ROAD, n. s. Sax. rad; Fr. rade, route. From mattocks, &c.; and yet the flints it consists of Ride. Properly a horse or carriage way; large are not bigger than eggs. The most noble of the way; path; 'inroad : place for ships to anchor Roman roads was the Via Appia, which was in; journey; course.

carried to such a vast length that Procopius About the island are many roads, but only one reckons it five days' journey to the end of it, and harbour. Cason was desirous of the spoil, for he was, by the Lipsius computés it at 350 miles: it is twelve

feet broad, and made of square free-stone, geneformer road into that country, famous and rich.


rally a foot and a half on each side; and, though

this has lasted for above 1800 years, yet in many I should be still Peering in maps for ports and roads ;

places it is several miles together as entire as And every object that might make me fear when it was first made. The ancient roads are Misfortune to my ventures.

Shakspeare. distinguished into military, subterraneous roads, The Volscians stand

&c. The military roads were grand roads, Ready, when time shall prompt them, to make road

formed by the Romans for marching their armies Upon's again.

Id. Coriolanus.

into the provinces of the empire; the principal With easy roads he came to Leicester,

of these Roman roads in England art Watling And lodged in the abbey. Id. Henry VIII. The king of Scotland, seeing none came in to Street, Ikonild Street, Foss Way, and Erminage Perkin, turned his enterprize into a roud, and Street. Double roads, among the Romans, were wasted Northumberland wiih fire and sword.

roads for carriages, with two pavements, the one

Bacon. for those going one way, and the other for those Would you not think him a madmad, who, whilsť returning the other : these were separated from


each other by a causeway raised in the middle, appearance of freshness, neatness, nay, of brilpaved with bricks, for the conveniency of foot- liancy, which is only adopted partially, and that passengers; with borders and mounting stones even by a small number of people, on the contifrom space to space, and military columns to It is remarkable, he adds, that the most mark the distance. Subterraneous roads are economical nations, and those the most enthose dug through a rock, and left vaulted, and lightened as to their pecuniary interests, such as that of Puzzuoli near Naples, which is nearly half the Dutch, the Swedes, and the English, adopt, a league long, is fifteen feet broad, and as many with common consent, the system of constant high.

repair; while the Italians, the Portuguese, the Modern Roads.-If the modern roads of Spaniards, &c., the worst calculators, and the Great Britain, and particularly those of Eng- most improvident, wait generally till an edifice land, do not as yet equal the most firm and falls into ruins before they think of beginning to durable of the ancient undertakings of this kind, repair it. It is the same in England, he obit cannot be from the want of attention to the serves, with regard to the roads; they are habisubject, either on the part of the legislature or tually kept solid, smooth, and easy, equally ecothe people. Our turnpike acts would of them- nomical for the transport of commerce, and the selves make an ample volume; parliamentary convenience and expedition of travelling. But enquiries into the general subject of road-making, in France, even in the midst of profound as well as into its local applications, have often peace,' says M. Dupin, 'scarcely can the gobeen adverted to; and commissioners for carry- vernment be prevailed upon to assign, for the ing into effect the decisions of the national wis- maintenance of our roads, the third part of the dom comprise the names of almost every re sums which are furnished by the inhabitants of spectable squire and beneficed clergyman (!) and England alone—a country that does not equal in lawyer of the country.

surface a third part of France.' M. Dupin, the ablest perhaps of modern All this may contribute to put our readers in writers on the commercial power of England, is good humor with what is often a dry and dusty far more enamoured with our road-making subject; but, while we shall shortly endeavour to system than we can profess ourselves to be; he do justice to the real modern improvements in calculates that in the South of England alone we road-making, we conceive that this writer adhave an extent of public road, unequalled for mires, through ignorance of its details, some of its conveniences, that measures 46,000 leagues, the worst parts of our system. It is a dear and and attributes it entirely to the well organised bad system, and a third part of the immense public spirit of the country. He contrasts in expenditure it involves would appear fully this respect the conduct of the British govern- equal, on a better plan of administration, to acment, too, with that of France: the former not complish the complete intersection of the counonly granting the inhabitants a credit and funds, try with good roads. The surveyor of parish but leaving them to carry on themselves those roads is chosen from ten men named by a vestry works in which they are so materially interested; meeting ; or, if necessary, more than one are whilst in the latter the government obliges the appointed, the selection being in the justices at inhabitants to pour their funds into its own the quarter-sessions. The works and the money are treasury, to enable it to execute after its own under the management of the surveyor, and the manner, and when it shall seem good in its own control is in the local magistracy. A surveyor eyes, that which concerns only the governed. may perform the office gratuitously, but it is in

er,' he says, ' are we from partici- the power of the parish to name and paya salaried pating in the spirit of the administration and the and professional one. The business is neglected parliament of Great Britain! We, who scarcely by all; and it is doubly neglected when the confide to the zeal of the inhabitants the repair commissioners are numerous, or it falls into the of a village foot-path! We, who, before a hands of some one who makes an interest for basket of pebbles can be thrown upon the small- himself, in power or patronage, or something else; est departmental road, require imperatively thator, finally, every thing is transacted by an attorney, the future expense of this basketful shall be car not always the most honorable member of his ried to the budget of the arrondissement, then to profession. As to hired surveyors, their colluthat of the department, then submitted to the sions with the contractors are numerous; and grand council of bridges and highways, sitting while the wretched but cunning people who in a bureau at Paris, at the distance of 200 form vestries contrive to waste and spoil the leagues from the situation of the work !'

funds, from the spoil of which they all in turn He holds up to deserved ridicule the ‘lenteurs contrive to derive a profit, there is either no savantes d'une comptabilité profonde,' and the efficient control, or there is no control at all, as • formalités bureaucratiques,' which must be en- the accounts are passed under the direction of countered before a public work of any descrip- the attorney, himself dependent on the vestry tion can be undertaken in France; the conse- and the parish for his favor and his profits. It quences of which are, that, with a strong corps of is unquestionable that double the money is often engineers des ponts et chaussées scattered over raised for these roads that would be required every part of the country, the few new works under a prudent direction, free from all local which are commenced proceed with all imagina- interests. ble leisure, and the old ones are suffered gradu Bergman quotes this general view of the subally to decay. Matters of this kind, he says, ject; we shall extract from M. Dupin a passage are very differently managed in England. There grounded on the recent parliamentary enquiries. houses, ships, carriages, and machines, are kepı It is introduced by the following constantly in the best condition, and have an

• How very

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