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doctrines and laws which they deliver in his which unassisted reason cannot positively and pampo were indeed received from God. He can with certainty determine. The doctrine of the also undoubtedly, if he thinks fit, enable such immortality of the soul, and of a future state of persons to perform the most wonderful works in retribution, is unquestionably of very great imhis name, as a proof that he sent them; works portance to mankind; and the natural and moral of such a nature and so circumstanced as mani- arguments to prove it have certainly great festly to transcend all human power, and bear weight; but they are assailed by difficulties and the evident marks of a divine interposition. objections which weaken the evidence, and may He can also endue them with supernatural gifts, occasion suspicion and doubt, if natural reason and enable them to deliver express predictions be our only guide and umpire. Accordingly of future contingent events, which no human some of the most eminent ancient philosophers sagacity could foresee, and which yet shall be either denied this doctrine, or expressed themaccomplished in the proper season. See Pro- selves doubtfully concerning it. If then God him
It should also be further observed, upon self should, by a well-attested revelation, assure this subject, that not only they who live in the us that death shall not put an utter end to our age when the revelation was first published to being; that the present life is only the first stage the world may have such proofs of it as may be of our existence; that we shall be raised again sufficient to convince them of its divine authority from the dead; and that God will call all men and original, but that it may be transmitted with to an account, and reward or punish them in a such evidence to those who live in succeeding future state according to their behaviour in this; ages as may lay them under an obligation to and should also signify to us the nature of those receive and submit to it as a revelation from rewards and punishments, and the qualifications God. Although oral tradition is not a very sure of the persons on whom they should be conconveyance, yet it is undeniable that writings ferred or inflicted; this must needs be of high may be transmitted with such a degree of evi- advantage, and tend to give us satisfaction in a dence as to leave no room for reasonable doubt. point of considerable importance, for encouragSuch is the fact with regard to the revelation ing men in the practice of virtue, and delivering contained in the holy scriptures; nor is it diffi- them from vice and wickedness. Moreover, we cult to prove that we have greater evidence of are led by the light of nature and reason to enterthe safe transmission of these sacred writings, tain some hope that God will show mercy to without any general and material corruption and sinners upon their repentance and amendment; alteration, than we have concerning other books, but how far this mercy shall extend, whether he the genuineness of which is universally acknow- will pardon sins of every kind, even the most ledged. To this kind of argument it can only heinous, frequently repeated, and long persisted be objected that moral evidence is uncertain, in, merely upon repentance and amendment; and historical human testimony fallible; but to and whether his pardon in this case will be only the objection the reply is obvious, that this kind a mitigation or remission of the threatened of evidence may be, and frequently is, so cir- penalty, without a full restitution to grace and cumstanced, that the man would scarcely be favor, and how far he will reward an obedience thought in his senses who should seriously deny attended with failures and defects :- these things or doubt of it. It is by moral evidence, and night create anxious doubts and perplexities in the testimony of fallible men, capable of deceiv- all thoughtful minds; especially when it is furing and of being deceived, that a man who has ther considered that reason leads us to regard never been at Paris or Rome knows that there God as just as well as merciful, a'wise and are such cities, and yet he can no more reason- righteous governor, who will therefore exercise ably doubt of it than if he had seen them with his pardoning mercy in such a way as seemeth his own eyes. It is by moral evidence that we most fit to his recioral wisdom, and will best have all ou laws and records, and the assurance answer the ends of moral government. A reveof any past facts.
lation from God satisfying mankind, and especiThe great subject of present consideration, the ally anxious penitents, with regard to these usefulness and advantage of divine revelation, interesting questions, and assuring them by and the necessity of it in the present state of express promise, as well as by its representations mankind, for supporting and promoting the of the placability of God, and of the provision interests of religion and virtue in the world, may which he has made for the pardon of repenting thus be stated :Such a revelation will be of transgressors, in perfect consistence with all the great use even with regard to those truths and attributes of his nature and laws of his governprinciples which lie at the foundation of all piety, ment, must be a very great benefit to the world. or are common to what is called natural and The assistance promised and certified by revelarevealed religion. Such are the truths which tion to those who use their own earnest endearelate to the excellent and unparalleled nature, vours in the performance of their duty must the perfections and attributes of the one supreme further evince its importance and utility. The God. A divine revelation may also be very benefits and uses of a divine revelation further useful in establishing the belief of the providence extend to those laws and duties which we owe of God, and in communicating instruction to ali to God, our neighbours, and ourselves, and those who allow that some kind of religious which are comprehended under the class of worship and homage should be rendered to him. moral obligations. But though revelation is thus What kind of worship will be most acceptable eminently useful, and even necessary, it is not to the Supreme Being, and what rites are most designed to supersede the use of our own reason, proper to be used in his service ? are questions or to render the exercise of it needless, but to
guide, improve, and perfect it. Revelation, so who believed in him might not perish, but hare far from discarding or weakening any argument everlasting life. that can be justly brought from reason, in proof Now here it must be remembered that the of any truths relating to religion or morality, Jewish infidel quoad Christianity establishes and adds to them the attestation of a divine authority advocates our faith in the old and more ancient or testimony, which is of great weight. This scriptures. Between us and him, our most inboth gives us a farther degree of certainty with veterate opponent, as to the evidences of Chrisregard to those things which are in some degree tianity, there is no difference, either as to the discoverable by the light of reason, and also authenticity or inspiration of the greater part of furnishes us with a sufficient ground of assent our holy books. It is at most only a difference with respect to those things which mere unas of interpretation. While the expansive characsisted reason, if left to itself, would not have dis- ter of the Christian dispensation opens it to new covered, and which yet it may be of the highest and far more comprehensive and irrisistible arguimportance for us to know.
ments from reason and the general benevolence This leads us to the next subject of enquiry of providence. proposed :-What are the proofs and evidences REVELATION OF St. John. See APOCALYPSE. by which it may be known that such a revela Revel, or Kolyvan, a town of European tion has been actually communicated to man- Russia, the capital of Esthonia, is situated on a kind? In general we may observe that it has small bay of the gulf of Finland, and has an been the sense of mankind, in all ages and excellent harbour, defended by the works of the nations, that God has made a revelation of his town, and by batteries on some islands at its will to man; and this prevalent opinion has mouth. The town is further fortified by a mound been probably derived from a tradition of some and ditch, as well as by a citadel on a rock, and extraordinary revelation or revelations, commu divided into three parts, called the town, suburb, nicated in the earliest times to the first ancestors and Domberg. The houses are of brick, and of the human race, though in process of time it tolerably well built; but the streets are narrow has been in a great measure corrupted and lost: and irregular. Of the churches, thirteen in or at least we may hence conclude that men number, six are for the Greek faith, and the have generally thought that a revelation from others for the Lutheran. These churches, and God to man was both possible and probable; several of the other ancient edifices, bear Danish and that this was agreeable to the ideas they had inscriptions and coats of arms. Here is a miliformod of the wisdom and goodness of God, and tary academy, a public ' library, and several of his concern for mankind. It would lead us schools, infirmaries, and poor houses. A small far beyond our present limits particularly to state palace adjacent to the shore has gardens open to the proofs that have been alleged for the divine the public. authority of the Jewish and Christian revelation; The population, about 13,000, are descended both of which refer to and confirm the original from German and Russian settlers, Swedes, revelation made to mankind. See the article Finns, and Esthonians. The average number of THEOLOGY.
merchantmen that arrive in a year is about 200. Of the Christian revelation, however, we may The exports are corn, timber, hemp, and spirihere remark, cursorily, that it is founded on a part tuous liquors from the interior. The imports of the Jewish, and has been opposed by the Jewish bay salt, sugar, coffee, and British manufactures. race: that is, the Messiah promised in the one Some glass and leather are made on the spot. revelation is declared to have come in the other. Revel was founded by the Danes in 1218, conAll the rest of the Jewish revelation, or that quered at a subsequent date by the Swedes, and which related peculiarly to the Jewish people, is taken from the latter, in 1710, by the Russians. set aside; and only that part of it in which It is 200 miles west of St. Petersburgh, and 180 the world in general was interested, and that west by north of Riga. relating to the advent, offices, and character of REVELLO, a town of Piedmont, situated on the Messiah, are retained. It must be owned a mountain, and fortified both by nature and art. indeed that the Jews ever looked on this to be It contains 5000 inhabitants, and has several as peculiar to themselves as any of the rest : the well built churches, a palace and an old ruined Messiah was promised to them; he was to be castle. Nine miles north-west of Saluzzo. their deliverer, their restorer, &c., and under this REVENGE', n. s. Fr. revenger, revencharacter he actually appeared. But, upon this
cher; Span. venger ; new revelation taking place, a new scene was REVENGE'FUL, adj. Ital. vendicare, of Lat. opened, different from what many of them ap REVENGE'FULLY, adv. vindico. To return prehended, because they misinterpreted the REVENGE'MENT, n. s.
or recompense an inprophecies relating to the Messiah. The cere REVEN'GINGLY, adv. jury; wreak one's monial part of their institution, local and tem- wrongs on the wrong doer: the passion of venporary in its establishment and use, was abolish- geance; return of an injury. Dr. Johnson suged; and the Messiah appeared, not as they erro- gests a correct rather than an established distincneously imagined, to be the restorer of their tion when he says,' revenge is an act of passion ; civil sovereignty and liberties, which were now vengeance of justice. Injuries are revenged; fallen into the hands of the Romans, but to crimes are avenged.' A revenger is, a vindictive restore and re-establish mankind in general, who person; one who wreaks vengeance : revengeful, had lost their original righteousness, and were vindictive; malicious: the adverh corresponding: become slaves of sin; to preach repentance and revengement, an old synonyme of revenge, noun remission; and at last to suffer death, that all substantive : revengingly, vindictively.
I will make mine arrows drunk with blood; from without a religious oath, which supposes an om-, the beginning of revenges upon the enemy.
niscient being, as conscious to its falsehood or truth, Deut. xxxii. 42. and a revenger of perjury?
Bentley. O Lord, visit me, and revenge me of my persecu. Not unappeased, he passed the Stygian gate,
Jeremiah. Who leaves a brother to revenge his fate. Pope. Edom hath revenged himself upon Judah.
Draco, the Athenian lawgiver, granted an impu
Ezekiel xxv. 12 nity to any person that took revenge upon an adulterer. Who shall come to stand against thee, to be re
Broome. venged for the unrighteous men? Wisdom xii. 12.
REV'ENUE, n. s. Fr. revenu; Lat, revenio, So shall the great revenger ruinate
Income; annual profits. Him and his issue by a dreadful fate. Sandys.
They privily send over unto them the revenues They often tread destruction's horrid path,
wherewith they are there maintained. Spenser. And drink the dregs of the revenger's wrath. Id.
She bears a duke's revenues on her back, May be, that better reason will assuage
And in her heart scorns our poverty. Shakspeare. The rash revenger's beat; words well disposed
Only I retain
The name and all the addition to a king ;
The sway, revenue, beloved sons, be yours.
Many offices are of so small revenue, as not to fur
nish a man with what is sufficient for the support of And be for all chaste dames an endless monument.
If the woman could have been contented with Come, Antony and young Octavius,
Shakspeare. Revenge yourselves alone on Cassius.
golden eggs, she might have kept that revenue on still.
L' Estrange. It is a quarrel most unnatural,
His vassals easy, and the owner blest, To be revenged on him that loveth thee.
They pay a trifle and enjoy the rest : Revenges burn in them; for their dear causes
Not so a nation's revenues are paid ; Would to the bleeding and the grim alarm,
The servant's faults are on the master laid. Swift. Excite the mortified man.
When men grow great from their revenue spent,
Revenue, in law, is properly the yearly rent I do not know,
which accrues to any man from his lands and Wherefore my father should revengers want, possession ; but is generally used for the reveHaving a son and friends.
Id. nues or profits of the crown.
The fiscal prerogatives of the king, or such as The princess of this country; and the air on't regard his revenue, that is, those which the constiRevengingly enfeebles me.
Id Cymbeline. tution has vested in the royal person, in order By the perclose of the same verse, vagabond is
to support his dignity and maintain his power, understood for such a one as travelleth in fear of revengement.
are very learnedly treated of by Blackstone, in Beformed persons are commonly even with nature; Commentaries. It will be sufficient to observe
the eighth chapter of the first volume of his for, as nature has done il by them, so they do by natute; being void of natural affection, they have their here that almost the whole of these were, in the revenge of nature.
Bacon. late king's reign, consolidated and taken as the What had this been but to thrust themselves into property of the country : his late majesty, soon the hands of the revenger of all wicked insolencies. after his accession, having accepted the limited
Bp. Hall. sum of £800,000 per annum for the support of Moses will not revenge this wrong, God will; yet his civil list (charged also with three life-annuiwill he not deal with them himself, but he sends the ties, to the princess of Wales, the duke of Cumfiery serpents to answer for him.
berland, and the princess Amelia, to the amount Into my borders now Jarbas falls,
of £77,000), the hereditary and other revenues And my revengeful brother scales the walls.
being made a part of the aggregate fund, which What will not ambition and revenge descend to?
was charged with the payment of the whole Milton.
annuity to the crown. The expenses formerly Morocco's monarch
defrayed by the civil list were those that in any Had come in person, to have seen and known shape relate to civil government : as the expenses The injured world's revenger and his own. Waller. of the household; all salaries to officers of state,
"If our hard fortune no compassion draws, to the judges, and each of the king's servants; The gods are just, and will revenge our cause. the appointments to foreign ambassadors ; the
Dryden. maintenance of the queen and royal family; the Your fury of a wife,
king's private expenses, or privy purse; and Not yet content to be revenged ou you,
other very numerous outgoings, as secret service The agents of your passion will pursue.
money, pensions, and other bounties; which The satyr in a rage
sometimes have so far exceeded the revenues Forgets his business is to laugh and bite, And will of death and dire revenges write. Id.
appointed for that purpose that application has Repenting England, this revengeful day,
been made to parliament to discharge the debts To Philip's manes did an offering bring. Id. contracted on the civil list; as particularly in He smiled revengefully, and leaped
1724, when 1,000,000 was granted for that purUpon the floor : thence gazing at the skies,
pose by the statute 11 Geo. I. c. 17; and in 1769 His eye-balls fiery red, and glowing vengeance ; and 1777, when 1,500,000 and £600,000 were Gods, I accuse you not. Id. and Lee's Oedipus. appropriated to the like use, by the statutes
What government can be imagined without ju. 9 Geo. III. c. 34, and 17 Geo. III. C. 47. dicial proceedings ? and what methods of judicature Many of these expenses are now charged on the
consolidated fund, and the civil list compre- synonymous with to revere: a reverencer, or rehends the support of his majesty's household. verer, one who feels or manifests reverence: The civil list is, indeed, properly the whole of reverend is, venerable ; deserving or commandthe king's revenue in his own distinct capacity; ing respect; an honorary epithet of the clergy: the rest being rather the revenue of the public, reverent is, humble; testifying reverence or subor its creditors, though collected and distributed mission: reverential, proceeding from, or eragain in the name and by the officers of the pressive of, reverence : the adverbs correspondcrown. See ENGLAND.
ing. Revenue, in hunting, a fleshy lump formed And afterward we hadden fadres of our fleische chiefly by a cluster of whitish worms on the techeris, and we with reverence dredden hem. head of the deer, supposed to occasion the
Wielif. Ebrevis xii. casting of their horns by gnawing them at the
Onias, who had been high priest, reverend in conroot.
versation, and gentle in condition, prayed for the Jews.
2 Mac. xv. 12. REVERB”, v. a. Fr. reverberer;
Now lies he there, Rever'berant, adj
. Latin reverbero. And none so poor to do him reverence. Shakspeare. Rever'berate, v.a. & v.n. To resound; beat
Many now in health REVERBERa'tion, n. s. back: reverberate Shall drop their blood, in approbation Rever'Beratory, adj. is the more usual
Of what your reverence shall incite us to. Id. verb, and signifies also to heat so that the flame O my dear father ! let this kiss is reverberated upon the matter to be melted or Repair those violent harms that my two sisters cleaned : reverberation is the act of beating or
Have in thy reverence made.
Id. driving back : reverberatory, driving back.
Those that I reverence, those I fear, the wise ; Reserve thy state, with better judgment check
At fools I laugh, not fear them.
Id. This hideous rashness :
Reverend and gracious senators.
Id. The youngest daughter does not love thee least;
Chide him for faults, and do it reverently. Id. Nor are those empty hearted whose loud sound
All this was ordered by the good discretion Reverbs no hollowness. Shakspeare. King Lear. Of the right reverend cardinal of York. Hollow your name to the reverberate hills,
Id. Henry V II. And make the babbling gossip of the air
When quarrels and factions are carried openly it Cry out Olivia.
Id. Twelfth Night. is a sign the reverence of government is lost.
Bacon's Essays. And echo with the clamour of thy drum,
His disciples here, And even at hand a drum is ready braced, By their great master sent to preach him every where, That shall reverberate all as well as thine. Most reverently received.
Drayton. Shakspeare. That oaths made in reverential fear As the sight of the eye is like a glass, so is the ear. Of love and his wrath may any forswear. Denne. a sinuous cave, with a hard bone, to stop and rever
He led her easily forth, berate the sound.
Bacon. Where Godfrey sat among his lords and peers ; To the reflection of visibles small glasses suffice ; She reverence did, then blushed as one dismayed. but to the reverberation of audibles are required
Fairfas. greater spaces.
Id. In your prayers use reverent postures, and the The rays of royal majesty reverberated so strongly lowest gestures of humility, remembering that we upon Villerio that they dispelled all clouds. speak to God, in our reverence to whom we cannot Howel. exceed.
Taylor. Crocus martis, that is, steel corroded with vinegar
Higher of the genial bed, or sulphur, and after reverberated with fire, the load. And with mysterious reverence I deem. Milton. stone will not attract.
Browne. While they pervert pure nature's healthful rules Good lime may be made of all kinds of flints, but To loathsome sickness, worthily since they
Id. they are hard to burn, except in a reverberatory kiln.
God's image did not reverence in themselves.
A reverend sire among them came,
Who preached conversion and repentance. Id. parallel walls beat the sound back on each other,
They forth with to the place like the several reverberations of the same image from
Repairing, where he judged them, prostrate fell
Id. Paradise Lost. two opposite looking-glasses.
The Jews, reverentially declining the situation of As we, to improve the nobler kinds of fruits, are
their temple, place their beds from north to south. at the expence of walls to receive and reverberate the
Broumai. faint rays of the sun, so we, by the help of a good
To nearest ports their shattered ships repair, soil, equal the production of warmer countries.
Where by our dreadful cannon they lay awed ; Swift.
So reverently men quit the open air, REVERBERATORY FURNACE. See CHEMISTRY When thunder speaks the angry gods abroad. and LABORATORY.
Druden. REVERE',v. a.
readers. REV'ERENCE, n. s. &v.a. revereor.
Upstarts the beldam,
Hd. Rev’EREND, adj. honor or awe: rever
A parish priest was of the pilgrim train, REV'ERENT,
ence is, veneration; An awful, reverend, and religious man, REVEREN’TIAL,
respect; act of cour His eyes diffused a vencrable grace, REVERENTIALLY, adv. tesy or obeisance, And charity itself was in his face.
Id. REV'ERENTLY, bow: : a title that has
The least degree of contempt weakens religion ; it REVERER, n. S. J been given both to properly consisting in a reverential esteem of things the clergy and to fathers : to reverence seems sacred.
When the divine revelations were committed to than that strifes should have respite to grow, and not writing, the Jews were such scrupulous reverers of come speedily unto some end. Hooker's Preface. then that it was the business of the Masorites, to As were our England in reversion his, number not only the sections and lines, but even the And he our subjects next degree in hope. words and letters of the Old Testament.
Shakspeare. Government of the Tongue. The king, in the reversal of the attainders of his An emperor often stamped on his coins the face partakers, had his will. Bacon's Henry VII. or ornaments of his colleague, and we may suppose
As the Romans set down the image and inscripLucius Verus would omit no opportunity of doing tion of the consul, afterward of the emperor, on honour to Marcus Aurelius, whom he rather revered
one side, so they changed the reverse always upon as his father, than treated as his partner in the em
Camden. pire. Addison's Remarks on Italy.
A decree was made that they had forfeited their
liberties ; and albeit they made great moans, yet Then down with all thy boasted volumes, down; Only reserve the sacred one :
could they not procure this sentence to be reversed.
Hayward. Low, reverently low,
A life in reversion is not half so valuable as that Make thy stubborn knowledge bow :
Hammond. To look to heav'n be blind to all below. Prior.
which may at present be entered on. Jove shall again revere your power,
He was very old, and had out-lived most of his And rise a swan, or fall a shower. Id.
friends; many persons of quality being dead who The reason of the institution being forgot, the
had for recompence of services, procured the reversion. of his office.
Clarendon. aster-ages perverted it, supposing only a reverential
Michael's sword staid not ;
But with swift wheel reverse, deep ent’ring shared
Milion. The fear acceptable to God is a filial fear; an
Our guard upon the royal side ; awful reverence of the divine nature, proceeding from
On the reverse our beauty's pride. Waller. a just esteem of his perfections, which produces in us an inclination to his service, and an unwilling- balanced by admirable skilt. Temple's Miscellanies.
A pyramid reversed may stand upon his point, if ness to offend him.
The strange reverse of fate you see ;
I pitied you, now you may pity me. Meet then the senior, far renowned for sense.
So many candidates there stand for wit, With rev'rent awe, but decent confidence. Id.
A place at court is scarce so hard to get ;
In vain they crowd each other at the door ; All look up, with reverential awe,
For ev'n reversions are all begg'd before. Id. At crimes that 'scape, or triumph o'er the law. Id. The Athenians, quite sunk in their affairs, had from facts, carry them in their minds to be judged
Those seem to do best, who, taking useful hints little commerce with the rest of Greece, and were become great reverencers of crowned heads. Swift.
of, by what they shall find in history to confirm or
reverse these imperfect observations. Locke. He presents every one so often before God in his
Though grace may have reversed the condemning prayers that he never thinks he can esteem, reverence, or serve those enough, for whom he implores so
sentence, and sealed the sinner's pardon before God, many mercies of God.
yet it may have left no transcript of that pardon in the sinner's breast.
South. With deep-struck reverential awe,
Count Tariff appeared the reverse of Goodman The learned sire and son I saw,
Addison. To Nature's God and Nature's law
Several reverses are owned to be the representatiThey gave their lore,
ons of antique figures. Id, on Ancient Medals. This all its source and end to draw,
With what tyranny custom governs men! it That to adore. Burns.
makes that reputable in one age, which was a vice in That had been just replied the reverend bard, another, and reverses even the distinctions of good But done, fair youth, thou ne'er hadst met me here, and evil.
Rogers. I ne'er had seen yon glorious throne in peace.
There are multitudes of reversionary patents and
Pollok. reversionary promises of preferments. Arbuthnot. REVERSE', v. a., v. N.,
These now controul a wretched people's fate; Rever'sal, n. s. [& n. s. To turn complete
These can divide, and these reverse the state. Pope. REVER'SIBLE, adj. ly over, or upside o late reversion! at their own decease.
Fame's a reversion in which men take place,
Young. Rever'SION, n. s.
down; turn back; Rever'sIONARY, adj.
put one thing in
By a strange reverse of things, Justinian's law, the place of another; subvert; hence to con
which for many ages was neglected, does now 'obtain,
and the Theodocian code is in a manner antiquated. tradict ; repeal ; turn to the contrary; recal; re
Baker. new (obsolete): as a verb neuter, to return : as
Whoever feels pain in hearing a good character of a roun-substantive, change; vicissitude; an op- his neighbour will feel a pleasure in the reverse. posite; that side of a coin on which the head is not And those who despair to rise in distinction by their placed : reversible is, capable of being reversed virtues are happy if others can be depressed to a leor changed : reversion, right of succession; state vel with themselves.
Franklin. of being to be possessed after the death of a pre REVERSAL or JUDGMENT, in law. A judgment sent possessor: the adjective corresponding. may be falsified, reversed, or voided, in the first Well knowing true all he did rehearse,
place, without a writ of error, for 'matters foreign And to his fresh remembrance did reverse
to or dehors the record, that is, not apparent The ugly view of his deformed crimes. Spenser. upon the face of it; so that they cannot be as
Belter it was, in the eye of his understanding, signed for error in the superior court, which can that sometimes an erroneous sentence definitive only judge from what appears in the record itshould prevail, till the same authority, perceiving self; and therefore, if the whole record be not such oversight, might afterwards correct or reverse il, certified, or not truly certified, by the inferior VOL. XVIII.